NCERT Textbook - Diversity and Discrimination Class 6 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Diversity and Discrimination Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 2
Difference and Prejudice
here are many things that make
us what we are – how we live, the
languages we speak, what we eat,
wear, the games we play and the
things we celebrate.  All of these are
influenced both by the geography and
history of the place where we live.
You will get an idea of how diverse
India is if you look even briefly at the
following statement:
There are eight major religions in the
world. Every single one of them is
practised in India.  We have more than
1600 languages that are people's
mother tongues, and there are more
than a hundred dance forms.
Yet this diversity is not always
celebrated.  We feel safe and secure
with people who look, talk, dress and
think like us.
Sometimes when we meet people
who are very different from us we may
find them strange and unfamiliar. At
times we may not understand or know
the reasons why they are different
from us. People also form certain
attitudes and opinions about others
who are not like them.  
T
In the previous chapter you have discussed the
meanings of diversity.  Sometimes people who are
'different' from others are teased, laughed at or not
included in a certain activity or group.  We feel
hurt, angry, helpless or sad when friends or others
treat us in such ways.  Have you ever wondered
why this happens?
In this chapter we will try and explore how such
experiences are related to the society we live in.
We will look at how they are connected to the
inequalities that exist around us.
Diversity and 
Discrimination
Page 2


Chapter 2
Difference and Prejudice
here are many things that make
us what we are – how we live, the
languages we speak, what we eat,
wear, the games we play and the
things we celebrate.  All of these are
influenced both by the geography and
history of the place where we live.
You will get an idea of how diverse
India is if you look even briefly at the
following statement:
There are eight major religions in the
world. Every single one of them is
practised in India.  We have more than
1600 languages that are people's
mother tongues, and there are more
than a hundred dance forms.
Yet this diversity is not always
celebrated.  We feel safe and secure
with people who look, talk, dress and
think like us.
Sometimes when we meet people
who are very different from us we may
find them strange and unfamiliar. At
times we may not understand or know
the reasons why they are different
from us. People also form certain
attitudes and opinions about others
who are not like them.  
T
In the previous chapter you have discussed the
meanings of diversity.  Sometimes people who are
'different' from others are teased, laughed at or not
included in a certain activity or group.  We feel
hurt, angry, helpless or sad when friends or others
treat us in such ways.  Have you ever wondered
why this happens?
In this chapter we will try and explore how such
experiences are related to the society we live in.
We will look at how they are connected to the
inequalities that exist around us.
Diversity and 
Discrimination
14 / Social and Political Life
Some of the statements above see
villagers as dirty, ignorant and
superstitious, and see people in cities
as money-minded, lazy and cunning.
When our opinions about certain
people are always negative – seeing
them as lazy, cunning, stingy – as
some of the statements above, then
these become prejudices that we carry
about them.  
Prejudice means to judge other
people negatively or see them as
inferior. When we think that only one
particular way is the best and right
way to do things we often end up not
respecting others, who may prefer to
do things differently. For example if
we think English is the best language
and other languages are not
important, we are judging these other
languages negatively.  As a result, we
might not respect people who speak
languages other than English.
We can be prejudiced about many
things: people's religious beliefs, the
colour of their skin, the region they
come from, the accent they speak in,
the clothes they wear etc.  Often, our
prejudices about others are so strong
that we don't want to form friendships
with them. At times, we may even act
in ways that hurt them.
Look again at the statements that you
believed to be true about rural and
urban life in India. Do you have a
prejudice against rural or urban
people?  Find out if this is shared by
others and discuss the reasons why
people have these prejudices.
Can you list some of the prejudices
that you have noticed around you.
How do they affect the ways in which
people treat each other?
Below are some statements on
people living in rural and urban areas.
Tick mark those that you agree with:
On Rural People
More than 50% of all Indians
live in villages.
Villagers do not care about
their health. They are full of
superstition.
People in villages are backward
and lazy. They do not like to
work.
In peak harvesting and planta-
tion season, families spend 12
to 14 hours working in the
fields.
Villagers are dirty and not
hygienic.
On Urban People
Life in the city is easy.  People
here are spoilt and lazy.
In cities families spend very
little time with each other.
People in towns only care about
money, not about people.
Living in a city is expensive. A
large part of people's earnings
is spent on rent and transport.
City people cannot be trusted,
they are cunning and corrupt.
Page 3


Chapter 2
Difference and Prejudice
here are many things that make
us what we are – how we live, the
languages we speak, what we eat,
wear, the games we play and the
things we celebrate.  All of these are
influenced both by the geography and
history of the place where we live.
You will get an idea of how diverse
India is if you look even briefly at the
following statement:
There are eight major religions in the
world. Every single one of them is
practised in India.  We have more than
1600 languages that are people's
mother tongues, and there are more
than a hundred dance forms.
Yet this diversity is not always
celebrated.  We feel safe and secure
with people who look, talk, dress and
think like us.
Sometimes when we meet people
who are very different from us we may
find them strange and unfamiliar. At
times we may not understand or know
the reasons why they are different
from us. People also form certain
attitudes and opinions about others
who are not like them.  
T
In the previous chapter you have discussed the
meanings of diversity.  Sometimes people who are
'different' from others are teased, laughed at or not
included in a certain activity or group.  We feel
hurt, angry, helpless or sad when friends or others
treat us in such ways.  Have you ever wondered
why this happens?
In this chapter we will try and explore how such
experiences are related to the society we live in.
We will look at how they are connected to the
inequalities that exist around us.
Diversity and 
Discrimination
14 / Social and Political Life
Some of the statements above see
villagers as dirty, ignorant and
superstitious, and see people in cities
as money-minded, lazy and cunning.
When our opinions about certain
people are always negative – seeing
them as lazy, cunning, stingy – as
some of the statements above, then
these become prejudices that we carry
about them.  
Prejudice means to judge other
people negatively or see them as
inferior. When we think that only one
particular way is the best and right
way to do things we often end up not
respecting others, who may prefer to
do things differently. For example if
we think English is the best language
and other languages are not
important, we are judging these other
languages negatively.  As a result, we
might not respect people who speak
languages other than English.
We can be prejudiced about many
things: people's religious beliefs, the
colour of their skin, the region they
come from, the accent they speak in,
the clothes they wear etc.  Often, our
prejudices about others are so strong
that we don't want to form friendships
with them. At times, we may even act
in ways that hurt them.
Look again at the statements that you
believed to be true about rural and
urban life in India. Do you have a
prejudice against rural or urban
people?  Find out if this is shared by
others and discuss the reasons why
people have these prejudices.
Can you list some of the prejudices
that you have noticed around you.
How do they affect the ways in which
people treat each other?
Below are some statements on
people living in rural and urban areas.
Tick mark those that you agree with:
On Rural People
More than 50% of all Indians
live in villages.
Villagers do not care about
their health. They are full of
superstition.
People in villages are backward
and lazy. They do not like to
work.
In peak harvesting and planta-
tion season, families spend 12
to 14 hours working in the
fields.
Villagers are dirty and not
hygienic.
On Urban People
Life in the city is easy.  People
here are spoilt and lazy.
In cities families spend very
little time with each other.
People in towns only care about
money, not about people.
Living in a city is expensive. A
large part of people's earnings
is spent on rent and transport.
City people cannot be trusted,
they are cunning and corrupt.
Creating Stereotypes
All of us are familiar with gender
differences. What does it mean to be a
boy or a girl? Many of you would say,
"We are born as boys and girls. It is a
given. What is there to think about?"
Let's see if this is the case.
If we take the statement ''They
don't cry", you'll see that this is a
quality that is generally associated
with boys and men. As babies or
children when boys fall and hurt
themselves, their parents and other
family members often console them by
saying "Don't cry.  You are a boy. Boys
are brave, they don't cry."  As children
grow up they start believing that boys
do not cry so that even if a boy feels
like crying he stops himself from
doing so. He also believes that crying
is a sign of weakness. So, even though
both boys and girls sometimes want to
cry, especially if they are angry or in
Arrange the statements given below in
these two sections, according to what
you think is appropriate for the section.
They are well behaved.
They are soft spoken and gentle.
They are physically strong.
They are naughty.
They are good at dance and painting.
They don't cry.
They are rowdy.
They are good at sport.
They are good at cooking.
They are emotional.
Girls Boys
11
22
33
44
55
Now check, with your teacher's help, who has put which statement
where. Find out and discuss people's reasons for doing this.  Are the
qualities you put in for boys something that boys are born with?
Diversity and Discrimination / 15
Page 4


Chapter 2
Difference and Prejudice
here are many things that make
us what we are – how we live, the
languages we speak, what we eat,
wear, the games we play and the
things we celebrate.  All of these are
influenced both by the geography and
history of the place where we live.
You will get an idea of how diverse
India is if you look even briefly at the
following statement:
There are eight major religions in the
world. Every single one of them is
practised in India.  We have more than
1600 languages that are people's
mother tongues, and there are more
than a hundred dance forms.
Yet this diversity is not always
celebrated.  We feel safe and secure
with people who look, talk, dress and
think like us.
Sometimes when we meet people
who are very different from us we may
find them strange and unfamiliar. At
times we may not understand or know
the reasons why they are different
from us. People also form certain
attitudes and opinions about others
who are not like them.  
T
In the previous chapter you have discussed the
meanings of diversity.  Sometimes people who are
'different' from others are teased, laughed at or not
included in a certain activity or group.  We feel
hurt, angry, helpless or sad when friends or others
treat us in such ways.  Have you ever wondered
why this happens?
In this chapter we will try and explore how such
experiences are related to the society we live in.
We will look at how they are connected to the
inequalities that exist around us.
Diversity and 
Discrimination
14 / Social and Political Life
Some of the statements above see
villagers as dirty, ignorant and
superstitious, and see people in cities
as money-minded, lazy and cunning.
When our opinions about certain
people are always negative – seeing
them as lazy, cunning, stingy – as
some of the statements above, then
these become prejudices that we carry
about them.  
Prejudice means to judge other
people negatively or see them as
inferior. When we think that only one
particular way is the best and right
way to do things we often end up not
respecting others, who may prefer to
do things differently. For example if
we think English is the best language
and other languages are not
important, we are judging these other
languages negatively.  As a result, we
might not respect people who speak
languages other than English.
We can be prejudiced about many
things: people's religious beliefs, the
colour of their skin, the region they
come from, the accent they speak in,
the clothes they wear etc.  Often, our
prejudices about others are so strong
that we don't want to form friendships
with them. At times, we may even act
in ways that hurt them.
Look again at the statements that you
believed to be true about rural and
urban life in India. Do you have a
prejudice against rural or urban
people?  Find out if this is shared by
others and discuss the reasons why
people have these prejudices.
Can you list some of the prejudices
that you have noticed around you.
How do they affect the ways in which
people treat each other?
Below are some statements on
people living in rural and urban areas.
Tick mark those that you agree with:
On Rural People
More than 50% of all Indians
live in villages.
Villagers do not care about
their health. They are full of
superstition.
People in villages are backward
and lazy. They do not like to
work.
In peak harvesting and planta-
tion season, families spend 12
to 14 hours working in the
fields.
Villagers are dirty and not
hygienic.
On Urban People
Life in the city is easy.  People
here are spoilt and lazy.
In cities families spend very
little time with each other.
People in towns only care about
money, not about people.
Living in a city is expensive. A
large part of people's earnings
is spent on rent and transport.
City people cannot be trusted,
they are cunning and corrupt.
Creating Stereotypes
All of us are familiar with gender
differences. What does it mean to be a
boy or a girl? Many of you would say,
"We are born as boys and girls. It is a
given. What is there to think about?"
Let's see if this is the case.
If we take the statement ''They
don't cry", you'll see that this is a
quality that is generally associated
with boys and men. As babies or
children when boys fall and hurt
themselves, their parents and other
family members often console them by
saying "Don't cry.  You are a boy. Boys
are brave, they don't cry."  As children
grow up they start believing that boys
do not cry so that even if a boy feels
like crying he stops himself from
doing so. He also believes that crying
is a sign of weakness. So, even though
both boys and girls sometimes want to
cry, especially if they are angry or in
Arrange the statements given below in
these two sections, according to what
you think is appropriate for the section.
They are well behaved.
They are soft spoken and gentle.
They are physically strong.
They are naughty.
They are good at dance and painting.
They don't cry.
They are rowdy.
They are good at sport.
They are good at cooking.
They are emotional.
Girls Boys
11
22
33
44
55
Now check, with your teacher's help, who has put which statement
where. Find out and discuss people's reasons for doing this.  Are the
qualities you put in for boys something that boys are born with?
Diversity and Discrimination / 15
The children you see in the
illustrations here were seen
as 'disabled'. This term has
been changed and now the
term used is 'children with
special needs'. Common
stereotypes about them are
given in large letters. Their
own feelings and thoughts too
are given.
Discuss what these children
are saying about stereotypes
regarding them and why.
Do you think children with
special needs should be a part
of regular schools or study in
a separate school? Give
reasons for your answer.
Source: Why are you afraid to hold
my hand by Shiela Dhir
16 / Social and Political Life
Page 5


Chapter 2
Difference and Prejudice
here are many things that make
us what we are – how we live, the
languages we speak, what we eat,
wear, the games we play and the
things we celebrate.  All of these are
influenced both by the geography and
history of the place where we live.
You will get an idea of how diverse
India is if you look even briefly at the
following statement:
There are eight major religions in the
world. Every single one of them is
practised in India.  We have more than
1600 languages that are people's
mother tongues, and there are more
than a hundred dance forms.
Yet this diversity is not always
celebrated.  We feel safe and secure
with people who look, talk, dress and
think like us.
Sometimes when we meet people
who are very different from us we may
find them strange and unfamiliar. At
times we may not understand or know
the reasons why they are different
from us. People also form certain
attitudes and opinions about others
who are not like them.  
T
In the previous chapter you have discussed the
meanings of diversity.  Sometimes people who are
'different' from others are teased, laughed at or not
included in a certain activity or group.  We feel
hurt, angry, helpless or sad when friends or others
treat us in such ways.  Have you ever wondered
why this happens?
In this chapter we will try and explore how such
experiences are related to the society we live in.
We will look at how they are connected to the
inequalities that exist around us.
Diversity and 
Discrimination
14 / Social and Political Life
Some of the statements above see
villagers as dirty, ignorant and
superstitious, and see people in cities
as money-minded, lazy and cunning.
When our opinions about certain
people are always negative – seeing
them as lazy, cunning, stingy – as
some of the statements above, then
these become prejudices that we carry
about them.  
Prejudice means to judge other
people negatively or see them as
inferior. When we think that only one
particular way is the best and right
way to do things we often end up not
respecting others, who may prefer to
do things differently. For example if
we think English is the best language
and other languages are not
important, we are judging these other
languages negatively.  As a result, we
might not respect people who speak
languages other than English.
We can be prejudiced about many
things: people's religious beliefs, the
colour of their skin, the region they
come from, the accent they speak in,
the clothes they wear etc.  Often, our
prejudices about others are so strong
that we don't want to form friendships
with them. At times, we may even act
in ways that hurt them.
Look again at the statements that you
believed to be true about rural and
urban life in India. Do you have a
prejudice against rural or urban
people?  Find out if this is shared by
others and discuss the reasons why
people have these prejudices.
Can you list some of the prejudices
that you have noticed around you.
How do they affect the ways in which
people treat each other?
Below are some statements on
people living in rural and urban areas.
Tick mark those that you agree with:
On Rural People
More than 50% of all Indians
live in villages.
Villagers do not care about
their health. They are full of
superstition.
People in villages are backward
and lazy. They do not like to
work.
In peak harvesting and planta-
tion season, families spend 12
to 14 hours working in the
fields.
Villagers are dirty and not
hygienic.
On Urban People
Life in the city is easy.  People
here are spoilt and lazy.
In cities families spend very
little time with each other.
People in towns only care about
money, not about people.
Living in a city is expensive. A
large part of people's earnings
is spent on rent and transport.
City people cannot be trusted,
they are cunning and corrupt.
Creating Stereotypes
All of us are familiar with gender
differences. What does it mean to be a
boy or a girl? Many of you would say,
"We are born as boys and girls. It is a
given. What is there to think about?"
Let's see if this is the case.
If we take the statement ''They
don't cry", you'll see that this is a
quality that is generally associated
with boys and men. As babies or
children when boys fall and hurt
themselves, their parents and other
family members often console them by
saying "Don't cry.  You are a boy. Boys
are brave, they don't cry."  As children
grow up they start believing that boys
do not cry so that even if a boy feels
like crying he stops himself from
doing so. He also believes that crying
is a sign of weakness. So, even though
both boys and girls sometimes want to
cry, especially if they are angry or in
Arrange the statements given below in
these two sections, according to what
you think is appropriate for the section.
They are well behaved.
They are soft spoken and gentle.
They are physically strong.
They are naughty.
They are good at dance and painting.
They don't cry.
They are rowdy.
They are good at sport.
They are good at cooking.
They are emotional.
Girls Boys
11
22
33
44
55
Now check, with your teacher's help, who has put which statement
where. Find out and discuss people's reasons for doing this.  Are the
qualities you put in for boys something that boys are born with?
Diversity and Discrimination / 15
The children you see in the
illustrations here were seen
as 'disabled'. This term has
been changed and now the
term used is 'children with
special needs'. Common
stereotypes about them are
given in large letters. Their
own feelings and thoughts too
are given.
Discuss what these children
are saying about stereotypes
regarding them and why.
Do you think children with
special needs should be a part
of regular schools or study in
a separate school? Give
reasons for your answer.
Source: Why are you afraid to hold
my hand by Shiela Dhir
16 / Social and Political Life Diversity and Discrimination / 17
pain, as they grow older boys learn or
teach themselves not to cry.  If a
grown boy cries, then he feels that
others will either tease him or laugh
at him, and so he stops himself from
doing so in front of others.
This is the way boys are and this is
how girls are: these are statements we
hear constantly and accept without
even thinking, and we start believing
that each one of us must behave
accordingly.  We fit all boys and all
girls into an image that society creates
around us.
When we fix people into one image
we create a stereotype.  When people
say that those who belong to a
particular country, religion, sex, race
or economic background are "stingy"
"lazy," "criminal" or "dumb," they are
using stereotypes.  There are stingy
and generous people everywhere, in
every country, in every religion, in
every group whether rich or poor,
male or female.  And just because
some people are like that it is not fair
to think that everyone will be the
same.  
Stereotypes stop us from looking at
each person as a unique individual
with his or her own special qualities
and skills that are different from
others. They fit large numbers of
people into only one pattern or type.
Stereotypes affect all of us as they
prevent us from doing certain things,
that we might otherwise be good at.
Inequality and Discrimination
Discrimination happens when people
act on their prejudices or stereotypes.
If you do something to put other
people down, if you stop them from
taking part in certain activities and
taking up jobs, or stop them from
living in certain neighbour-hoods,
prevent them from taking water from
the same well or hand pump, or not
allow them to drink tea in the same
cups or glasses as others, you are
discriminating against them.
Discrimination can take place
because of several reasons.  You
probably recall from the previous
chapter that Samir Ek and Samir Do
were different from each other in
many ways.  For example, they
belonged to different religions.  This is
an aspect of diversity.  However, this
diversity can also be a source of
discrimination.  Groups of people who
may speak a certain language, follow
a particular religion, live in specific
regions etc., may be discriminated
against as their customs or practices
may be seen as inferior.
Another difference between the two
Samirs was in their economic
backgrounds.  Samir Do was poor.
This difference, as you have read
earlier, is not a form of diversity but of
inequality.  People who are poor do
not have the resources or the money
You can take other statements such
as They are soft and gentle or
They are well behaved and discuss
how these are applied to girls.  Do
girls possess these qualities at birth
or do they learn such behaviour
from others?  What do you think
about girls who are not soft and
gentle and those who are naughty?
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