NCERT Textbook - Money and Banking Commerce Notes | EduRev

Economy Traditional for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Money and Banking Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 3
Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking
Money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. In an
economy which consists of only one individual there cannot be
any exchange of commodities and hence there is no role for
money. Even if there are more than one individual but they do
not take part in market transactions, such as a family living on
an isolated island, money has no function for them. However, as
soon as there are more than one economic agent who engage
themselves in transactions through the market, money becomes
an important instrument for facilitating these exchanges.
Economic exchanges without the mediation of money are referred
to as barter exchanges. However, they presume the rather
improbable double coincidence of wants. Consider, for example,
an individual who has a surplus of rice which she wishes to
exchange for clothing. If she is not lucky enough she may not be
able to find another person who has the diametrically opposite
demand for rice with a surplus of clothing to offer in exchange.
The search costs may become prohibitive as the number of
individuals increases. Thus, to smoothen the transaction, an
intermediate good is necessary which is acceptable to both
parties. Such a good is called money. The individuals can then
sell their produces for money and use this money to purchase
the commodities they need. Though facilitation of exchanges is
considered to be the principal role of money, it serves other
purposes as well. Following are the main functions of money in a
modern economy.
3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
As explained above, the first and foremost role of money is that
it acts as a medium of exchange. Barter exchanges become
extremely difficult in a large economy because of the high costs
people would have to incur looking for suitable persons to
exchange their surpluses.
Money also acts as a convenient unit of account. The value of
all goods and services can be expressed in monetary units. When
we say that the value of a certain wristwatch is Rs 500 we mean
that the wristwatch can be exchanged for 500 units of money,
where a unit of money is rupee in this case. If the price of a pencil
is Rs 2 and that of a pen is Rs 10 we can calculate the relative
price of a pen with respect to a pencil, viz. a pen is worth
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 2


Chapter 3
Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking
Money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. In an
economy which consists of only one individual there cannot be
any exchange of commodities and hence there is no role for
money. Even if there are more than one individual but they do
not take part in market transactions, such as a family living on
an isolated island, money has no function for them. However, as
soon as there are more than one economic agent who engage
themselves in transactions through the market, money becomes
an important instrument for facilitating these exchanges.
Economic exchanges without the mediation of money are referred
to as barter exchanges. However, they presume the rather
improbable double coincidence of wants. Consider, for example,
an individual who has a surplus of rice which she wishes to
exchange for clothing. If she is not lucky enough she may not be
able to find another person who has the diametrically opposite
demand for rice with a surplus of clothing to offer in exchange.
The search costs may become prohibitive as the number of
individuals increases. Thus, to smoothen the transaction, an
intermediate good is necessary which is acceptable to both
parties. Such a good is called money. The individuals can then
sell their produces for money and use this money to purchase
the commodities they need. Though facilitation of exchanges is
considered to be the principal role of money, it serves other
purposes as well. Following are the main functions of money in a
modern economy.
3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
As explained above, the first and foremost role of money is that
it acts as a medium of exchange. Barter exchanges become
extremely difficult in a large economy because of the high costs
people would have to incur looking for suitable persons to
exchange their surpluses.
Money also acts as a convenient unit of account. The value of
all goods and services can be expressed in monetary units. When
we say that the value of a certain wristwatch is Rs 500 we mean
that the wristwatch can be exchanged for 500 units of money,
where a unit of money is rupee in this case. If the price of a pencil
is Rs 2 and that of a pen is Rs 10 we can calculate the relative
price of a pen with respect to a pencil, viz. a pen is worth
2015-16(21/01/2015)
34 34 34 34 34
Introductory Macroeconomics
10 ÷ 2 = 5 pencils. The same notion can be used to calculate the value of
money itself with respect to other commodities. In the above example, a rupee
is worth 1 ÷ 2 = 0.5 pencil or 1 ÷ 10 = 0.1 pen. Thus if prices of all commodities
increase in terms of money which, in other words, can be regarded as a general
increase in the price level, the value of money in terms of any commodity must
have decreased – in the sense that a unit of money can now purchase less of
any commodity. We call it a deterioration in the purchasing power of money.
A barter system has other deficiencies. It is difficult to carry forward one’s
wealth under the barter system. Suppose you have an endowment of rice which
you do not wish to consume today entirely. You may regard this stock of
surplus rice as an asset which you may wish to consume, or even sell off, for
acquiring other commodities at some future date. But rice is a perishable item
and cannot be stored beyond a certain period. Also, holding the stock of rice
requires a lot of space. You may have to spend considerable time and resources
looking for people with a demand for rice when you wish to exchange your
stock for buying other commodities. This problem can be solved if you sell
your rice for money. Money is not perishable and its storage costs are also
considerably lower. It is also acceptable to anyone at any point of time. Thus
money can act as a store of value for individuals. Wealth can be stored in the
form of money for future use. However, to perform this function well, the value
of money must be sufficiently stable. A rising price level may erode the
purchasing power of money. It may be noted that any asset other than money
can also act as a store of value, e.g. gold, landed property, houses or even
bonds (to be introduced shortly). However, they may not be easily convertible
to other commodities and do not have universal acceptability.
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY
Money is the most liquid of all assets in the sense that it is universally acceptable
and hence can be exchanged for other commodities very easily. On the other
hand, it has an opportunity cost. If, instead of holding on to a certain cash
balance, you put the money in a fixed deposits in some bank you can earn
interest on that money. While deciding on how much money to hold at a certain
point of time one has to consider the trade off between the advantage of liquidity
and the disadvantage of the foregone interest. Demand for money balance is
thus often referred to as liquidity preference. People desire to hold money balance
broadly from two motives.
3.2.1 The Transaction Motive
The principal motive for holding money is to carry out transactions. If you
receive your income weekly and pay your bills on the first day of every week,
you need not hold any cash balance throughout the rest of the week; you may
as well ask your employer to deduct your expenses directly from your weekly
salary and deposit the balance in your bank account. But our expenditure
patterns do not normally match our receipts. People earn incomes at discrete
points in time and spend it continuously throughout the interval. Suppose
you earn Rs 100 on the first day of every month and run down this balance
evenly over the rest of the month. Thus your cash balance at the beginning
and end of the month are Rs 100 and 0, respectively. Your average cash holding
can then be calculated as (Rs 100 + Rs 0) ÷ 2 = Rs 50, with which you are
making transactions worth Rs 100 per month. Hence your average transaction
demand for money is equal to half your monthly income, or, in other words,
half the value of your monthly transactions.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 3


Chapter 3
Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking
Money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. In an
economy which consists of only one individual there cannot be
any exchange of commodities and hence there is no role for
money. Even if there are more than one individual but they do
not take part in market transactions, such as a family living on
an isolated island, money has no function for them. However, as
soon as there are more than one economic agent who engage
themselves in transactions through the market, money becomes
an important instrument for facilitating these exchanges.
Economic exchanges without the mediation of money are referred
to as barter exchanges. However, they presume the rather
improbable double coincidence of wants. Consider, for example,
an individual who has a surplus of rice which she wishes to
exchange for clothing. If she is not lucky enough she may not be
able to find another person who has the diametrically opposite
demand for rice with a surplus of clothing to offer in exchange.
The search costs may become prohibitive as the number of
individuals increases. Thus, to smoothen the transaction, an
intermediate good is necessary which is acceptable to both
parties. Such a good is called money. The individuals can then
sell their produces for money and use this money to purchase
the commodities they need. Though facilitation of exchanges is
considered to be the principal role of money, it serves other
purposes as well. Following are the main functions of money in a
modern economy.
3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
As explained above, the first and foremost role of money is that
it acts as a medium of exchange. Barter exchanges become
extremely difficult in a large economy because of the high costs
people would have to incur looking for suitable persons to
exchange their surpluses.
Money also acts as a convenient unit of account. The value of
all goods and services can be expressed in monetary units. When
we say that the value of a certain wristwatch is Rs 500 we mean
that the wristwatch can be exchanged for 500 units of money,
where a unit of money is rupee in this case. If the price of a pencil
is Rs 2 and that of a pen is Rs 10 we can calculate the relative
price of a pen with respect to a pencil, viz. a pen is worth
2015-16(21/01/2015)
34 34 34 34 34
Introductory Macroeconomics
10 ÷ 2 = 5 pencils. The same notion can be used to calculate the value of
money itself with respect to other commodities. In the above example, a rupee
is worth 1 ÷ 2 = 0.5 pencil or 1 ÷ 10 = 0.1 pen. Thus if prices of all commodities
increase in terms of money which, in other words, can be regarded as a general
increase in the price level, the value of money in terms of any commodity must
have decreased – in the sense that a unit of money can now purchase less of
any commodity. We call it a deterioration in the purchasing power of money.
A barter system has other deficiencies. It is difficult to carry forward one’s
wealth under the barter system. Suppose you have an endowment of rice which
you do not wish to consume today entirely. You may regard this stock of
surplus rice as an asset which you may wish to consume, or even sell off, for
acquiring other commodities at some future date. But rice is a perishable item
and cannot be stored beyond a certain period. Also, holding the stock of rice
requires a lot of space. You may have to spend considerable time and resources
looking for people with a demand for rice when you wish to exchange your
stock for buying other commodities. This problem can be solved if you sell
your rice for money. Money is not perishable and its storage costs are also
considerably lower. It is also acceptable to anyone at any point of time. Thus
money can act as a store of value for individuals. Wealth can be stored in the
form of money for future use. However, to perform this function well, the value
of money must be sufficiently stable. A rising price level may erode the
purchasing power of money. It may be noted that any asset other than money
can also act as a store of value, e.g. gold, landed property, houses or even
bonds (to be introduced shortly). However, they may not be easily convertible
to other commodities and do not have universal acceptability.
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY
Money is the most liquid of all assets in the sense that it is universally acceptable
and hence can be exchanged for other commodities very easily. On the other
hand, it has an opportunity cost. If, instead of holding on to a certain cash
balance, you put the money in a fixed deposits in some bank you can earn
interest on that money. While deciding on how much money to hold at a certain
point of time one has to consider the trade off between the advantage of liquidity
and the disadvantage of the foregone interest. Demand for money balance is
thus often referred to as liquidity preference. People desire to hold money balance
broadly from two motives.
3.2.1 The Transaction Motive
The principal motive for holding money is to carry out transactions. If you
receive your income weekly and pay your bills on the first day of every week,
you need not hold any cash balance throughout the rest of the week; you may
as well ask your employer to deduct your expenses directly from your weekly
salary and deposit the balance in your bank account. But our expenditure
patterns do not normally match our receipts. People earn incomes at discrete
points in time and spend it continuously throughout the interval. Suppose
you earn Rs 100 on the first day of every month and run down this balance
evenly over the rest of the month. Thus your cash balance at the beginning
and end of the month are Rs 100 and 0, respectively. Your average cash holding
can then be calculated as (Rs 100 + Rs 0) ÷ 2 = Rs 50, with which you are
making transactions worth Rs 100 per month. Hence your average transaction
demand for money is equal to half your monthly income, or, in other words,
half the value of your monthly transactions.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
35 35 35 35 35
Money and Banking
Consider, next, a two-person economy consisting of two entities – a firm (owned
by one person) and a worker. The firm pays the worker a salary of Rs 100 at the
beginning of every month. The worker, in turn, spends this income over the
month on the output produced by the firm – the only good available in this
economy! Thus, at the beginning of each month the worker has a money balance
of Rs 100 and the firm a balance of Rs 0. On the last day of the month the
picture is reversed – the firm has gathered a balance of Rs 100 through its sales
to the worker. The average money holding of the firm as well as the worker is
equal to Rs 50 each. Thus the total transaction demand for money in this
economy is equal to Rs 100. The total volume of monthly transactions in this
economy is Rs 200 – the firm has sold its output worth Rs 100 to the worker
and the latter has sold her services worth Rs 100 to the firm. The transaction
demand for money of the economy is again a fraction of the total volume of
transactions in the economy over the unit period of time.
In general, therefore, the transaction demand for money in an economy, M
d
T
,
can be written in the following form
M
d
T
 = k.T (3.1)
where T is the total value of (nominal) transactions in the economy over unit
period and k is a positive fraction.
The two-person economy described above can be looked at from another
angle. You may perhaps find it surprising that the economy uses money balance
worth only Rs 100 for making transactions worth Rs 200 per month. The answer
to this riddle is simple – each rupee is changing hands twice a month. On the
first day, it is being transferred from the employer’s pocket to that of the worker
and sometime during the month, it is passing from the worker’s hand to the
employer’s. The number of times a unit of money changes hands during the
unit period is called the velocity of circulation of money. In the above example
it is 2, inverse of half – the ratio of money balance and the value of transactions.
Thus, in general, we may rewrite equation (3.1) in the following form
1
k
.M
d
T
 = T, or, v.M
d
T
 = T (3.2)
where, v = 1/k is the velocity of circulation. Note that the term on the right
hand side of the above equation, T, is a flow variable whereas money demand,
M
d
T
 , is a stock concept – it refers to the stock of money people are willing to hold
at a particular point of time. The velocity of money, v, however, has a time
dimension. It refers to the number of times every unit of stock changes hand
during a unit period of time, say, a month or a year. Thus, the left hand side,
v.M
d
T
, measures the total value of monetary transactions that has been made
with this stock in the unit period of time. This is a flow variable and is, therefore,
equal to the right hand side.
We are ultimately interested in learning the relationship between the aggregate
transaction demand for money of an economy and the (nominal) GDP in a given
year. The total value of annual transactions in an economy includes transactions
in all intermediate goods and services and is clearly much greater than the
nominal GDP. However, normally, there exists a stable, positive relationship
between value of transactions and the nominal GDP. An increase in nominal
GDP implies an increase in the total value of transactions and hence a greater
transaction demand for money from equation (3.1). Thus, in general, equation
(3.1) can be modified in the following way
M
d
T
 = kPY (3.3)
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 4


Chapter 3
Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking
Money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. In an
economy which consists of only one individual there cannot be
any exchange of commodities and hence there is no role for
money. Even if there are more than one individual but they do
not take part in market transactions, such as a family living on
an isolated island, money has no function for them. However, as
soon as there are more than one economic agent who engage
themselves in transactions through the market, money becomes
an important instrument for facilitating these exchanges.
Economic exchanges without the mediation of money are referred
to as barter exchanges. However, they presume the rather
improbable double coincidence of wants. Consider, for example,
an individual who has a surplus of rice which she wishes to
exchange for clothing. If she is not lucky enough she may not be
able to find another person who has the diametrically opposite
demand for rice with a surplus of clothing to offer in exchange.
The search costs may become prohibitive as the number of
individuals increases. Thus, to smoothen the transaction, an
intermediate good is necessary which is acceptable to both
parties. Such a good is called money. The individuals can then
sell their produces for money and use this money to purchase
the commodities they need. Though facilitation of exchanges is
considered to be the principal role of money, it serves other
purposes as well. Following are the main functions of money in a
modern economy.
3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
As explained above, the first and foremost role of money is that
it acts as a medium of exchange. Barter exchanges become
extremely difficult in a large economy because of the high costs
people would have to incur looking for suitable persons to
exchange their surpluses.
Money also acts as a convenient unit of account. The value of
all goods and services can be expressed in monetary units. When
we say that the value of a certain wristwatch is Rs 500 we mean
that the wristwatch can be exchanged for 500 units of money,
where a unit of money is rupee in this case. If the price of a pencil
is Rs 2 and that of a pen is Rs 10 we can calculate the relative
price of a pen with respect to a pencil, viz. a pen is worth
2015-16(21/01/2015)
34 34 34 34 34
Introductory Macroeconomics
10 ÷ 2 = 5 pencils. The same notion can be used to calculate the value of
money itself with respect to other commodities. In the above example, a rupee
is worth 1 ÷ 2 = 0.5 pencil or 1 ÷ 10 = 0.1 pen. Thus if prices of all commodities
increase in terms of money which, in other words, can be regarded as a general
increase in the price level, the value of money in terms of any commodity must
have decreased – in the sense that a unit of money can now purchase less of
any commodity. We call it a deterioration in the purchasing power of money.
A barter system has other deficiencies. It is difficult to carry forward one’s
wealth under the barter system. Suppose you have an endowment of rice which
you do not wish to consume today entirely. You may regard this stock of
surplus rice as an asset which you may wish to consume, or even sell off, for
acquiring other commodities at some future date. But rice is a perishable item
and cannot be stored beyond a certain period. Also, holding the stock of rice
requires a lot of space. You may have to spend considerable time and resources
looking for people with a demand for rice when you wish to exchange your
stock for buying other commodities. This problem can be solved if you sell
your rice for money. Money is not perishable and its storage costs are also
considerably lower. It is also acceptable to anyone at any point of time. Thus
money can act as a store of value for individuals. Wealth can be stored in the
form of money for future use. However, to perform this function well, the value
of money must be sufficiently stable. A rising price level may erode the
purchasing power of money. It may be noted that any asset other than money
can also act as a store of value, e.g. gold, landed property, houses or even
bonds (to be introduced shortly). However, they may not be easily convertible
to other commodities and do not have universal acceptability.
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY
Money is the most liquid of all assets in the sense that it is universally acceptable
and hence can be exchanged for other commodities very easily. On the other
hand, it has an opportunity cost. If, instead of holding on to a certain cash
balance, you put the money in a fixed deposits in some bank you can earn
interest on that money. While deciding on how much money to hold at a certain
point of time one has to consider the trade off between the advantage of liquidity
and the disadvantage of the foregone interest. Demand for money balance is
thus often referred to as liquidity preference. People desire to hold money balance
broadly from two motives.
3.2.1 The Transaction Motive
The principal motive for holding money is to carry out transactions. If you
receive your income weekly and pay your bills on the first day of every week,
you need not hold any cash balance throughout the rest of the week; you may
as well ask your employer to deduct your expenses directly from your weekly
salary and deposit the balance in your bank account. But our expenditure
patterns do not normally match our receipts. People earn incomes at discrete
points in time and spend it continuously throughout the interval. Suppose
you earn Rs 100 on the first day of every month and run down this balance
evenly over the rest of the month. Thus your cash balance at the beginning
and end of the month are Rs 100 and 0, respectively. Your average cash holding
can then be calculated as (Rs 100 + Rs 0) ÷ 2 = Rs 50, with which you are
making transactions worth Rs 100 per month. Hence your average transaction
demand for money is equal to half your monthly income, or, in other words,
half the value of your monthly transactions.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
35 35 35 35 35
Money and Banking
Consider, next, a two-person economy consisting of two entities – a firm (owned
by one person) and a worker. The firm pays the worker a salary of Rs 100 at the
beginning of every month. The worker, in turn, spends this income over the
month on the output produced by the firm – the only good available in this
economy! Thus, at the beginning of each month the worker has a money balance
of Rs 100 and the firm a balance of Rs 0. On the last day of the month the
picture is reversed – the firm has gathered a balance of Rs 100 through its sales
to the worker. The average money holding of the firm as well as the worker is
equal to Rs 50 each. Thus the total transaction demand for money in this
economy is equal to Rs 100. The total volume of monthly transactions in this
economy is Rs 200 – the firm has sold its output worth Rs 100 to the worker
and the latter has sold her services worth Rs 100 to the firm. The transaction
demand for money of the economy is again a fraction of the total volume of
transactions in the economy over the unit period of time.
In general, therefore, the transaction demand for money in an economy, M
d
T
,
can be written in the following form
M
d
T
 = k.T (3.1)
where T is the total value of (nominal) transactions in the economy over unit
period and k is a positive fraction.
The two-person economy described above can be looked at from another
angle. You may perhaps find it surprising that the economy uses money balance
worth only Rs 100 for making transactions worth Rs 200 per month. The answer
to this riddle is simple – each rupee is changing hands twice a month. On the
first day, it is being transferred from the employer’s pocket to that of the worker
and sometime during the month, it is passing from the worker’s hand to the
employer’s. The number of times a unit of money changes hands during the
unit period is called the velocity of circulation of money. In the above example
it is 2, inverse of half – the ratio of money balance and the value of transactions.
Thus, in general, we may rewrite equation (3.1) in the following form
1
k
.M
d
T
 = T, or, v.M
d
T
 = T (3.2)
where, v = 1/k is the velocity of circulation. Note that the term on the right
hand side of the above equation, T, is a flow variable whereas money demand,
M
d
T
 , is a stock concept – it refers to the stock of money people are willing to hold
at a particular point of time. The velocity of money, v, however, has a time
dimension. It refers to the number of times every unit of stock changes hand
during a unit period of time, say, a month or a year. Thus, the left hand side,
v.M
d
T
, measures the total value of monetary transactions that has been made
with this stock in the unit period of time. This is a flow variable and is, therefore,
equal to the right hand side.
We are ultimately interested in learning the relationship between the aggregate
transaction demand for money of an economy and the (nominal) GDP in a given
year. The total value of annual transactions in an economy includes transactions
in all intermediate goods and services and is clearly much greater than the
nominal GDP. However, normally, there exists a stable, positive relationship
between value of transactions and the nominal GDP. An increase in nominal
GDP implies an increase in the total value of transactions and hence a greater
transaction demand for money from equation (3.1). Thus, in general, equation
(3.1) can be modified in the following way
M
d
T
 = kPY (3.3)
2015-16(21/01/2015)
36 36 36 36 36
Introductory Macroeconomics
where Y is the real GDP and P is the general price level or the GDP deflator.
The above equation tells us that transaction demand for money is positively
related to the real income of an economy and also to its average price level.
3.2.2 The Speculative Motive
An individual may hold her wealth in the form of landed property, bullion,
bonds, money etc. For simplicity, let us club all forms of assets other than
money together into a single category called ‘bonds’. Typically, bonds are
papers bearing the promise of a future stream of monetary returns over a
certain period of time. These papers are issued by governments or firms for
borrowing money from the public and they are tradable in the market. Consider
the following two-period bond. A firm wishes to raise a loan of Rs 100 from the
public. It issues a bond that assures Rs 10 at the end of the first year and Rs 10
plus the principal of Rs 100 at the end of the second year. Such a bond is said
to have a face value of Rs 100, a maturity period of two years and a coupon
rate of 10 per cent. Assume that the rate of interest prevailing in your savings
bank account is equal to 5 per cent. Naturally you would like to compare the
earning from this bond with the interest earning of your savings bank
account. The exact question that you would ask is as follows: How much
money, if kept in my savings bank account, will generate Rs 10 at the end of
one year? Let this amount be X. Therefore
X (1 + 
5
100
) = 10
In other words
X =
 
10
5
(1 )
100
+
This amount, Rs X, is called the present value of Rs 10 discounted at the
market rate of interest. Similarly, let Y be the amount of money which if kept in
the savings bank account will generate Rs 110 at the end of two years. Thus, the
present value of the stream of returns from the bond should be equal to
PV = X + Y = 
10
5
(1 )
100
+
 + 
2
(10 100)
5
(1 )
100
+
+
Calculation reveals that it is Rs 109.29 (approx.). It means that if you put
Rs 109.29 in your savings bank account it will fetch the same return as the
bond. But the seller of the bond is offering the same at a face value of only
Rs 100. Clearly the bond is more attractive than the savings bank account and
people will rush to get hold of the bond. Competitive bidding will raise the price
of the bond above its face value, till price of the bond is equal to its PV. If price
rises above the PV the bond becomes less attractive compared to the savings
bank account and people would like to get rid of it. The bond will be in excess
supply and there will be downward pressure on the bond-price which will bring
it back to the PV. It is clear that under competitive assets market condition the
price of a bond must always be equal to its present value in equilibrium.
Now consider an increase in the market rate of interest from 5 per cent to
6 per cent. The present value, and hence the price of the same bond, will become
2
(10 100)
10
6 6
(1 ) ( 1 )
100 100
+
+
+ +
 = 107.33 (approx.)
2015-16(21/01/2015)
Page 5


Chapter 3
Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking Money and Banking
Money is the commonly accepted medium of exchange. In an
economy which consists of only one individual there cannot be
any exchange of commodities and hence there is no role for
money. Even if there are more than one individual but they do
not take part in market transactions, such as a family living on
an isolated island, money has no function for them. However, as
soon as there are more than one economic agent who engage
themselves in transactions through the market, money becomes
an important instrument for facilitating these exchanges.
Economic exchanges without the mediation of money are referred
to as barter exchanges. However, they presume the rather
improbable double coincidence of wants. Consider, for example,
an individual who has a surplus of rice which she wishes to
exchange for clothing. If she is not lucky enough she may not be
able to find another person who has the diametrically opposite
demand for rice with a surplus of clothing to offer in exchange.
The search costs may become prohibitive as the number of
individuals increases. Thus, to smoothen the transaction, an
intermediate good is necessary which is acceptable to both
parties. Such a good is called money. The individuals can then
sell their produces for money and use this money to purchase
the commodities they need. Though facilitation of exchanges is
considered to be the principal role of money, it serves other
purposes as well. Following are the main functions of money in a
modern economy.
3.1 FUNCTIONS OF MONEY
As explained above, the first and foremost role of money is that
it acts as a medium of exchange. Barter exchanges become
extremely difficult in a large economy because of the high costs
people would have to incur looking for suitable persons to
exchange their surpluses.
Money also acts as a convenient unit of account. The value of
all goods and services can be expressed in monetary units. When
we say that the value of a certain wristwatch is Rs 500 we mean
that the wristwatch can be exchanged for 500 units of money,
where a unit of money is rupee in this case. If the price of a pencil
is Rs 2 and that of a pen is Rs 10 we can calculate the relative
price of a pen with respect to a pencil, viz. a pen is worth
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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Introductory Macroeconomics
10 ÷ 2 = 5 pencils. The same notion can be used to calculate the value of
money itself with respect to other commodities. In the above example, a rupee
is worth 1 ÷ 2 = 0.5 pencil or 1 ÷ 10 = 0.1 pen. Thus if prices of all commodities
increase in terms of money which, in other words, can be regarded as a general
increase in the price level, the value of money in terms of any commodity must
have decreased – in the sense that a unit of money can now purchase less of
any commodity. We call it a deterioration in the purchasing power of money.
A barter system has other deficiencies. It is difficult to carry forward one’s
wealth under the barter system. Suppose you have an endowment of rice which
you do not wish to consume today entirely. You may regard this stock of
surplus rice as an asset which you may wish to consume, or even sell off, for
acquiring other commodities at some future date. But rice is a perishable item
and cannot be stored beyond a certain period. Also, holding the stock of rice
requires a lot of space. You may have to spend considerable time and resources
looking for people with a demand for rice when you wish to exchange your
stock for buying other commodities. This problem can be solved if you sell
your rice for money. Money is not perishable and its storage costs are also
considerably lower. It is also acceptable to anyone at any point of time. Thus
money can act as a store of value for individuals. Wealth can be stored in the
form of money for future use. However, to perform this function well, the value
of money must be sufficiently stable. A rising price level may erode the
purchasing power of money. It may be noted that any asset other than money
can also act as a store of value, e.g. gold, landed property, houses or even
bonds (to be introduced shortly). However, they may not be easily convertible
to other commodities and do not have universal acceptability.
3.2 DEMAND FOR MONEY
Money is the most liquid of all assets in the sense that it is universally acceptable
and hence can be exchanged for other commodities very easily. On the other
hand, it has an opportunity cost. If, instead of holding on to a certain cash
balance, you put the money in a fixed deposits in some bank you can earn
interest on that money. While deciding on how much money to hold at a certain
point of time one has to consider the trade off between the advantage of liquidity
and the disadvantage of the foregone interest. Demand for money balance is
thus often referred to as liquidity preference. People desire to hold money balance
broadly from two motives.
3.2.1 The Transaction Motive
The principal motive for holding money is to carry out transactions. If you
receive your income weekly and pay your bills on the first day of every week,
you need not hold any cash balance throughout the rest of the week; you may
as well ask your employer to deduct your expenses directly from your weekly
salary and deposit the balance in your bank account. But our expenditure
patterns do not normally match our receipts. People earn incomes at discrete
points in time and spend it continuously throughout the interval. Suppose
you earn Rs 100 on the first day of every month and run down this balance
evenly over the rest of the month. Thus your cash balance at the beginning
and end of the month are Rs 100 and 0, respectively. Your average cash holding
can then be calculated as (Rs 100 + Rs 0) ÷ 2 = Rs 50, with which you are
making transactions worth Rs 100 per month. Hence your average transaction
demand for money is equal to half your monthly income, or, in other words,
half the value of your monthly transactions.
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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Money and Banking
Consider, next, a two-person economy consisting of two entities – a firm (owned
by one person) and a worker. The firm pays the worker a salary of Rs 100 at the
beginning of every month. The worker, in turn, spends this income over the
month on the output produced by the firm – the only good available in this
economy! Thus, at the beginning of each month the worker has a money balance
of Rs 100 and the firm a balance of Rs 0. On the last day of the month the
picture is reversed – the firm has gathered a balance of Rs 100 through its sales
to the worker. The average money holding of the firm as well as the worker is
equal to Rs 50 each. Thus the total transaction demand for money in this
economy is equal to Rs 100. The total volume of monthly transactions in this
economy is Rs 200 – the firm has sold its output worth Rs 100 to the worker
and the latter has sold her services worth Rs 100 to the firm. The transaction
demand for money of the economy is again a fraction of the total volume of
transactions in the economy over the unit period of time.
In general, therefore, the transaction demand for money in an economy, M
d
T
,
can be written in the following form
M
d
T
 = k.T (3.1)
where T is the total value of (nominal) transactions in the economy over unit
period and k is a positive fraction.
The two-person economy described above can be looked at from another
angle. You may perhaps find it surprising that the economy uses money balance
worth only Rs 100 for making transactions worth Rs 200 per month. The answer
to this riddle is simple – each rupee is changing hands twice a month. On the
first day, it is being transferred from the employer’s pocket to that of the worker
and sometime during the month, it is passing from the worker’s hand to the
employer’s. The number of times a unit of money changes hands during the
unit period is called the velocity of circulation of money. In the above example
it is 2, inverse of half – the ratio of money balance and the value of transactions.
Thus, in general, we may rewrite equation (3.1) in the following form
1
k
.M
d
T
 = T, or, v.M
d
T
 = T (3.2)
where, v = 1/k is the velocity of circulation. Note that the term on the right
hand side of the above equation, T, is a flow variable whereas money demand,
M
d
T
 , is a stock concept – it refers to the stock of money people are willing to hold
at a particular point of time. The velocity of money, v, however, has a time
dimension. It refers to the number of times every unit of stock changes hand
during a unit period of time, say, a month or a year. Thus, the left hand side,
v.M
d
T
, measures the total value of monetary transactions that has been made
with this stock in the unit period of time. This is a flow variable and is, therefore,
equal to the right hand side.
We are ultimately interested in learning the relationship between the aggregate
transaction demand for money of an economy and the (nominal) GDP in a given
year. The total value of annual transactions in an economy includes transactions
in all intermediate goods and services and is clearly much greater than the
nominal GDP. However, normally, there exists a stable, positive relationship
between value of transactions and the nominal GDP. An increase in nominal
GDP implies an increase in the total value of transactions and hence a greater
transaction demand for money from equation (3.1). Thus, in general, equation
(3.1) can be modified in the following way
M
d
T
 = kPY (3.3)
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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Introductory Macroeconomics
where Y is the real GDP and P is the general price level or the GDP deflator.
The above equation tells us that transaction demand for money is positively
related to the real income of an economy and also to its average price level.
3.2.2 The Speculative Motive
An individual may hold her wealth in the form of landed property, bullion,
bonds, money etc. For simplicity, let us club all forms of assets other than
money together into a single category called ‘bonds’. Typically, bonds are
papers bearing the promise of a future stream of monetary returns over a
certain period of time. These papers are issued by governments or firms for
borrowing money from the public and they are tradable in the market. Consider
the following two-period bond. A firm wishes to raise a loan of Rs 100 from the
public. It issues a bond that assures Rs 10 at the end of the first year and Rs 10
plus the principal of Rs 100 at the end of the second year. Such a bond is said
to have a face value of Rs 100, a maturity period of two years and a coupon
rate of 10 per cent. Assume that the rate of interest prevailing in your savings
bank account is equal to 5 per cent. Naturally you would like to compare the
earning from this bond with the interest earning of your savings bank
account. The exact question that you would ask is as follows: How much
money, if kept in my savings bank account, will generate Rs 10 at the end of
one year? Let this amount be X. Therefore
X (1 + 
5
100
) = 10
In other words
X =
 
10
5
(1 )
100
+
This amount, Rs X, is called the present value of Rs 10 discounted at the
market rate of interest. Similarly, let Y be the amount of money which if kept in
the savings bank account will generate Rs 110 at the end of two years. Thus, the
present value of the stream of returns from the bond should be equal to
PV = X + Y = 
10
5
(1 )
100
+
 + 
2
(10 100)
5
(1 )
100
+
+
Calculation reveals that it is Rs 109.29 (approx.). It means that if you put
Rs 109.29 in your savings bank account it will fetch the same return as the
bond. But the seller of the bond is offering the same at a face value of only
Rs 100. Clearly the bond is more attractive than the savings bank account and
people will rush to get hold of the bond. Competitive bidding will raise the price
of the bond above its face value, till price of the bond is equal to its PV. If price
rises above the PV the bond becomes less attractive compared to the savings
bank account and people would like to get rid of it. The bond will be in excess
supply and there will be downward pressure on the bond-price which will bring
it back to the PV. It is clear that under competitive assets market condition the
price of a bond must always be equal to its present value in equilibrium.
Now consider an increase in the market rate of interest from 5 per cent to
6 per cent. The present value, and hence the price of the same bond, will become
2
(10 100)
10
6 6
(1 ) ( 1 )
100 100
+
+
+ +
 = 107.33 (approx.)
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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Money and Banking
It follows that the price of a bond is inversely related to the market rate
of interest.
Different people have different expectations regarding the future movements
in the market rate of interest based on their private information regarding the
economy. If you think that the market rate of interest should eventually settle
down to 8 per cent per annum, then you may consider the current rate of
5 per cent too low to be sustainable over time. You expect interest rate to rise
and consequently bond prices to fall. If you are a bond holder a decrease in
bond price means a loss to you – similar to a loss you would suffer if the value of
a property held by you suddenly depreciates in the market. Such a loss occurring
from a falling bond price is called a capital loss to the bond holder. Under such
circumstances, you will try to sell your bond and hold money instead. Thus
speculations regarding future movements in interest rate and bond prices give
rise to the speculative demand for money.
When the interest rate is very high everyone expects it to fall in future and
hence anticipates capital gains from bond-holding. Hence people convert their
money into bonds. Thus, speculative demand for money is low. When interest
rate comes down, more and more people expect it to rise in the future and
anticipate capital loss. Thus they convert their bonds into money giving rise to a
high speculative demand for money. Hence speculative demand for money is
inversely related to the rate of interest. Assuming a simple form, the speculative
demand for money can be written as
M
d
S
 = 
max
min
–
–
r r
r r
(3.4)
where r is the market rate of interest and r
max
 and r
min
 are the upper and
lower limits of r, both positive constants. It is evident from equation (3.4) that as
r decreases from r
max
 to r
min
, the value of M
d
S
 increases from 0 to 8.
As mentioned earlier, interest rate can be thought of as an opportunity cost
or ‘price’ of holding money balance. If supply of money in the economy increases
and people purchase bonds with this extra money, demand for bonds will go
up, bond prices will rise and rate of interest will decline. In other words, with an
increased supply of money in the economy the price you have to pay for holding
money balance, viz. the rate of interest, should come down. However, if the market
rate of interest is already low enough so that everybody expects it to rise in
future, causing capital losses, nobody will wish to hold bonds. Everyone in the
economy will hold their wealth in
money balance and if additional
money is injected within the
economy it will be used up to
satiate people’s craving for money
balances without increasing the
demand for bonds and without
further lowering the rate of
interest below the floor r
min
. Such
a situation is called a liquidity
trap. The speculative money
demand function is infinitely
elastic here.
In Fig. 3.1 the speculative
demand for money is plotted on
the horizontal axis and the rate
Fig. 3.1
r
O
M =
d
S
r – r
max
r – r
min
r
min
r
max
M
d
S
¥
The Speculative Demand for Money
2015-16(21/01/2015)
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