NCERT Textbook - Rural Administration Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 6

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Rural Administration Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 6
Rural
Administration
A Quarrel in the Village
ohan is a farmer. His family
owns a small agricultural field,
which they have been farming for
many years. Next to his field is Raghu's
land which is separated from his by a
small boundary called a bund.
One morning Mohan noticed that
Raghu had shifted the bund by a few
feet. By doing so, he had managed to
take over some of Mohan's land, and
increased the size of his own field.
Mohan was angry but also a little
frightened.  Raghu's family owned
many fields and besides, his uncle
was also the Sarpanch of the village.
But even so, he plucked up courage
and went to Raghu's house.
A heated argument followed.
Raghu refused to accept that he had
moved the bund. He called one of his
helpers and they began shouting at
Mohan and beating him up. The
neighbours heard the commotion
and rushed to the spot where Mohan
was being beaten up. They took him
away.
He was badly hurt on his head
and hand.  He was given first aid by
one of his neighbours.  His friend,
who also ran the village post-office,
suggested that they go to the local
police station and file a report.
Others were doubtful if this was a good
idea because they felt they would
waste a lot of money and nothing
would come out of it.  Some people said
that Raghu's family would have
already contacted the police station.
After much discussion it was
decided that Mohan would go to the
police station along with some of the
neighbours who had seen the incident. 
There are more than six lakh villages in India.
Taking care of their needs for water, electricity,
road connections, is not a small task. In addition
to this, land records have to be maintained and
conflicts too need to be dealt with. A large
machinery is in place to deal with all this. In this
chapter we will look at the work of two rural
administrative officers in some detail.
M
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Chapter 6
Rural
Administration
A Quarrel in the Village
ohan is a farmer. His family
owns a small agricultural field,
which they have been farming for
many years. Next to his field is Raghu's
land which is separated from his by a
small boundary called a bund.
One morning Mohan noticed that
Raghu had shifted the bund by a few
feet. By doing so, he had managed to
take over some of Mohan's land, and
increased the size of his own field.
Mohan was angry but also a little
frightened.  Raghu's family owned
many fields and besides, his uncle
was also the Sarpanch of the village.
But even so, he plucked up courage
and went to Raghu's house.
A heated argument followed.
Raghu refused to accept that he had
moved the bund. He called one of his
helpers and they began shouting at
Mohan and beating him up. The
neighbours heard the commotion
and rushed to the spot where Mohan
was being beaten up. They took him
away.
He was badly hurt on his head
and hand.  He was given first aid by
one of his neighbours.  His friend,
who also ran the village post-office,
suggested that they go to the local
police station and file a report.
Others were doubtful if this was a good
idea because they felt they would
waste a lot of money and nothing
would come out of it.  Some people said
that Raghu's family would have
already contacted the police station.
After much discussion it was
decided that Mohan would go to the
police station along with some of the
neighbours who had seen the incident. 
There are more than six lakh villages in India.
Taking care of their needs for water, electricity,
road connections, is not a small task. In addition
to this, land records have to be maintained and
conflicts too need to be dealt with. A large
machinery is in place to deal with all this. In this
chapter we will look at the work of two rural
administrative officers in some detail.
M
© NCERT
not to be republished
Area of the Police Station
On the way to the police station one of
the neighbours asked, "Why don't we
spend some more money and go to the
main police station in the town?" 
"It is not a question of money. We
can register the case only in this police
station because our village comes in its
area of work," explained Mohan.
Every police station has an area
that comes under its control.  All
persons in that area can report cases or
inform the police about any theft,
accident, injury, fight, etc. It is the
responsibility of the police of that
station to enquire, to investigate and
take action on the cases within its area.
The work at the Police Station
When they reached the police station
Mohan went to the person in charge
(Station House Officer or S.H.O.) and
told him what had happened. He also
said that he wanted to give the
complaint in writing. The S.H.O rudely
brushed him aside saying that he
couldn't be bothered to waste his time
writing down minor complaints and
then investigating them. Mohan
showed him his injuries but the S.H.O
did not believe him.
Mohan was puzzled and did not
know what to do.  He was not sure why
his complaint was not being recorded.
He went and called his neighbours into
the office. They argued strongly that
Mohan had been beaten up in front of
them and had they not rescued him he
would have been injured very
seriously. They insisted that the case
be registered. Finally the officer agreed.
He asked Mohan to write down his
complaint and also told the people that
he would send a constable the next day
to investigate the incident.
1. If there is a theft in your house
which police station would you go
to register your complaint?
2. What was the dispute between
Mohan and Raghu?
3. Why was Mohan worried about
picking a quarrel with Raghu?
4. Some people said Mohan should
report the matter to the police and
others said he should not. What
were the arguments they gave?
Show the above situation in the
police station through a skit. 
Then talk about how you felt
playing Mohan's role or that of the
S.H.O or the neighbours. Could the
S.H.O have handled the situation
differently? 
50 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Chapter 6
Rural
Administration
A Quarrel in the Village
ohan is a farmer. His family
owns a small agricultural field,
which they have been farming for
many years. Next to his field is Raghu's
land which is separated from his by a
small boundary called a bund.
One morning Mohan noticed that
Raghu had shifted the bund by a few
feet. By doing so, he had managed to
take over some of Mohan's land, and
increased the size of his own field.
Mohan was angry but also a little
frightened.  Raghu's family owned
many fields and besides, his uncle
was also the Sarpanch of the village.
But even so, he plucked up courage
and went to Raghu's house.
A heated argument followed.
Raghu refused to accept that he had
moved the bund. He called one of his
helpers and they began shouting at
Mohan and beating him up. The
neighbours heard the commotion
and rushed to the spot where Mohan
was being beaten up. They took him
away.
He was badly hurt on his head
and hand.  He was given first aid by
one of his neighbours.  His friend,
who also ran the village post-office,
suggested that they go to the local
police station and file a report.
Others were doubtful if this was a good
idea because they felt they would
waste a lot of money and nothing
would come out of it.  Some people said
that Raghu's family would have
already contacted the police station.
After much discussion it was
decided that Mohan would go to the
police station along with some of the
neighbours who had seen the incident. 
There are more than six lakh villages in India.
Taking care of their needs for water, electricity,
road connections, is not a small task. In addition
to this, land records have to be maintained and
conflicts too need to be dealt with. A large
machinery is in place to deal with all this. In this
chapter we will look at the work of two rural
administrative officers in some detail.
M
© NCERT
not to be republished
Area of the Police Station
On the way to the police station one of
the neighbours asked, "Why don't we
spend some more money and go to the
main police station in the town?" 
"It is not a question of money. We
can register the case only in this police
station because our village comes in its
area of work," explained Mohan.
Every police station has an area
that comes under its control.  All
persons in that area can report cases or
inform the police about any theft,
accident, injury, fight, etc. It is the
responsibility of the police of that
station to enquire, to investigate and
take action on the cases within its area.
The work at the Police Station
When they reached the police station
Mohan went to the person in charge
(Station House Officer or S.H.O.) and
told him what had happened. He also
said that he wanted to give the
complaint in writing. The S.H.O rudely
brushed him aside saying that he
couldn't be bothered to waste his time
writing down minor complaints and
then investigating them. Mohan
showed him his injuries but the S.H.O
did not believe him.
Mohan was puzzled and did not
know what to do.  He was not sure why
his complaint was not being recorded.
He went and called his neighbours into
the office. They argued strongly that
Mohan had been beaten up in front of
them and had they not rescued him he
would have been injured very
seriously. They insisted that the case
be registered. Finally the officer agreed.
He asked Mohan to write down his
complaint and also told the people that
he would send a constable the next day
to investigate the incident.
1. If there is a theft in your house
which police station would you go
to register your complaint?
2. What was the dispute between
Mohan and Raghu?
3. Why was Mohan worried about
picking a quarrel with Raghu?
4. Some people said Mohan should
report the matter to the police and
others said he should not. What
were the arguments they gave?
Show the above situation in the
police station through a skit. 
Then talk about how you felt
playing Mohan's role or that of the
S.H.O or the neighbours. Could the
S.H.O have handled the situation
differently? 
50 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
Maintenance of Land Records
You saw that Mohan and Raghu were
arguing heatedly whether the common
boundary of their fields had been
shifted. Isn't there a way by which they
could have settled this dispute in a
peaceful manner? Are there records
that show who owns what land in the
village? Let's find out how this is done. 
Measuring land and keeping land
records is the main work of the
Patwari. The Patwari is known by
different names in different states - in
some villages such officers are 
called Lekhpal, in others  Kanungo or
Karamchari or Village Officer etc. We
will refer to this officer as Patwari.
Each Patwari is responsible for a
group of villages. The Patwari
maintains and updates the records of
the village.
The map and the corresponding
details from the register on the next
page are a small part of the records
kept by the Patwari.
The Patwari usually has ways of
measuring agricultural fields. In some
places a long chain is used. In the
above instance the Patwari would have
measured both Mohan's and Raghu's
fields and compared them with the
measurements on the map. If they did
not match then it would be clear that
the boundary of the fields has been
changed. 
The Patwari is also responsible for
organising the collection of land
revenue from the farmers and
providing information to the govern-
ment about the crops grown in this
area. This is done from the records
that are kept, and this is why it's
important for the Patwari to regularly
update these. Farmers may change
the crops grown on their fields or
someone may dig a well somewhere,
Find out the term used for the Patwari
in your state.
If you live in a rural area find out:
How many villages does the Patwari of
your area maintain land records of?
How do people in the village contact
him/her?
Rural Administration / 51
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Chapter 6
Rural
Administration
A Quarrel in the Village
ohan is a farmer. His family
owns a small agricultural field,
which they have been farming for
many years. Next to his field is Raghu's
land which is separated from his by a
small boundary called a bund.
One morning Mohan noticed that
Raghu had shifted the bund by a few
feet. By doing so, he had managed to
take over some of Mohan's land, and
increased the size of his own field.
Mohan was angry but also a little
frightened.  Raghu's family owned
many fields and besides, his uncle
was also the Sarpanch of the village.
But even so, he plucked up courage
and went to Raghu's house.
A heated argument followed.
Raghu refused to accept that he had
moved the bund. He called one of his
helpers and they began shouting at
Mohan and beating him up. The
neighbours heard the commotion
and rushed to the spot where Mohan
was being beaten up. They took him
away.
He was badly hurt on his head
and hand.  He was given first aid by
one of his neighbours.  His friend,
who also ran the village post-office,
suggested that they go to the local
police station and file a report.
Others were doubtful if this was a good
idea because they felt they would
waste a lot of money and nothing
would come out of it.  Some people said
that Raghu's family would have
already contacted the police station.
After much discussion it was
decided that Mohan would go to the
police station along with some of the
neighbours who had seen the incident. 
There are more than six lakh villages in India.
Taking care of their needs for water, electricity,
road connections, is not a small task. In addition
to this, land records have to be maintained and
conflicts too need to be dealt with. A large
machinery is in place to deal with all this. In this
chapter we will look at the work of two rural
administrative officers in some detail.
M
© NCERT
not to be republished
Area of the Police Station
On the way to the police station one of
the neighbours asked, "Why don't we
spend some more money and go to the
main police station in the town?" 
"It is not a question of money. We
can register the case only in this police
station because our village comes in its
area of work," explained Mohan.
Every police station has an area
that comes under its control.  All
persons in that area can report cases or
inform the police about any theft,
accident, injury, fight, etc. It is the
responsibility of the police of that
station to enquire, to investigate and
take action on the cases within its area.
The work at the Police Station
When they reached the police station
Mohan went to the person in charge
(Station House Officer or S.H.O.) and
told him what had happened. He also
said that he wanted to give the
complaint in writing. The S.H.O rudely
brushed him aside saying that he
couldn't be bothered to waste his time
writing down minor complaints and
then investigating them. Mohan
showed him his injuries but the S.H.O
did not believe him.
Mohan was puzzled and did not
know what to do.  He was not sure why
his complaint was not being recorded.
He went and called his neighbours into
the office. They argued strongly that
Mohan had been beaten up in front of
them and had they not rescued him he
would have been injured very
seriously. They insisted that the case
be registered. Finally the officer agreed.
He asked Mohan to write down his
complaint and also told the people that
he would send a constable the next day
to investigate the incident.
1. If there is a theft in your house
which police station would you go
to register your complaint?
2. What was the dispute between
Mohan and Raghu?
3. Why was Mohan worried about
picking a quarrel with Raghu?
4. Some people said Mohan should
report the matter to the police and
others said he should not. What
were the arguments they gave?
Show the above situation in the
police station through a skit. 
Then talk about how you felt
playing Mohan's role or that of the
S.H.O or the neighbours. Could the
S.H.O have handled the situation
differently? 
50 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
Maintenance of Land Records
You saw that Mohan and Raghu were
arguing heatedly whether the common
boundary of their fields had been
shifted. Isn't there a way by which they
could have settled this dispute in a
peaceful manner? Are there records
that show who owns what land in the
village? Let's find out how this is done. 
Measuring land and keeping land
records is the main work of the
Patwari. The Patwari is known by
different names in different states - in
some villages such officers are 
called Lekhpal, in others  Kanungo or
Karamchari or Village Officer etc. We
will refer to this officer as Patwari.
Each Patwari is responsible for a
group of villages. The Patwari
maintains and updates the records of
the village.
The map and the corresponding
details from the register on the next
page are a small part of the records
kept by the Patwari.
The Patwari usually has ways of
measuring agricultural fields. In some
places a long chain is used. In the
above instance the Patwari would have
measured both Mohan's and Raghu's
fields and compared them with the
measurements on the map. If they did
not match then it would be clear that
the boundary of the fields has been
changed. 
The Patwari is also responsible for
organising the collection of land
revenue from the farmers and
providing information to the govern-
ment about the crops grown in this
area. This is done from the records
that are kept, and this is why it's
important for the Patwari to regularly
update these. Farmers may change
the crops grown on their fields or
someone may dig a well somewhere,
Find out the term used for the Patwari
in your state.
If you live in a rural area find out:
How many villages does the Patwari of
your area maintain land records of?
How do people in the village contact
him/her?
Rural Administration / 51
© NCERT
not to be republished
The Khasra record of the Patwari gives you information regarding the map given
below. It identifies which plot of land is owned by whom. Look at both the records and
the map and answer the questions given below regarding Mohan and Raghu's land.
1
4
5
6
2
3
8
7
52 / Social and Political Life
1. Who owns the land south of
Mohan's field?
2. Mark the common boundary
between Mohan's and Raghu's lands.
3. Who can use field no 3?
4. What  information can one get for
field no 2 and field no 3?
Sketch map – not to scale
NORTH
Boundary
Well
Grassland
Kachcha Road
Pakka road
Tree
Legend
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
No. Area in
hectare
Name of owner,
Father or
husband's name,
address
If it is rented
to some other
farmer,
their name
and rent
received
Area cultivated
this year
Crop
grown
Area
Sec-
ond
crop
grown
Khasra 5
Facilities
Area
not
culti-
vated
fallow
land
0.75 Mohan, Son of Raja No Soya- 0.75
Ram, Village bean Hectare
Amrapura owner
3.00 Raghu Ram, Son of No Soya- 2.75     0.25
Ratan Lall, Village bean, Hectare
Amrapura owner Wheat, 1.75 Well -1
irriga- working
ted
6.00 Madhya Pradesh No – Well -1
Government working
Grassland Grazing
VILLAGE - AMRAPURA
PATWARI RECORD - 16
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Chapter 6
Rural
Administration
A Quarrel in the Village
ohan is a farmer. His family
owns a small agricultural field,
which they have been farming for
many years. Next to his field is Raghu's
land which is separated from his by a
small boundary called a bund.
One morning Mohan noticed that
Raghu had shifted the bund by a few
feet. By doing so, he had managed to
take over some of Mohan's land, and
increased the size of his own field.
Mohan was angry but also a little
frightened.  Raghu's family owned
many fields and besides, his uncle
was also the Sarpanch of the village.
But even so, he plucked up courage
and went to Raghu's house.
A heated argument followed.
Raghu refused to accept that he had
moved the bund. He called one of his
helpers and they began shouting at
Mohan and beating him up. The
neighbours heard the commotion
and rushed to the spot where Mohan
was being beaten up. They took him
away.
He was badly hurt on his head
and hand.  He was given first aid by
one of his neighbours.  His friend,
who also ran the village post-office,
suggested that they go to the local
police station and file a report.
Others were doubtful if this was a good
idea because they felt they would
waste a lot of money and nothing
would come out of it.  Some people said
that Raghu's family would have
already contacted the police station.
After much discussion it was
decided that Mohan would go to the
police station along with some of the
neighbours who had seen the incident. 
There are more than six lakh villages in India.
Taking care of their needs for water, electricity,
road connections, is not a small task. In addition
to this, land records have to be maintained and
conflicts too need to be dealt with. A large
machinery is in place to deal with all this. In this
chapter we will look at the work of two rural
administrative officers in some detail.
M
© NCERT
not to be republished
Area of the Police Station
On the way to the police station one of
the neighbours asked, "Why don't we
spend some more money and go to the
main police station in the town?" 
"It is not a question of money. We
can register the case only in this police
station because our village comes in its
area of work," explained Mohan.
Every police station has an area
that comes under its control.  All
persons in that area can report cases or
inform the police about any theft,
accident, injury, fight, etc. It is the
responsibility of the police of that
station to enquire, to investigate and
take action on the cases within its area.
The work at the Police Station
When they reached the police station
Mohan went to the person in charge
(Station House Officer or S.H.O.) and
told him what had happened. He also
said that he wanted to give the
complaint in writing. The S.H.O rudely
brushed him aside saying that he
couldn't be bothered to waste his time
writing down minor complaints and
then investigating them. Mohan
showed him his injuries but the S.H.O
did not believe him.
Mohan was puzzled and did not
know what to do.  He was not sure why
his complaint was not being recorded.
He went and called his neighbours into
the office. They argued strongly that
Mohan had been beaten up in front of
them and had they not rescued him he
would have been injured very
seriously. They insisted that the case
be registered. Finally the officer agreed.
He asked Mohan to write down his
complaint and also told the people that
he would send a constable the next day
to investigate the incident.
1. If there is a theft in your house
which police station would you go
to register your complaint?
2. What was the dispute between
Mohan and Raghu?
3. Why was Mohan worried about
picking a quarrel with Raghu?
4. Some people said Mohan should
report the matter to the police and
others said he should not. What
were the arguments they gave?
Show the above situation in the
police station through a skit. 
Then talk about how you felt
playing Mohan's role or that of the
S.H.O or the neighbours. Could the
S.H.O have handled the situation
differently? 
50 / Social and Political Life
© NCERT
not to be republished
Maintenance of Land Records
You saw that Mohan and Raghu were
arguing heatedly whether the common
boundary of their fields had been
shifted. Isn't there a way by which they
could have settled this dispute in a
peaceful manner? Are there records
that show who owns what land in the
village? Let's find out how this is done. 
Measuring land and keeping land
records is the main work of the
Patwari. The Patwari is known by
different names in different states - in
some villages such officers are 
called Lekhpal, in others  Kanungo or
Karamchari or Village Officer etc. We
will refer to this officer as Patwari.
Each Patwari is responsible for a
group of villages. The Patwari
maintains and updates the records of
the village.
The map and the corresponding
details from the register on the next
page are a small part of the records
kept by the Patwari.
The Patwari usually has ways of
measuring agricultural fields. In some
places a long chain is used. In the
above instance the Patwari would have
measured both Mohan's and Raghu's
fields and compared them with the
measurements on the map. If they did
not match then it would be clear that
the boundary of the fields has been
changed. 
The Patwari is also responsible for
organising the collection of land
revenue from the farmers and
providing information to the govern-
ment about the crops grown in this
area. This is done from the records
that are kept, and this is why it's
important for the Patwari to regularly
update these. Farmers may change
the crops grown on their fields or
someone may dig a well somewhere,
Find out the term used for the Patwari
in your state.
If you live in a rural area find out:
How many villages does the Patwari of
your area maintain land records of?
How do people in the village contact
him/her?
Rural Administration / 51
© NCERT
not to be republished
The Khasra record of the Patwari gives you information regarding the map given
below. It identifies which plot of land is owned by whom. Look at both the records and
the map and answer the questions given below regarding Mohan and Raghu's land.
1
4
5
6
2
3
8
7
52 / Social and Political Life
1. Who owns the land south of
Mohan's field?
2. Mark the common boundary
between Mohan's and Raghu's lands.
3. Who can use field no 3?
4. What  information can one get for
field no 2 and field no 3?
Sketch map – not to scale
NORTH
Boundary
Well
Grassland
Kachcha Road
Pakka road
Tree
Legend
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
No. Area in
hectare
Name of owner,
Father or
husband's name,
address
If it is rented
to some other
farmer,
their name
and rent
received
Area cultivated
this year
Crop
grown
Area
Sec-
ond
crop
grown
Khasra 5
Facilities
Area
not
culti-
vated
fallow
land
0.75 Mohan, Son of Raja No Soya- 0.75
Ram, Village bean Hectare
Amrapura owner
3.00 Raghu Ram, Son of No Soya- 2.75     0.25
Ratan Lall, Village bean, Hectare
Amrapura owner Wheat, 1.75 Well -1
irriga- working
ted
6.00 Madhya Pradesh No – Well -1
Government working
Grassland Grazing
VILLAGE - AMRAPURA
PATWARI RECORD - 16
© NCERT
not to be republished
and keeping track of all this is the
work of the revenue department of
the government. Senior people in
this department supervise the
Patwari's work. 
All states in India are divided
into districts. For managing matters
relating to land these districts are
further sub-divided. These sub-
divisions of a district are known by
different names such as tehsil,
taluka, etc. At the head is the
District Collector and under her are
the revenue officers, also known as
tehsildars. They  have to hear
disputes. They also supervise the
work of the Patwaris and ensure
that records are properly kept and
land revenue is collected. They
make sure that the farmers can
easily obtain a copy of their record,
students can obtain their caste
certificates etc. The Tehsildar's
office is where land disputes are
also heard.
A daughter's wish
Father inherited our house
from his father
And everyone says he'll
leave it to brother
But what about me and my
mother?
To expect a share in my
father's home,
Is not very womanly, I am
told.
But I really want a place of
my own,
Not dowry of silk and gold.
(Source: Reflections on MY FAMILY, 
Anjali Monteiro,TISS)
Farmers often require a copy of their land's
record together with a map, as shown in
the previous illustration. They have a right
to this information. They may have to pay
a small fee for this.
However, this information is not easily
made available and farmers sometimes
have to face many problems to get it. In
some states, records are now being
computerised and also kept at the
Panchayat office so that they are more
easily available and regularly updated.
When do you think farmers may require a
copy of this record? Study the following
situations and identify the cases in which
these records would be necessary and why.
*  A farmer wants to buy a plot of land from
another.
* A farmer wants to sell her produce to
another.
*  A farmer wants a loan from the bank to
dig a well in her land.
*  A farmer wants to purchase fertilizers for
his field.
* A farmer wants to divide his property
among his children.
Rural Administration / 53
© NCERT
not to be republished
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