NCERT Textbook - Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes | EduRev

Social Studies (SST) Class 8

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UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Social and Political Life 94
Chapter 8
Confronting
Marginalisation
In the previous chapter, we read about two different
groups and their experiences of inequality and
discrimination. Though powerless, such groups have
fought, protested and struggled against being excluded
or dominated by others. They have attempted to
overcome their situation by adopting a range of
strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed
struggle, self improvement and education, economic
uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.
In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on
the circumstances that the marginalised find
themselves in.
In this chapter , we will read about some of the ways in
which groups and individuals challenge existing
inequalities. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other
marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of
a democratic country, they possess equal rights that
must be respected. Many among them look up to the
Constitution to address their concerns. In this
chapter, we will see why the Constitution of India is
something that marginalised groups invoke in the
course of their struggles. As part of this, we will look
at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups
from continued exploitation and we will also look at
the government’s efforts to formulate policies to
promote the access of these groups to development.
2015-16
Page 2


Social and Political Life 94
Chapter 8
Confronting
Marginalisation
In the previous chapter, we read about two different
groups and their experiences of inequality and
discrimination. Though powerless, such groups have
fought, protested and struggled against being excluded
or dominated by others. They have attempted to
overcome their situation by adopting a range of
strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed
struggle, self improvement and education, economic
uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.
In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on
the circumstances that the marginalised find
themselves in.
In this chapter , we will read about some of the ways in
which groups and individuals challenge existing
inequalities. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other
marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of
a democratic country, they possess equal rights that
must be respected. Many among them look up to the
Constitution to address their concerns. In this
chapter, we will see why the Constitution of India is
something that marginalised groups invoke in the
course of their struggles. As part of this, we will look
at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups
from continued exploitation and we will also look at
the government’s efforts to formulate policies to
promote the access of these groups to development.
2015-16
95
Confronting Marginalisation
The term Dalit, which means
‘broken’ is used deliberately and
actively by groups to highlight the
centuries of discrimination they
have experienced within the caste
system.
The Constitution, as you have learnt in the first chapter of
this book, lays down the principles that make our society
and polity democratic. They are defined in and through the
list of Fundamental Rights that are an important part of the
Constitution. These rights are available to all Indians equally.
As far as the marginalised are concerned, they have drawn
on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to
recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have
insisted that the government enforce these laws. In some
instances, the struggles of the marginalised have influenced
the government to frame new laws, in keeping with the spirit
of the Fundamental Rights.
Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has
been abolished – what this means is that no one can
henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves,
entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that
it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice
will not be tolerated by a democratic government.  In fact,
untouchability is a punishable crime now.
There are other sections in the Constitution that help to
strengthen the argument against untouchability – for
example, Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen
of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (you learnt a lot
about this in your Class VII textbook in the chapter on
Equality). This has been used by Dalits to seek equality
where it has been denied to them.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
2015-16
Page 3


Social and Political Life 94
Chapter 8
Confronting
Marginalisation
In the previous chapter, we read about two different
groups and their experiences of inequality and
discrimination. Though powerless, such groups have
fought, protested and struggled against being excluded
or dominated by others. They have attempted to
overcome their situation by adopting a range of
strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed
struggle, self improvement and education, economic
uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.
In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on
the circumstances that the marginalised find
themselves in.
In this chapter , we will read about some of the ways in
which groups and individuals challenge existing
inequalities. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other
marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of
a democratic country, they possess equal rights that
must be respected. Many among them look up to the
Constitution to address their concerns. In this
chapter, we will see why the Constitution of India is
something that marginalised groups invoke in the
course of their struggles. As part of this, we will look
at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups
from continued exploitation and we will also look at
the government’s efforts to formulate policies to
promote the access of these groups to development.
2015-16
95
Confronting Marginalisation
The term Dalit, which means
‘broken’ is used deliberately and
actively by groups to highlight the
centuries of discrimination they
have experienced within the caste
system.
The Constitution, as you have learnt in the first chapter of
this book, lays down the principles that make our society
and polity democratic. They are defined in and through the
list of Fundamental Rights that are an important part of the
Constitution. These rights are available to all Indians equally.
As far as the marginalised are concerned, they have drawn
on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to
recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have
insisted that the government enforce these laws. In some
instances, the struggles of the marginalised have influenced
the government to frame new laws, in keeping with the spirit
of the Fundamental Rights.
Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has
been abolished – what this means is that no one can
henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves,
entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that
it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice
will not be tolerated by a democratic government.  In fact,
untouchability is a punishable crime now.
There are other sections in the Constitution that help to
strengthen the argument against untouchability – for
example, Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen
of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (you learnt a lot
about this in your Class VII textbook in the chapter on
Equality). This has been used by Dalits to seek equality
where it has been denied to them.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 96
The poem below is written by
Soyrabai, the wife of the well-
known Bhakti poet Chokhamela
from fourteenth century
Maharashtra. They belonged to
the Mahar caste, which was at
that time considered
untouchable.
A body is unclean, they say
Only the soul is untainted
But the impurity of the body
Is born within the body
…By which ritual does the body
become pure?
Not a creature has been born
except in a bloody womb.
This is the glory of God,
Defilement exists within.
The body is polluted from within,
Be sure of it says the Mahari
Chokha
Quoted in Uma Chakravarti, Gendering Caste: Through a
Feminist Lens, Stree, 2003, p. 99
Soyrabai is questioning the idea
of purity and arguing that since
every human is born in the same
manner, there is nothing that
makes one body less or more
pure than the other. She is
possibly also trying to say that
pollution, a key tool of the caste
system to separate or deny
people access to spaces, work,
knowledge and dignity, occurs
not through the nature of work
done, but ‘from within’- from
your thoughts, values and
beliefs.
Therefore, Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental
Right (or Rights) in situations where they feel that they
have been treated badly by some individual or community,
or even by the government. They have drawn the attention
of the government of India to the Constitution, demanding
that the government abide by it and do justice to them.
Likewise, other minority groups have drawn on the
Fundamental Rights section of our Constitution. They have
particularly drawn upon the right to freedom of religion
and cultural and educational rights. In the case of cultural
and educational rights, distinct cultural and religious groups
like the Muslims and Parsis have the right to be the
guardians of the content of their culture, as well as the right
to make decisions on how best this content is to be
preserved. Thus, by granting different forms of cultural
rights, the Constitution tries to ensure cultural justice to
such groups. The Constitution does this so that the culture
of these groups is not dominated nor wiped out by the
culture of the majority community.
Laws for the Marginalised
As you have read, the government makes laws to protect
its citizens. Yet, this is not the only way in which it takes
action. There are specific laws and policies for the
marginalised in our country. There are policies or  schemes
that emerge through other means like setting up a
committee or by undertaking a survey etc. The government
then makes an effort to promote such policies in order to
give opportunities to specific groups.
Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice
As part of their effort to implement the Constitution, both
state and central governments create specific schemes for
implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high
Dalit population. For example, the government provides for
free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi
communities so that they can avail of education facilities that
may not be available in their localities.
2015-16
Page 4


Social and Political Life 94
Chapter 8
Confronting
Marginalisation
In the previous chapter, we read about two different
groups and their experiences of inequality and
discrimination. Though powerless, such groups have
fought, protested and struggled against being excluded
or dominated by others. They have attempted to
overcome their situation by adopting a range of
strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed
struggle, self improvement and education, economic
uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.
In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on
the circumstances that the marginalised find
themselves in.
In this chapter , we will read about some of the ways in
which groups and individuals challenge existing
inequalities. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other
marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of
a democratic country, they possess equal rights that
must be respected. Many among them look up to the
Constitution to address their concerns. In this
chapter, we will see why the Constitution of India is
something that marginalised groups invoke in the
course of their struggles. As part of this, we will look
at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups
from continued exploitation and we will also look at
the government’s efforts to formulate policies to
promote the access of these groups to development.
2015-16
95
Confronting Marginalisation
The term Dalit, which means
‘broken’ is used deliberately and
actively by groups to highlight the
centuries of discrimination they
have experienced within the caste
system.
The Constitution, as you have learnt in the first chapter of
this book, lays down the principles that make our society
and polity democratic. They are defined in and through the
list of Fundamental Rights that are an important part of the
Constitution. These rights are available to all Indians equally.
As far as the marginalised are concerned, they have drawn
on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to
recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have
insisted that the government enforce these laws. In some
instances, the struggles of the marginalised have influenced
the government to frame new laws, in keeping with the spirit
of the Fundamental Rights.
Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has
been abolished – what this means is that no one can
henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves,
entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that
it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice
will not be tolerated by a democratic government.  In fact,
untouchability is a punishable crime now.
There are other sections in the Constitution that help to
strengthen the argument against untouchability – for
example, Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen
of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (you learnt a lot
about this in your Class VII textbook in the chapter on
Equality). This has been used by Dalits to seek equality
where it has been denied to them.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 96
The poem below is written by
Soyrabai, the wife of the well-
known Bhakti poet Chokhamela
from fourteenth century
Maharashtra. They belonged to
the Mahar caste, which was at
that time considered
untouchable.
A body is unclean, they say
Only the soul is untainted
But the impurity of the body
Is born within the body
…By which ritual does the body
become pure?
Not a creature has been born
except in a bloody womb.
This is the glory of God,
Defilement exists within.
The body is polluted from within,
Be sure of it says the Mahari
Chokha
Quoted in Uma Chakravarti, Gendering Caste: Through a
Feminist Lens, Stree, 2003, p. 99
Soyrabai is questioning the idea
of purity and arguing that since
every human is born in the same
manner, there is nothing that
makes one body less or more
pure than the other. She is
possibly also trying to say that
pollution, a key tool of the caste
system to separate or deny
people access to spaces, work,
knowledge and dignity, occurs
not through the nature of work
done, but ‘from within’- from
your thoughts, values and
beliefs.
Therefore, Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental
Right (or Rights) in situations where they feel that they
have been treated badly by some individual or community,
or even by the government. They have drawn the attention
of the government of India to the Constitution, demanding
that the government abide by it and do justice to them.
Likewise, other minority groups have drawn on the
Fundamental Rights section of our Constitution. They have
particularly drawn upon the right to freedom of religion
and cultural and educational rights. In the case of cultural
and educational rights, distinct cultural and religious groups
like the Muslims and Parsis have the right to be the
guardians of the content of their culture, as well as the right
to make decisions on how best this content is to be
preserved. Thus, by granting different forms of cultural
rights, the Constitution tries to ensure cultural justice to
such groups. The Constitution does this so that the culture
of these groups is not dominated nor wiped out by the
culture of the majority community.
Laws for the Marginalised
As you have read, the government makes laws to protect
its citizens. Yet, this is not the only way in which it takes
action. There are specific laws and policies for the
marginalised in our country. There are policies or  schemes
that emerge through other means like setting up a
committee or by undertaking a survey etc. The government
then makes an effort to promote such policies in order to
give opportunities to specific groups.
Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice
As part of their effort to implement the Constitution, both
state and central governments create specific schemes for
implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high
Dalit population. For example, the government provides for
free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi
communities so that they can avail of education facilities that
may not be available in their localities.
2015-16
97
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
In addition to providing certain facilities, the government
also operates through laws to ensure that concrete steps are
taken to end inequity in the system. One such law/policy is
the reservation policy that today is both significant and highly
contentious. The laws which reserve seats in education and
government employment for Dalits and Adivasis are based
on an important argument- that in a society like ours, where
for centuries sections of the population have been denied
opportunities to learn and to work in order to develop new
skills or vocations, a democratic government needs to step
in and assist these sections.
How does the reservation policy work? Governments across
India have their own list of Scheduled Castes (or Dalits),
Scheduled Tribes and backward and most backward castes.
The central government too has its list. Students applying to
educational institutions and those applying for posts in
government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or
tribe status, in the form of caste and tribe certificates. (Many
government and educational institutions also ask for
candidates to mention their caste/tribe status.) If a particular
Dalit caste or a certain tribe is on the government list, then a
candidate from that caste or tribe can avail of the benefit of
reservation.
For admission to colleges, especially to institutes of
professional education, such as medical colleges, governments
define a set of ‘cut-off’ marks. This means that not all Dalit
and tribal candidates can qualify for admission, but only those
who have done reasonably well and secured marks above the
cut-off point. Governments also offer special scholarships for
these students. In your Class IX Political Science textbook,
you will read more on reservations for the backward classes.
State one reason why you
think reservations play an
important role in providing
social justice to Dalits and
Adivasis?
List of schemes What is this How do you think it will help promote
scheme about? social justice?
Scholarships for students
Special police stations
Special schemes for girls
in government schools
Q
2015-16
Page 5


Social and Political Life 94
Chapter 8
Confronting
Marginalisation
In the previous chapter, we read about two different
groups and their experiences of inequality and
discrimination. Though powerless, such groups have
fought, protested and struggled against being excluded
or dominated by others. They have attempted to
overcome their situation by adopting a range of
strategies in their long history. Religious solace, armed
struggle, self improvement and education, economic
uplift – there appears to be no one way of doing things.
In all cases, the choice of struggle has depended on
the circumstances that the marginalised find
themselves in.
In this chapter , we will read about some of the ways in
which groups and individuals challenge existing
inequalities. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women and other
marginal groups argue that simply by being citizens of
a democratic country, they possess equal rights that
must be respected. Many among them look up to the
Constitution to address their concerns. In this
chapter, we will see why the Constitution of India is
something that marginalised groups invoke in the
course of their struggles. As part of this, we will look
at how rights are translated into laws to protect groups
from continued exploitation and we will also look at
the government’s efforts to formulate policies to
promote the access of these groups to development.
2015-16
95
Confronting Marginalisation
The term Dalit, which means
‘broken’ is used deliberately and
actively by groups to highlight the
centuries of discrimination they
have experienced within the caste
system.
The Constitution, as you have learnt in the first chapter of
this book, lays down the principles that make our society
and polity democratic. They are defined in and through the
list of Fundamental Rights that are an important part of the
Constitution. These rights are available to all Indians equally.
As far as the marginalised are concerned, they have drawn
on these rights in two ways: first, by insisting on their
Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to
recognise the injustice done to them. Second, they have
insisted that the government enforce these laws. In some
instances, the struggles of the marginalised have influenced
the government to frame new laws, in keeping with the spirit
of the Fundamental Rights.
Article 17 of the Constitution states that untouchability has
been abolished – what this means is that no one can
henceforth prevent Dalits from educating themselves,
entering temples, using public facilities etc. It also means that
it is wrong to practise untouchability and that this practice
will not be tolerated by a democratic government.  In fact,
untouchability is a punishable crime now.
There are other sections in the Constitution that help to
strengthen the argument against untouchability – for
example, Article 15 of the Constitution notes that no citizen
of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of
religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (you learnt a lot
about this in your Class VII textbook in the chapter on
Equality). This has been used by Dalits to seek equality
where it has been denied to them.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
2015-16
Social and Political Life 96
The poem below is written by
Soyrabai, the wife of the well-
known Bhakti poet Chokhamela
from fourteenth century
Maharashtra. They belonged to
the Mahar caste, which was at
that time considered
untouchable.
A body is unclean, they say
Only the soul is untainted
But the impurity of the body
Is born within the body
…By which ritual does the body
become pure?
Not a creature has been born
except in a bloody womb.
This is the glory of God,
Defilement exists within.
The body is polluted from within,
Be sure of it says the Mahari
Chokha
Quoted in Uma Chakravarti, Gendering Caste: Through a
Feminist Lens, Stree, 2003, p. 99
Soyrabai is questioning the idea
of purity and arguing that since
every human is born in the same
manner, there is nothing that
makes one body less or more
pure than the other. She is
possibly also trying to say that
pollution, a key tool of the caste
system to separate or deny
people access to spaces, work,
knowledge and dignity, occurs
not through the nature of work
done, but ‘from within’- from
your thoughts, values and
beliefs.
Therefore, Dalits can ‘invoke’ or ‘draw on’ a Fundamental
Right (or Rights) in situations where they feel that they
have been treated badly by some individual or community,
or even by the government. They have drawn the attention
of the government of India to the Constitution, demanding
that the government abide by it and do justice to them.
Likewise, other minority groups have drawn on the
Fundamental Rights section of our Constitution. They have
particularly drawn upon the right to freedom of religion
and cultural and educational rights. In the case of cultural
and educational rights, distinct cultural and religious groups
like the Muslims and Parsis have the right to be the
guardians of the content of their culture, as well as the right
to make decisions on how best this content is to be
preserved. Thus, by granting different forms of cultural
rights, the Constitution tries to ensure cultural justice to
such groups. The Constitution does this so that the culture
of these groups is not dominated nor wiped out by the
culture of the majority community.
Laws for the Marginalised
As you have read, the government makes laws to protect
its citizens. Yet, this is not the only way in which it takes
action. There are specific laws and policies for the
marginalised in our country. There are policies or  schemes
that emerge through other means like setting up a
committee or by undertaking a survey etc. The government
then makes an effort to promote such policies in order to
give opportunities to specific groups.
Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice Promoting Social Justice
As part of their effort to implement the Constitution, both
state and central governments create specific schemes for
implementation in tribal areas or in areas that have a high
Dalit population. For example, the government provides for
free or subsidised hostels for students of Dalit and Adivasi
communities so that they can avail of education facilities that
may not be available in their localities.
2015-16
97
Chapter 8: Confronting Marginalisation
In addition to providing certain facilities, the government
also operates through laws to ensure that concrete steps are
taken to end inequity in the system. One such law/policy is
the reservation policy that today is both significant and highly
contentious. The laws which reserve seats in education and
government employment for Dalits and Adivasis are based
on an important argument- that in a society like ours, where
for centuries sections of the population have been denied
opportunities to learn and to work in order to develop new
skills or vocations, a democratic government needs to step
in and assist these sections.
How does the reservation policy work? Governments across
India have their own list of Scheduled Castes (or Dalits),
Scheduled Tribes and backward and most backward castes.
The central government too has its list. Students applying to
educational institutions and those applying for posts in
government are expected to furnish proof of their caste or
tribe status, in the form of caste and tribe certificates. (Many
government and educational institutions also ask for
candidates to mention their caste/tribe status.) If a particular
Dalit caste or a certain tribe is on the government list, then a
candidate from that caste or tribe can avail of the benefit of
reservation.
For admission to colleges, especially to institutes of
professional education, such as medical colleges, governments
define a set of ‘cut-off’ marks. This means that not all Dalit
and tribal candidates can qualify for admission, but only those
who have done reasonably well and secured marks above the
cut-off point. Governments also offer special scholarships for
these students. In your Class IX Political Science textbook,
you will read more on reservations for the backward classes.
State one reason why you
think reservations play an
important role in providing
social justice to Dalits and
Adivasis?
List of schemes What is this How do you think it will help promote
scheme about? social justice?
Scholarships for students
Special police stations
Special schemes for girls
in government schools
Q
2015-16
Social and Political Life 98
You may have read Kabir’s
poems in your language
textbooks. Kabir was a fifteenth
century poet and weaver who
also belonged to the Bhakti
tradition. Kabir’s poetry spoke
about his love for the supreme
being free of ritual and priests.
It also expresses his sharp and
pointed criticism of those he
saw as powerful. Kabir attacked
those who attempted to define
individuals on the basis of their
religious and caste identities.
In his view every person had
the ability to reach the highest
level of spiritual salvation and
deep knowledge within
themselves through their own
experience. His poetry brings
out the powerful idea of the
equality of all human beings
and their labour. He writes
about valuing the work of the
ordinary potter, the weaver and
the woman carrying the water
pot – labour that in his poetry
becomes the basis of
understanding the entire
universe. His direct, courageous
challenge inspired many and
even today Kabir’s poetry is
sung and appreciated by Dalits,
marginalised groups and those
critical of social hierarchies in
U.P., Rajasthan, Punjab, Madhya
Pradesh, Bengal, Bihar and
Gujarat.
Protecting the Rights of Dalits and
Adivasis
In addition to policies our country also has specific laws
that guard against the discrimination and exploitation of
marginalised communities. Let us read the following case-
study, adapted from a real-life account, to understand how
Dalits use the protection that laws provide.
The villagers of Jakmalgur are gearing up for a big festival.
Once in five years, the local deity is honoured and priests
from 20 neighbouring villages come for this five-day event.
The ceremony begins with a member of the Dalit community
washing the feet of all the priests and then bathing in the
water used for this. In Jakmalgur, the person who performed
this task belonged to Rathnam’s family. His father and
grandfather had both performed the same task before him.
Though they were never allowed to enter the temple, this
ritual was viewed as a great honour bestowed on them on
this special occasion. Now it was Rathnam’s turn. Rathnam
was all of 20 years, studying engineering in a nearby college.
He refused to perform the ritual.
He said that he had no faith in this practice and that his
family members were forced to perform this ritual because
they were Dalits. Rathnam’s refusal angered both the
powerful castes in the village and some families from his
own community. The powerful castes were shocked that
such a young boy had the guts to refuse.  They believed
that it was Rathnam’s education which allowed him to
imagine that he could start comparing himself with them.
Those from Rathnam’s own caste were fearful of angering
the powerful. Many worked on their fields as daily-wage
labourers. If the dominant castes decided to not call them,
then what would they earn? How would they survive? They
also declared that the wrath of the local deity would strike
them if they refused to give in. Rathnam argued that given
that not a single Dalit had ever entered the temple, how
could the deity be angry with them?
2015-16
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