NCERT Textbook - India: Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - India: Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 2


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick (ü) the correct answer.
? Crops will be-
affected/not affected
? The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
? Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 3


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick (ü) the correct answer.
? Crops will be-
affected/not affected
? The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
? Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall, while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such
as palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees,
which grow on their own without
interference or help from human beings
are called natural vegetation. Do you
wonder how these differ from each other.
Different types of natural vegetation are
dependent on different climatic
conditions, among which the amount of
rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY?
Forests are very useful for us. They
perform various functions. Plants release
oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon
dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the
soil; thus, they control soil erosion.
Forests provide us with timber for
furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and
herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 4


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick (ü) the correct answer.
? Crops will be-
affected/not affected
? The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
? Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall, while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such
as palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees,
which grow on their own without
interference or help from human beings
are called natural vegetation. Do you
wonder how these differ from each other.
Different types of natural vegetation are
dependent on different climatic
conditions, among which the amount of
rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY?
Forests are very useful for us. They
perform various functions. Plants release
oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon
dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the
soil; thus, they control soil erosion.
Forests provide us with timber for
furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and
herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
59
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Forests are the natural habitat of
wild life.
Natural vegetation has been
destroyed to a large extent because of
the reckless cutting of trees. We should
plant more trees and protect the existing
ones and make people aware of the
importance of trees. We can have special
programmes like Van Mahotsav to
involve more people in making our earth
green.
Leela’s parents planted a sapling of
“neem” to celebrate her birth. On each
birthday, a different sapling was
planted. It was watered regularly and
protected from severe heat, cold and
animals. Children took care not to harm
it. When Leela was 20, twenty-one
beautiful trees, stood in and around her
house. Birds built their nests on them,
flowers bloomed, butterflies fluttered
around them, children enjoyed their
fruits, swung on their branches and
played in their shade.
Figure 8.2 : What we get from forests
WILD LIFE
Forests are home to a variety of wild life. There are
thousands of species of animals and a large variety of
reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and
worms which dwell in the forest.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
Page 5


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick (ü) the correct answer.
? Crops will be-
affected/not affected
? The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
? Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall, while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such
as palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees,
which grow on their own without
interference or help from human beings
are called natural vegetation. Do you
wonder how these differ from each other.
Different types of natural vegetation are
dependent on different climatic
conditions, among which the amount of
rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
WHY ARE FORESTS NECESSARY?
Forests are very useful for us. They
perform various functions. Plants release
oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbon
dioxide. The roots of the plants bind the
soil; thus, they control soil erosion.
Forests provide us with timber for
furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and
herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
59
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Forests are the natural habitat of
wild life.
Natural vegetation has been
destroyed to a large extent because of
the reckless cutting of trees. We should
plant more trees and protect the existing
ones and make people aware of the
importance of trees. We can have special
programmes like Van Mahotsav to
involve more people in making our earth
green.
Leela’s parents planted a sapling of
“neem” to celebrate her birth. On each
birthday, a different sapling was
planted. It was watered regularly and
protected from severe heat, cold and
animals. Children took care not to harm
it. When Leela was 20, twenty-one
beautiful trees, stood in and around her
house. Birds built their nests on them,
flowers bloomed, butterflies fluttered
around them, children enjoyed their
fruits, swung on their branches and
played in their shade.
Figure 8.2 : What we get from forests
WILD LIFE
Forests are home to a variety of wild life. There are
thousands of species of animals and a large variety of
reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and
worms which dwell in the forest.
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
60
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The tiger is our national animal. It is found in various
parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of
Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses roam
in the forests of Assam. Elephants are also found in Kerala
and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the
Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively.
Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc.  are found in the
Himalayan region. Besides these, many other animals are
found in our country such as monkey, wolf, jackal, nilgai,
cheetal, etc.
India is equally rich in bird life. The peacock is our
national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons,
mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks. There are several bird
sanctuaries which have been created to give birds their
natural habitat. These provide the birds protection from
hunters. Can you name five birds that are commonly found
in your area?
There are several hundreds of species of snakes found in
India. Cobras and kraits are important among them.
Due to cutting of forests and hunting, several species of
wildlife of India are declining rapidly. Many species have
already become extinct.
In order to protect them many national parks, sanctuaries
and biosphere reserves have been set up. The Government
Figure 8.3 : Wildlife
2020-21
©  NCERT 
not to be republished
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