NCERT Textbook - India: Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

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Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - India: Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2018-19
Page 2


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2018-19
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick ( ?) the correct answer.
• Crops will be-
affected/not affected
• The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
• Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2018-19
Page 3


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2018-19
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick ( ?) the correct answer.
• Crops will be-
affected/not affected
• The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
• Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2018-19
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall , while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such as
palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which
grow on their own without interference or
help from human beings are called natural
vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ
from each other. Different types of natural
vegetation are dependent on different
climatic conditions, among which the
amount of rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
Vegetation of India can be divided into five
types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical
deciduous forest, Thorny bushes,
Mountain vegetation and Mangrove
forests.
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas
which receive heavy rainfall. They are so
dense that sunli ght doesn’t reach the ground.
Many species of trees are found in these forests,
which shed their leaves at different times of the
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2018-19
Page 4


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2018-19
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick ( ?) the correct answer.
• Crops will be-
affected/not affected
• The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
• Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2018-19
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall , while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such as
palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which
grow on their own without interference or
help from human beings are called natural
vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ
from each other. Different types of natural
vegetation are dependent on different
climatic conditions, among which the
amount of rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
Vegetation of India can be divided into five
types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical
deciduous forest, Thorny bushes,
Mountain vegetation and Mangrove
forests.
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas
which receive heavy rainfall. They are so
dense that sunli ght doesn’t reach the ground.
Many species of trees are found in these forests,
which shed their leaves at different times of the
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2018-19
59
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
year. Therefore, they always appear green and are
called evergreen forest as you may notice in Figure
8.1. Important trees found in these forests are
mahogany, ebony and rosewood . Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and
a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Wester n
Ghats are home of these forests.
TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS
In a large part of our country we have this type of
forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests.
They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a
particular time of the year. Important trees of these
forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham. They
are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of
Maharashtra.
THORNY BUSHES
This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the
country. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce
the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are
important and are found in the states of Rajasthan,
Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and
Gujarat.
Figure 8.2 : Tropical Deciduous Forests
2018-19
Page 5


8
8
INDIA : CLIMATE,
VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
You read in newspapers daily and watch on T.V. or
hear others talking about weather. You must know
that weather is about day to day changes in the
atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature,
rainfall and sunshine etc. For example, as such it may
be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy; windy or calm. You
must have noticed that when it is hot continuously for
several days you don’t need any warm clothing. You
also like to eat or drink cold things. In contrast there
are days together, you feel cold without woollen clothes
when it is very windy  and chilly, you would like to
have something hot to eat.
Broadly, the major seasons recognised in India are:
• Cold Weather Season (Winter) December to
February
• Hot Weather Season (Summer) March to May
• Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)
June to September
• Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn) October
and November
COLD WEATHER SEASON OR WINTER
During the winter season, the sun rays do not fall
directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are
quite low in northern India.
HOT WEATHER SEASON OR SUMMER
In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly
fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
2018-19
57
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
Let’s have fun :
1. People in all parts of our country drink delicious
cool drinks called Sharbat made from fruits
available in their regions. They are excellent
thirst-quenchers and protect our bodies from the
ill-effect of the harsh ‘loo’. Have you tried
‘Sharbat’, made from raw mango, bel, lemon,
tamarind, kokum, phalsa, watermelon and
buttermilk made from curds; for example
chhaachh, mattha, mori, chash, etc? Many make
banana and mango milkshakes too.
2. After a hot summer, the first rains bring much
joy. All our languages have melodious songs on
‘rains’. They sound happy and bring cheer. Learn
two songs on rains and sing them together.
Write or collect five poems on rains.
Ask your friends, neighbours and family
members for names for rains and other seasons
in different languages. For instance,
Varsha –  Hindi Pous –  Marathi
Barish –  Urdu Borsha –  Bengali
SOUTH WEST MONSOON SEASON OR  RAINY SEASON
This season is marked by the onset and advance of
monsoon. The winds  blow from Arabian Sea and Bay
of Bengal towards  the land. They carry moisture with
them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers,
rainfall occurs.
SEASON OF RETREATING MONSOONS OR AUTUMN
Winds move back from the mainland to  the Bay of
Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons.
The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu
and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
However, the climate is about the average weather
condition, which have been measured over many years.
The climate of India has broadly been described as
Monsoon type. Monsoon is taken from the Arabic word
‘mausim’, which means seasons. Due to India’s location
in the tropical region, most of the rain is brought by
monsoon winds. Agriculture in India is dependent on
rains. Good monsoons mean adequate rain and a
bountiful crop.
What would happen if
monsoons were weak, or even
worse, failed to occur one year?
Tick ( ?) the correct answer.
• Crops will be-
affected/not affected
• The level of the water in a
well will-
come-up/go-down
• Summer will be-
longer/shorter
2018-19
58
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
The climate of a place is affected by its location,
altitude, distance from the sea, and relief. Therefore,
we experience regional differences in the climate of
India. Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the desert of Rajasthan
are very hot, while Drass and Kargil in Jammu and
Kashmir are freezing cold. Coastal places like Mumbai
and Kolkata experience moderate climate. They are
neither too hot nor too cold. Being on the
coast, these places are very humid.
Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the
world’s highest rainfall , while in a
particular year it might not rain at all in
Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
NATURAL VEGETATION
We see a variety of plant life in our
surroundings. How nice it is to play in a
field with green grasses. There are also
small plants called bushes and shrubs like
cactus and flowering plants etc. Besides
there are many tall trees some with many
branches and leaves like neem, mango or
some which stand with few leaves such as
palm. The grasses, shrubs and trees, which
grow on their own without interference or
help from human beings are called natural
vegetation. Do you wonder how these differ
from each other. Different types of natural
vegetation are dependent on different
climatic conditions, among which the
amount of rainfall is very important.
Due to varied climatic conditions, India
has a wide range of natural vegetation.
Vegetation of India can be divided into five
types – Tropical evergreen forest, Tropical
deciduous forest, Thorny bushes,
Mountain vegetation and Mangrove
forests.
TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas
which receive heavy rainfall. They are so
dense that sunli ght doesn’t reach the ground.
Many species of trees are found in these forests,
which shed their leaves at different times of the
Let’s Do
On a map of
India, locate
the places
mentioned in the
paragraph.
Figure 8.1 : Tropical Rain Forests
2018-19
59
INDIA : CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE
year. Therefore, they always appear green and are
called evergreen forest as you may notice in Figure
8.1. Important trees found in these forests are
mahogany, ebony and rosewood . Andaman and
Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and
a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Wester n
Ghats are home of these forests.
TROPICAL DECIDUOUS FORESTS
In a large part of our country we have this type of
forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests.
They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a
particular time of the year. Important trees of these
forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham. They
are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of
Maharashtra.
THORNY BUSHES
This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the
country. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce
the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are
important and are found in the states of Rajasthan,
Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and
Gujarat.
Figure 8.2 : Tropical Deciduous Forests
2018-19
60
THE EARTH : OUR HABITAT
MOUNTAIN VEGETATION
A wide range of species is found in the mountains
according to the variation in height. With increase in
height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500
Figure 8.3 : Thorny Bushes
metres and 2500 metres most of the trees
are conical in shape. These trees are called
coniferous trees. Chir, Pine and Deodar are
important trees of these forests.
MANGROVE FORESTS
These forests can survive in saline water.
They are found mainly in Sunderbans in
Figure 8.4 : Mountain Vegetation
Figure 8.5 : Mangrove Vegetation
2018-19
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