NCERT Textbook - Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev

Polity and Constitution (Prelims) by IAS Masters

Created by: Rohini Seth

Class 6 : NCERT Textbook - Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 8
Rural
Livelihoods
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in
different regions has an effect on the work people do,
the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that become
important to them. In this chapter we will look at the
different ways in which people earn their living in
villages. And here too, as in the first two chapters,
we will examine whether people have equal
opportunities to earn a living. We will look at the
similarities in their life situations and the problems
that they face.
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that
describe the work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


Chapter 8
Rural
Livelihoods
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in
different regions has an effect on the work people do,
the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that become
important to them. In this chapter we will look at the
different ways in which people earn their living in
villages. And here too, as in the first two chapters,
we will examine whether people have equal
opportunities to earn a living. We will look at the
similarities in their life situations and the problems
that they face.
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that
describe the work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Kalpattu village
alpattu is a village that's close to
the sea coast in Tamil Nadu.
People here do many kinds of work.
As in other villages, here too there is
non-farm work such as making
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks,
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide
services such as blacksmiths, nurses,
teachers, washermen, weavers,
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and
so on. There are also some
shopkeepers and traders.  In the main
street, which looks like a bazaar, you
will find a variety of small shops such
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and two
fertiliser and seed shops. There are
four teashops, which sell tiffin – such
as idli, dosai and upama in the
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda
and mysorepak in the evening.  Near
the teashops in a corner lives a
blacksmith family whose home serves
as their workshop.  Next to their home
is a cycle hire and repair shop.  Two
families earn a living by washing
clothes. There are some people who go
to the nearby town to work as
construction workers and lorry
drivers.  
The village is surrounded by low
hills. Paddy is the main crop that is
grown in irrigated lands. Most of the
families earn a living through
agriculture.
There are some
coconut groves around.
Cotton, sugar cane and
plantain are also
grown, and there are
mango orchards. Let
us now meet some
people who work in the
fields in Kalpattu and
see what we can learn
about farming from
them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on
Ramalingam's land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in
Kalpattu. Even before I was married I
used to work on paddy fields in my
parental village.  I work from 8.30 in
the morning till 4.30 in the evening and
Karuthamma, Ramalingam's wife,
supervises us. 
68 / Social and Political Life
K
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


Chapter 8
Rural
Livelihoods
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in
different regions has an effect on the work people do,
the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that become
important to them. In this chapter we will look at the
different ways in which people earn their living in
villages. And here too, as in the first two chapters,
we will examine whether people have equal
opportunities to earn a living. We will look at the
similarities in their life situations and the problems
that they face.
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that
describe the work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Kalpattu village
alpattu is a village that's close to
the sea coast in Tamil Nadu.
People here do many kinds of work.
As in other villages, here too there is
non-farm work such as making
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks,
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide
services such as blacksmiths, nurses,
teachers, washermen, weavers,
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and
so on. There are also some
shopkeepers and traders.  In the main
street, which looks like a bazaar, you
will find a variety of small shops such
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and two
fertiliser and seed shops. There are
four teashops, which sell tiffin – such
as idli, dosai and upama in the
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda
and mysorepak in the evening.  Near
the teashops in a corner lives a
blacksmith family whose home serves
as their workshop.  Next to their home
is a cycle hire and repair shop.  Two
families earn a living by washing
clothes. There are some people who go
to the nearby town to work as
construction workers and lorry
drivers.  
The village is surrounded by low
hills. Paddy is the main crop that is
grown in irrigated lands. Most of the
families earn a living through
agriculture.
There are some
coconut groves around.
Cotton, sugar cane and
plantain are also
grown, and there are
mango orchards. Let
us now meet some
people who work in the
fields in Kalpattu and
see what we can learn
about farming from
them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on
Ramalingam's land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in
Kalpattu. Even before I was married I
used to work on paddy fields in my
parental village.  I work from 8.30 in
the morning till 4.30 in the evening and
Karuthamma, Ramalingam's wife,
supervises us. 
68 / Social and Political Life
K
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Rural Livelihoods / 69
Based on the above diagram would
you say that Thulasi earns money
throughout the year?
This is one of the few times in the
year that I find regular work.  Now I
am transplanting the paddy, when the
plants have grown a bit Ramalingam
will call us again for weeding and then
finally once again for the harvesting.
When I was young I could do this
work with no difficulty. But now as I
grow older I find bending for long
hours with my feet in water very
painful.  Ramalingam pays Rs 40 per
day. This is a little less than what
labourers get in my home village, but I
come here because I can depend on
him to call me whenever there is work.
Unlike others, he does not go looking
for cheaper labour from other villages.
My husband, Raman is also a
labourer. We don't own any land.
During this time of the year he sprays
pesticides. When there is no work on
the farm he finds work outside, either
loading sand from the river or stone
from the quarry nearby. This is sent by
truck to be used in nearby towns to
make houses.
Apart from working on the land, I do
all the tasks at home. I cook food for my
family, clean the house and wash
clothes. I go with other women to the
nearby forest to collect firewood.  About
one kilometre away we have a village
borewell from where I fetch water. My
husband helps in getting materials
such as groceries for the house.
Our school-going daughters are the
joy of our lives. Last year, one of them
fell ill and had to be taken to the
hospital in town. We had to sell our
cow to pay back the money we
borrowed from Ramalingam for her
treatment.
1. Describe the work that
Thulasi does. How is it
different from the work
Raman does?
2. Thulasi gets paid very little
money for the work she
does. Why do you think
agricultural labourers like
her are forced to accept low
wages?
3. In what ways would her way
of earning a living have
been different if Thulasi
owned some farm land?
Discuss.
4. What are the crops grown in
your region or nearby 
rural area? What kinds 
of work do agricultural
labourers do?
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Preparing
saplings
Transplanting
Weeding
Harvesting
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


Chapter 8
Rural
Livelihoods
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in
different regions has an effect on the work people do,
the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that become
important to them. In this chapter we will look at the
different ways in which people earn their living in
villages. And here too, as in the first two chapters,
we will examine whether people have equal
opportunities to earn a living. We will look at the
similarities in their life situations and the problems
that they face.
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that
describe the work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Kalpattu village
alpattu is a village that's close to
the sea coast in Tamil Nadu.
People here do many kinds of work.
As in other villages, here too there is
non-farm work such as making
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks,
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide
services such as blacksmiths, nurses,
teachers, washermen, weavers,
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and
so on. There are also some
shopkeepers and traders.  In the main
street, which looks like a bazaar, you
will find a variety of small shops such
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and two
fertiliser and seed shops. There are
four teashops, which sell tiffin – such
as idli, dosai and upama in the
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda
and mysorepak in the evening.  Near
the teashops in a corner lives a
blacksmith family whose home serves
as their workshop.  Next to their home
is a cycle hire and repair shop.  Two
families earn a living by washing
clothes. There are some people who go
to the nearby town to work as
construction workers and lorry
drivers.  
The village is surrounded by low
hills. Paddy is the main crop that is
grown in irrigated lands. Most of the
families earn a living through
agriculture.
There are some
coconut groves around.
Cotton, sugar cane and
plantain are also
grown, and there are
mango orchards. Let
us now meet some
people who work in the
fields in Kalpattu and
see what we can learn
about farming from
them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on
Ramalingam's land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in
Kalpattu. Even before I was married I
used to work on paddy fields in my
parental village.  I work from 8.30 in
the morning till 4.30 in the evening and
Karuthamma, Ramalingam's wife,
supervises us. 
68 / Social and Political Life
K
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Rural Livelihoods / 69
Based on the above diagram would
you say that Thulasi earns money
throughout the year?
This is one of the few times in the
year that I find regular work.  Now I
am transplanting the paddy, when the
plants have grown a bit Ramalingam
will call us again for weeding and then
finally once again for the harvesting.
When I was young I could do this
work with no difficulty. But now as I
grow older I find bending for long
hours with my feet in water very
painful.  Ramalingam pays Rs 40 per
day. This is a little less than what
labourers get in my home village, but I
come here because I can depend on
him to call me whenever there is work.
Unlike others, he does not go looking
for cheaper labour from other villages.
My husband, Raman is also a
labourer. We don't own any land.
During this time of the year he sprays
pesticides. When there is no work on
the farm he finds work outside, either
loading sand from the river or stone
from the quarry nearby. This is sent by
truck to be used in nearby towns to
make houses.
Apart from working on the land, I do
all the tasks at home. I cook food for my
family, clean the house and wash
clothes. I go with other women to the
nearby forest to collect firewood.  About
one kilometre away we have a village
borewell from where I fetch water. My
husband helps in getting materials
such as groceries for the house.
Our school-going daughters are the
joy of our lives. Last year, one of them
fell ill and had to be taken to the
hospital in town. We had to sell our
cow to pay back the money we
borrowed from Ramalingam for her
treatment.
1. Describe the work that
Thulasi does. How is it
different from the work
Raman does?
2. Thulasi gets paid very little
money for the work she
does. Why do you think
agricultural labourers like
her are forced to accept low
wages?
3. In what ways would her way
of earning a living have
been different if Thulasi
owned some farm land?
Discuss.
4. What are the crops grown in
your region or nearby 
rural area? What kinds 
of work do agricultural
labourers do?
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Preparing
saplings
Transplanting
Weeding
Harvesting
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Sekar
We have to carry this paddy to our
house. My family has just finished
harvesting our field. We don't own
much land, only two acres. We manage
to do all the work on our own.  At
times, especially during the harvest I
take the help of other small farmers
and in turn help them harvest their
field. 
The trader gave me seeds and
fertilisers as a loan. To pay back this
loan I have to sell my paddy to him at
a somewhat lower price than what I
would get in the market. He has sent
his agent to remind farmers who have
taken loans that they will sell the
paddy only to him.
I will probably get 60 bags of paddy
from my field. Some of this I will sell to
settle the loan. The rest will be used in
my home. But whatever I have will last
only  eight months. So I need to earn
some money. I work in Ramalingam's
rice mill.  Here I help him collect paddy
from other farmers in the neighbouring
villages.
We also have a hybrid cow, whose
milk we sell in the local milk
cooperative. This way we get a little
extra money for our everyday needs.
On being in Debt 
As you've read above, very often
farmers like Sekar need to borrow
money to purchase basic things like
seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. Often
they borrow this money from
moneylenders. If the seeds are not of
good quality or pests attack their crop
there can be a major crop failure.
70 / Social and Political Life
As you saw in Thulasi's story poor
families in rural areas often spend a
lot of time every day collecting
firewood, getting water and grazing
their cattle.
Even though they do not earn any
money from these activities they have
to do them for the household.  The
family needs to spend time doing this
as they are not able to survive on the
little money they earn.
Nearly two-fifth of all rural families
are agricultural labourers in our
country.  There are some who have
small plots of land while others like
Thulasi are landless.
Not being able to earn money
throughout the year forces people in
many rural areas to travel long
distances in search of work. This
travel, or migration, takes place
during particular seasons.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


Chapter 8
Rural
Livelihoods
In the first chapter we looked at the many kinds of
diversity in our lives. We also explored how living in
different regions has an effect on the work people do,
the kinds of plants, trees, crops or things that become
important to them. In this chapter we will look at the
different ways in which people earn their living in
villages. And here too, as in the first two chapters,
we will examine whether people have equal
opportunities to earn a living. We will look at the
similarities in their life situations and the problems
that they face.
1. Describe the work that you see people doing in the above
pictures. 
2. Identify the different types of work that are related to farming
and those that are not. List these in a table.
3. In your notebook draw some pictures of work that you have
seen people do in rural areas and write a few sentences that
describe the work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Kalpattu village
alpattu is a village that's close to
the sea coast in Tamil Nadu.
People here do many kinds of work.
As in other villages, here too there is
non-farm work such as making
baskets, utensils, pots, bricks,
bullock-carts etc.
There are people who provide
services such as blacksmiths, nurses,
teachers, washermen, weavers,
barbers, cycle repair mechanics and
so on. There are also some
shopkeepers and traders.  In the main
street, which looks like a bazaar, you
will find a variety of small shops such
as tea shops, grocery shops, barber
shops, a cloth shop, a tailor and two
fertiliser and seed shops. There are
four teashops, which sell tiffin – such
as idli, dosai and upama in the
morning and snacks like vadai, bonda
and mysorepak in the evening.  Near
the teashops in a corner lives a
blacksmith family whose home serves
as their workshop.  Next to their home
is a cycle hire and repair shop.  Two
families earn a living by washing
clothes. There are some people who go
to the nearby town to work as
construction workers and lorry
drivers.  
The village is surrounded by low
hills. Paddy is the main crop that is
grown in irrigated lands. Most of the
families earn a living through
agriculture.
There are some
coconut groves around.
Cotton, sugar cane and
plantain are also
grown, and there are
mango orchards. Let
us now meet some
people who work in the
fields in Kalpattu and
see what we can learn
about farming from
them.
Thulasi
All of us here work on
Ramalingam's land. 
He has twenty acres 
of paddy fields in
Kalpattu. Even before I was married I
used to work on paddy fields in my
parental village.  I work from 8.30 in
the morning till 4.30 in the evening and
Karuthamma, Ramalingam's wife,
supervises us. 
68 / Social and Political Life
K
Transplanting paddy is back-breaking work.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Rural Livelihoods / 69
Based on the above diagram would
you say that Thulasi earns money
throughout the year?
This is one of the few times in the
year that I find regular work.  Now I
am transplanting the paddy, when the
plants have grown a bit Ramalingam
will call us again for weeding and then
finally once again for the harvesting.
When I was young I could do this
work with no difficulty. But now as I
grow older I find bending for long
hours with my feet in water very
painful.  Ramalingam pays Rs 40 per
day. This is a little less than what
labourers get in my home village, but I
come here because I can depend on
him to call me whenever there is work.
Unlike others, he does not go looking
for cheaper labour from other villages.
My husband, Raman is also a
labourer. We don't own any land.
During this time of the year he sprays
pesticides. When there is no work on
the farm he finds work outside, either
loading sand from the river or stone
from the quarry nearby. This is sent by
truck to be used in nearby towns to
make houses.
Apart from working on the land, I do
all the tasks at home. I cook food for my
family, clean the house and wash
clothes. I go with other women to the
nearby forest to collect firewood.  About
one kilometre away we have a village
borewell from where I fetch water. My
husband helps in getting materials
such as groceries for the house.
Our school-going daughters are the
joy of our lives. Last year, one of them
fell ill and had to be taken to the
hospital in town. We had to sell our
cow to pay back the money we
borrowed from Ramalingam for her
treatment.
1. Describe the work that
Thulasi does. How is it
different from the work
Raman does?
2. Thulasi gets paid very little
money for the work she
does. Why do you think
agricultural labourers like
her are forced to accept low
wages?
3. In what ways would her way
of earning a living have
been different if Thulasi
owned some farm land?
Discuss.
4. What are the crops grown in
your region or nearby 
rural area? What kinds 
of work do agricultural
labourers do?
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Preparing
saplings
Transplanting
Weeding
Harvesting
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Sekar
We have to carry this paddy to our
house. My family has just finished
harvesting our field. We don't own
much land, only two acres. We manage
to do all the work on our own.  At
times, especially during the harvest I
take the help of other small farmers
and in turn help them harvest their
field. 
The trader gave me seeds and
fertilisers as a loan. To pay back this
loan I have to sell my paddy to him at
a somewhat lower price than what I
would get in the market. He has sent
his agent to remind farmers who have
taken loans that they will sell the
paddy only to him.
I will probably get 60 bags of paddy
from my field. Some of this I will sell to
settle the loan. The rest will be used in
my home. But whatever I have will last
only  eight months. So I need to earn
some money. I work in Ramalingam's
rice mill.  Here I help him collect paddy
from other farmers in the neighbouring
villages.
We also have a hybrid cow, whose
milk we sell in the local milk
cooperative. This way we get a little
extra money for our everyday needs.
On being in Debt 
As you've read above, very often
farmers like Sekar need to borrow
money to purchase basic things like
seeds, fertilisers and pesticides. Often
they borrow this money from
moneylenders. If the seeds are not of
good quality or pests attack their crop
there can be a major crop failure.
70 / Social and Political Life
As you saw in Thulasi's story poor
families in rural areas often spend a
lot of time every day collecting
firewood, getting water and grazing
their cattle.
Even though they do not earn any
money from these activities they have
to do them for the household.  The
family needs to spend time doing this
as they are not able to survive on the
little money they earn.
Nearly two-fifth of all rural families
are agricultural labourers in our
country.  There are some who have
small plots of land while others like
Thulasi are landless.
Not being able to earn money
throughout the year forces people in
many rural areas to travel long
distances in search of work. This
travel, or migration, takes place
during particular seasons.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Rural Livelihoods / 71
The crops can also be ruined
if the monsoon does not bring
enough rain. When this happens
farmers sometimes are unable
to pay back their loans.  And, for
the family to survive, they may
even have to borrow more
money.  Soon the loan becomes
so large that no matter what
they earn, they are unable 
to repay.
This is when we can say they
are caught in debt. In recent
years this has become a major
cause of distress among farmers.
In some areas this has also
resulted in many farmers
committing suicide.
Ramalingam and Karuthamma
In addition to land, Ramalingam’s
family owns a rice mill and a shop
selling seeds, pesticides etc.  For the
rice mill they used some of their own
money and also borrowed from the
government bank.  They buy paddy
from within the village and from
surrounding villages. The rice that is
produced in the mill is sold to traders
in nearby towns. This gives them a
substantial income.
1. What work does Sekar’s family
do? Why do you think Sekar does
not usually employ labourers for
doing farming work?
2. Why does Sekar not go to the
town market to get a better price for
his paddy?
3. Sekar’s sister Mina had also
taken a loan from the trader. She
does not want to sell her paddy to
him but she will pay back her loan.
Write an imaginary conversation
between Mina and the trader's
agent and the arguments given by
each person.
4. What are the similarities and
differences between Sekar’s and
Thulasi’s lives? Your answer could
be based on the land that they
have, their need to work on the land
that belongs to others, or loans that
they need and their earnings. 
Read again Sekar’s and Thulasi’s
accounts. What do they say about
Ramalingam, the large farmer?
Together with what you have read
fill in the details below:
1. How much land does he have?
2. What does Ramalingam do with
the paddy grown on his land?
3. Apart from  farming how else does
he earn?
Transplanted paddy growing in a few of
Ramalingam’s 20 acres. A result of hard labour
performed by agricultural workers like Thulasi.
© NCERT
not to be republished
© NCERT
not to be republished
Read More

Complete Syllabus of Class 6

Dynamic Test

Content Category

Related Searches

past year papers

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

study material

,

Objective type Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

Viva Questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

Summary

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Textbook - Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev

,

NCERT Textbook - Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev

,

ppt

,

Free

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

practice quizzes

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

pdf

,

Semester Notes

,

Sample Paper

,

NCERT Textbook - Rural Livelihoods Class 6 Notes | EduRev

;