NCERT Textbook Chapter 9 - Globalisation, Contemporary World Politics, Class 12 UPSC Notes | EduRev

Indian Polity for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims

Created by: Dev Shree

UPSC : NCERT Textbook Chapter 9 - Globalisation, Contemporary World Politics, Class 12 UPSC Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


OVERVIEW
In this final chapter of the book we
look at globalisation, something
that has been referred to in many
chapters of this book and textbooks
of many other subjects. We begin
by analysing the concept of
globalisation and then examine its
causes. We then discuss at length
the political, economic and cultural
consequences of globalisation. Our
interest is also in studying the
impact of globalisation on India as
well as how India is affecting
globalisation. We finally draw
attention to resistance to
globalisation and how social
movements in India also form part
of this resistance.
Chapter 9
Globalisation
Page 2


OVERVIEW
In this final chapter of the book we
look at globalisation, something
that has been referred to in many
chapters of this book and textbooks
of many other subjects. We begin
by analysing the concept of
globalisation and then examine its
causes. We then discuss at length
the political, economic and cultural
consequences of globalisation. Our
interest is also in studying the
impact of globalisation on India as
well as how India is affecting
globalisation. We finally draw
attention to resistance to
globalisation and how social
movements in India also form part
of this resistance.
Chapter 9
Globalisation
Contemporary World Politics
136
THE CONCEPT OF
GLOBALISATION
Janardhan works in a call centre.
He leaves late in the evening for
work, becomes John when he
enters his office, acquires a new
accent and speaks a different
language (than he does when he is
at home) to communicate with his
clients who are living thousands
of miles away. He works all night,
which is actually day time for his
overseas customers. Janardhan is
rendering a service to somebody
who in all probability he is never
likely to meet physically. This is his
daily routine. His holidays also do
not correspond to the Indian
calendar but to those of his clients
who happen to be from the US.
Ramdhari has gone shopping
to buy a birthday gift for his
nine-year old daughter. He has
promised her a small cycle and
decides to search the market for
something he finds affordable as
well as of reasonable quality. He
finally does buy a cycle, which
is actually manufactured in
China but is being marketed in
India. It meets his requirements
of quality as well as affordability,
and Ramdhari decides to go
ahead with his purchase. Last
year, Ramdhari on his daughter’s
insistence had bought her a
Barbie doll, which was originally
manufactured in the US but was
being sold in India.
Sarika is a first generation
learner who has done remarkably
well throughout her school and
college life by working very hard.
She now has an opportunity to
take on a job and begin an
independent career, which the
women of her family had never
dreamt of earlier. While some of
her relatives are opposed, she
finally decides to go ahead
because of the new opportunities
that have been made available to
her generation.
All three examples illustrate an
aspect each of what we call
globalisation. In the first instance
Janardhan was participating in the
globalisation of services.
Ramdhari’s birthday purchases tell
us something about the movement
of commodities from one part of
the world to another. Sarika is
faced with a conflict of values
partly originating from a new
opportunity that earlier was not
available to the women in her
family but today is part of a reality
that has gained wider
acceptability.
If we look for examples of the
use of the term ‘globalisation’ in
real life, we will realise that it is
used in various contexts. Let us
look at some examples, different
from the ones that we have looked
above:
Some farmers committed
suicide because their crops
failed. They had bought very
expensive seeds supplied by a
multinational company
(MNC).
An Indian company bought a
major rival company based in
Europe, despite protests by
some of the current owners.
So many Nepalese
workers come to
India to work. Is that
globalisation?
Go through
newspapers
for a week
and collect
clippings on
anything
related to
globalisation.
Page 3


OVERVIEW
In this final chapter of the book we
look at globalisation, something
that has been referred to in many
chapters of this book and textbooks
of many other subjects. We begin
by analysing the concept of
globalisation and then examine its
causes. We then discuss at length
the political, economic and cultural
consequences of globalisation. Our
interest is also in studying the
impact of globalisation on India as
well as how India is affecting
globalisation. We finally draw
attention to resistance to
globalisation and how social
movements in India also form part
of this resistance.
Chapter 9
Globalisation
Contemporary World Politics
136
THE CONCEPT OF
GLOBALISATION
Janardhan works in a call centre.
He leaves late in the evening for
work, becomes John when he
enters his office, acquires a new
accent and speaks a different
language (than he does when he is
at home) to communicate with his
clients who are living thousands
of miles away. He works all night,
which is actually day time for his
overseas customers. Janardhan is
rendering a service to somebody
who in all probability he is never
likely to meet physically. This is his
daily routine. His holidays also do
not correspond to the Indian
calendar but to those of his clients
who happen to be from the US.
Ramdhari has gone shopping
to buy a birthday gift for his
nine-year old daughter. He has
promised her a small cycle and
decides to search the market for
something he finds affordable as
well as of reasonable quality. He
finally does buy a cycle, which
is actually manufactured in
China but is being marketed in
India. It meets his requirements
of quality as well as affordability,
and Ramdhari decides to go
ahead with his purchase. Last
year, Ramdhari on his daughter’s
insistence had bought her a
Barbie doll, which was originally
manufactured in the US but was
being sold in India.
Sarika is a first generation
learner who has done remarkably
well throughout her school and
college life by working very hard.
She now has an opportunity to
take on a job and begin an
independent career, which the
women of her family had never
dreamt of earlier. While some of
her relatives are opposed, she
finally decides to go ahead
because of the new opportunities
that have been made available to
her generation.
All three examples illustrate an
aspect each of what we call
globalisation. In the first instance
Janardhan was participating in the
globalisation of services.
Ramdhari’s birthday purchases tell
us something about the movement
of commodities from one part of
the world to another. Sarika is
faced with a conflict of values
partly originating from a new
opportunity that earlier was not
available to the women in her
family but today is part of a reality
that has gained wider
acceptability.
If we look for examples of the
use of the term ‘globalisation’ in
real life, we will realise that it is
used in various contexts. Let us
look at some examples, different
from the ones that we have looked
above:
Some farmers committed
suicide because their crops
failed. They had bought very
expensive seeds supplied by a
multinational company
(MNC).
An Indian company bought a
major rival company based in
Europe, despite protests by
some of the current owners.
So many Nepalese
workers come to
India to work. Is that
globalisation?
Go through
newspapers
for a week
and collect
clippings on
anything
related to
globalisation.
Globalisation
137
Many retail shopkeepers fear
that they would lose their
livelihoods if some major
international companies open
retail chains in the country.
A film producer in Mumbai
was accused of lifting the story
of his film from another film
made in Hollywood.
A militant group issued a
statement threatening college
girls who wear western
clothes.
These examples show us that
globalisation need not always be
positive; it can have negative
consequences for the people.
Indeed, there are many who
believe that globalisation has
more negative consequences than
positive. These examples also
show us that globalisation need
not be only about the economic
issues, nor is the direction of
influence always from the rich to
the poor countries.
Since much of the usage tends
to be imprecise, it becomes
important to clarify what we mean
by globalisation. Globalisation as
a concept fundamentally deals
with flows. These flows could be of
various kinds — ideas moving from
one part of the world to another,
capital shunted between two or
more places, commodities being
traded across borders, and people
moving in search of better
livelihoods to different parts of the
world. The crucial element is the
‘worldwide interconnectedness’
that is created and sustained as a
consequence of these constant
flows.
Much of the Chinese
stuff that comes to
India is smuggled.
Does globalisation
lead to smuggling?
This chapter has
a series of images
about political,
economic and
cultural aspects of
globalisation, taken
from different parts
of the world.
Page 4


OVERVIEW
In this final chapter of the book we
look at globalisation, something
that has been referred to in many
chapters of this book and textbooks
of many other subjects. We begin
by analysing the concept of
globalisation and then examine its
causes. We then discuss at length
the political, economic and cultural
consequences of globalisation. Our
interest is also in studying the
impact of globalisation on India as
well as how India is affecting
globalisation. We finally draw
attention to resistance to
globalisation and how social
movements in India also form part
of this resistance.
Chapter 9
Globalisation
Contemporary World Politics
136
THE CONCEPT OF
GLOBALISATION
Janardhan works in a call centre.
He leaves late in the evening for
work, becomes John when he
enters his office, acquires a new
accent and speaks a different
language (than he does when he is
at home) to communicate with his
clients who are living thousands
of miles away. He works all night,
which is actually day time for his
overseas customers. Janardhan is
rendering a service to somebody
who in all probability he is never
likely to meet physically. This is his
daily routine. His holidays also do
not correspond to the Indian
calendar but to those of his clients
who happen to be from the US.
Ramdhari has gone shopping
to buy a birthday gift for his
nine-year old daughter. He has
promised her a small cycle and
decides to search the market for
something he finds affordable as
well as of reasonable quality. He
finally does buy a cycle, which
is actually manufactured in
China but is being marketed in
India. It meets his requirements
of quality as well as affordability,
and Ramdhari decides to go
ahead with his purchase. Last
year, Ramdhari on his daughter’s
insistence had bought her a
Barbie doll, which was originally
manufactured in the US but was
being sold in India.
Sarika is a first generation
learner who has done remarkably
well throughout her school and
college life by working very hard.
She now has an opportunity to
take on a job and begin an
independent career, which the
women of her family had never
dreamt of earlier. While some of
her relatives are opposed, she
finally decides to go ahead
because of the new opportunities
that have been made available to
her generation.
All three examples illustrate an
aspect each of what we call
globalisation. In the first instance
Janardhan was participating in the
globalisation of services.
Ramdhari’s birthday purchases tell
us something about the movement
of commodities from one part of
the world to another. Sarika is
faced with a conflict of values
partly originating from a new
opportunity that earlier was not
available to the women in her
family but today is part of a reality
that has gained wider
acceptability.
If we look for examples of the
use of the term ‘globalisation’ in
real life, we will realise that it is
used in various contexts. Let us
look at some examples, different
from the ones that we have looked
above:
Some farmers committed
suicide because their crops
failed. They had bought very
expensive seeds supplied by a
multinational company
(MNC).
An Indian company bought a
major rival company based in
Europe, despite protests by
some of the current owners.
So many Nepalese
workers come to
India to work. Is that
globalisation?
Go through
newspapers
for a week
and collect
clippings on
anything
related to
globalisation.
Globalisation
137
Many retail shopkeepers fear
that they would lose their
livelihoods if some major
international companies open
retail chains in the country.
A film producer in Mumbai
was accused of lifting the story
of his film from another film
made in Hollywood.
A militant group issued a
statement threatening college
girls who wear western
clothes.
These examples show us that
globalisation need not always be
positive; it can have negative
consequences for the people.
Indeed, there are many who
believe that globalisation has
more negative consequences than
positive. These examples also
show us that globalisation need
not be only about the economic
issues, nor is the direction of
influence always from the rich to
the poor countries.
Since much of the usage tends
to be imprecise, it becomes
important to clarify what we mean
by globalisation. Globalisation as
a concept fundamentally deals
with flows. These flows could be of
various kinds — ideas moving from
one part of the world to another,
capital shunted between two or
more places, commodities being
traded across borders, and people
moving in search of better
livelihoods to different parts of the
world. The crucial element is the
‘worldwide interconnectedness’
that is created and sustained as a
consequence of these constant
flows.
Much of the Chinese
stuff that comes to
India is smuggled.
Does globalisation
lead to smuggling?
This chapter has
a series of images
about political,
economic and
cultural aspects of
globalisation, taken
from different parts
of the world.
Contemporary World Politics
138
Globalisation is a multi-
dimensional concept. It has
political, economic and cultural
manifestations, and these must be
adequately distinguished. It is
wrong to assume that
globalisation has purely economic
dimensions, just as it would also
be mistaken to assume that it is a
purely cultural phenomenon. The
impact of globalisation is vastly
uneven — it affects some societies
more than others and some parts
of some societies more than others
— and it is important to avoid
drawing general conclusions
about the impact of globalisation
without paying sufficient attention
to specific contexts.
CAUSES OF GLOBALISATION
What accounts for globalisation?
If globalisation is about the flows
of ideas, capital, commodities, and
people, it is perhaps logical to ask
if there is anything novel
about this phenomenon.
Globalisation in terms of
these four flows along has
taken place through much
of human history. However,
those who argue that there
is something distinct about
contemporary globalisation
point out that it is the scale
and speed of these flows
that account for the
uniqueness of globalisation
in the contemporary era.
Globalisation has a strong
historical basis, and it is
important to view contem-
porary flows against this
backdrop.
While globalisation is not
caused by any single factor,
technology remains a critical
element. There is no doubt that
the invention of the telegraph,
the telephone, and the microchip
in more recent times has
revolutionised communication
between actors in different parts
of the world. When printing
initially came into being it laid
the basis for the creation of
nationalism. So also today we
should expect that technology
will affect the way we think of
our personal but also our
collective lives.
The ability of ideas, capital,
commodities and people to move
more easily from one part of the
world to another has been made
possible largely by technological
advances. The pace of these flows
may vary. For instance, the
movement of capital and
commodities will most likely be
quicker and wider than the
movement of peoples across
different parts of the world.
Globalisation, however, does
not emerge merely because of
the availability of improved
communications. What is
important is for people in
different parts of the world to
recognise these interconnections
with the rest of the world.
Currently, we are aware of the
fact that events taking place in
one part of the world could have
an impact on another part of the
world. The Bird flu or tsunami
is not confined to any particular
nation. It does not respect
national boundaries. Similarly,
Isn’t globalisation a
new name for
imperialism? Why do
we need a new
name?
Digital Economy
© Ares, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Page 5


OVERVIEW
In this final chapter of the book we
look at globalisation, something
that has been referred to in many
chapters of this book and textbooks
of many other subjects. We begin
by analysing the concept of
globalisation and then examine its
causes. We then discuss at length
the political, economic and cultural
consequences of globalisation. Our
interest is also in studying the
impact of globalisation on India as
well as how India is affecting
globalisation. We finally draw
attention to resistance to
globalisation and how social
movements in India also form part
of this resistance.
Chapter 9
Globalisation
Contemporary World Politics
136
THE CONCEPT OF
GLOBALISATION
Janardhan works in a call centre.
He leaves late in the evening for
work, becomes John when he
enters his office, acquires a new
accent and speaks a different
language (than he does when he is
at home) to communicate with his
clients who are living thousands
of miles away. He works all night,
which is actually day time for his
overseas customers. Janardhan is
rendering a service to somebody
who in all probability he is never
likely to meet physically. This is his
daily routine. His holidays also do
not correspond to the Indian
calendar but to those of his clients
who happen to be from the US.
Ramdhari has gone shopping
to buy a birthday gift for his
nine-year old daughter. He has
promised her a small cycle and
decides to search the market for
something he finds affordable as
well as of reasonable quality. He
finally does buy a cycle, which
is actually manufactured in
China but is being marketed in
India. It meets his requirements
of quality as well as affordability,
and Ramdhari decides to go
ahead with his purchase. Last
year, Ramdhari on his daughter’s
insistence had bought her a
Barbie doll, which was originally
manufactured in the US but was
being sold in India.
Sarika is a first generation
learner who has done remarkably
well throughout her school and
college life by working very hard.
She now has an opportunity to
take on a job and begin an
independent career, which the
women of her family had never
dreamt of earlier. While some of
her relatives are opposed, she
finally decides to go ahead
because of the new opportunities
that have been made available to
her generation.
All three examples illustrate an
aspect each of what we call
globalisation. In the first instance
Janardhan was participating in the
globalisation of services.
Ramdhari’s birthday purchases tell
us something about the movement
of commodities from one part of
the world to another. Sarika is
faced with a conflict of values
partly originating from a new
opportunity that earlier was not
available to the women in her
family but today is part of a reality
that has gained wider
acceptability.
If we look for examples of the
use of the term ‘globalisation’ in
real life, we will realise that it is
used in various contexts. Let us
look at some examples, different
from the ones that we have looked
above:
Some farmers committed
suicide because their crops
failed. They had bought very
expensive seeds supplied by a
multinational company
(MNC).
An Indian company bought a
major rival company based in
Europe, despite protests by
some of the current owners.
So many Nepalese
workers come to
India to work. Is that
globalisation?
Go through
newspapers
for a week
and collect
clippings on
anything
related to
globalisation.
Globalisation
137
Many retail shopkeepers fear
that they would lose their
livelihoods if some major
international companies open
retail chains in the country.
A film producer in Mumbai
was accused of lifting the story
of his film from another film
made in Hollywood.
A militant group issued a
statement threatening college
girls who wear western
clothes.
These examples show us that
globalisation need not always be
positive; it can have negative
consequences for the people.
Indeed, there are many who
believe that globalisation has
more negative consequences than
positive. These examples also
show us that globalisation need
not be only about the economic
issues, nor is the direction of
influence always from the rich to
the poor countries.
Since much of the usage tends
to be imprecise, it becomes
important to clarify what we mean
by globalisation. Globalisation as
a concept fundamentally deals
with flows. These flows could be of
various kinds — ideas moving from
one part of the world to another,
capital shunted between two or
more places, commodities being
traded across borders, and people
moving in search of better
livelihoods to different parts of the
world. The crucial element is the
‘worldwide interconnectedness’
that is created and sustained as a
consequence of these constant
flows.
Much of the Chinese
stuff that comes to
India is smuggled.
Does globalisation
lead to smuggling?
This chapter has
a series of images
about political,
economic and
cultural aspects of
globalisation, taken
from different parts
of the world.
Contemporary World Politics
138
Globalisation is a multi-
dimensional concept. It has
political, economic and cultural
manifestations, and these must be
adequately distinguished. It is
wrong to assume that
globalisation has purely economic
dimensions, just as it would also
be mistaken to assume that it is a
purely cultural phenomenon. The
impact of globalisation is vastly
uneven — it affects some societies
more than others and some parts
of some societies more than others
— and it is important to avoid
drawing general conclusions
about the impact of globalisation
without paying sufficient attention
to specific contexts.
CAUSES OF GLOBALISATION
What accounts for globalisation?
If globalisation is about the flows
of ideas, capital, commodities, and
people, it is perhaps logical to ask
if there is anything novel
about this phenomenon.
Globalisation in terms of
these four flows along has
taken place through much
of human history. However,
those who argue that there
is something distinct about
contemporary globalisation
point out that it is the scale
and speed of these flows
that account for the
uniqueness of globalisation
in the contemporary era.
Globalisation has a strong
historical basis, and it is
important to view contem-
porary flows against this
backdrop.
While globalisation is not
caused by any single factor,
technology remains a critical
element. There is no doubt that
the invention of the telegraph,
the telephone, and the microchip
in more recent times has
revolutionised communication
between actors in different parts
of the world. When printing
initially came into being it laid
the basis for the creation of
nationalism. So also today we
should expect that technology
will affect the way we think of
our personal but also our
collective lives.
The ability of ideas, capital,
commodities and people to move
more easily from one part of the
world to another has been made
possible largely by technological
advances. The pace of these flows
may vary. For instance, the
movement of capital and
commodities will most likely be
quicker and wider than the
movement of peoples across
different parts of the world.
Globalisation, however, does
not emerge merely because of
the availability of improved
communications. What is
important is for people in
different parts of the world to
recognise these interconnections
with the rest of the world.
Currently, we are aware of the
fact that events taking place in
one part of the world could have
an impact on another part of the
world. The Bird flu or tsunami
is not confined to any particular
nation. It does not respect
national boundaries. Similarly,
Isn’t globalisation a
new name for
imperialism? Why do
we need a new
name?
Digital Economy
© Ares, Cagle Cartoons Inc.
Globalisation
139
when major economic events
take place, their impact is felt
outside their immediate local,
national or regional environment
at the global level.
POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES
One of the debates that has been
generated as a consequence of
contemporary processes of
globalisation relates to its ongoing
political impact. How does
globalisation affect traditional
conceptions of state sovereignty?
There are at least three aspects
that we need to consider when
answering this question.
At the most simple level,
globalisation results in an erosion
of state capacity, that is, the
ability of government to do what
they do. All over the world, the old
‘welfare state’ is now giving way
to a more minimalist state that
performs certain core functions
such as the maintenance of law
and order and the security of its
citizens. However, it withdraws
from many of its earlier welfare
functions directed at economic
and social well-being. In place of
the welfare state, it is the market
that becomes the prime
determinant of economic and
social priorities. The entry and the
increased role of multinational
companies all over the world leads
to a reduction in the capacity of
governments to take decisions on
their own.
At the same time, globalisation
does not always reduce state
capacity. The primacy of the state
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