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 Page 1


1 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1
I
n lower classes, we made lists of the
food items that we eat. We also
identified food items eaten in
different parts of India and marked
these on its map.
A meal could consist of chapati, dal
and brinjal curry. Another may be rice,
sambar and a vegetable preparation of
lady’s finger (bhindi). Yet another meal
could be appam, fish curry and
vegetables.
curd, butter milk and pickles. Some
examples of meals from different regions
are given in Table 1.1. Select food items
and enter these in Table 1.1.
Sometimes, we may not really have
all this variety in our meals. If we are
travelling, we may eat whatever is
available on the way. It may not be
possible for some of us, to eat such a
variety of items, most of the time.
There must be some reason though,
why meals usually consist of such a
distribution. Do you think that our body
needs different kinds of food for some
special purpose?
1.1 WHAT DO DIFFERENT FOOD
ITEMS CONTAIN?
We know that each dish is usually made
up of one or more ingredients, which
we get from plants or animals. These
ingredients contain some components
that are needed by our body. These
Components of Food
Table 1.1 Some common meals of different regions/states
/ n o i g e R
e t a t S
n i a r g f o m e t I
f o m e t I
d l a t a e m /
s e l b a t e g e V r e h t O s
b a j n u P i k k a M ) n r o c ( i t o r
a m j a R
) s n a e b y e n d i K (
g a a s n o s r a S
) y r r u c f a e l d r a t s u M (
, d r u C e e h g
a r h d n A
h s e d a r P
e c i R
l a d r a u T d n a
m a s a r ( u r a h c )
u r u d n u K ( i a k a d n o d )
, k l i m r e t t u B e e h g ,
( e l k c i p i a k a v a a )
Activity 1
Our meals usually have at least one item
made of some kind of grain. Other items
could be a dal or a dish of meat and
vegetables. It may also include items like
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 2


1 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1
I
n lower classes, we made lists of the
food items that we eat. We also
identified food items eaten in
different parts of India and marked
these on its map.
A meal could consist of chapati, dal
and brinjal curry. Another may be rice,
sambar and a vegetable preparation of
lady’s finger (bhindi). Yet another meal
could be appam, fish curry and
vegetables.
curd, butter milk and pickles. Some
examples of meals from different regions
are given in Table 1.1. Select food items
and enter these in Table 1.1.
Sometimes, we may not really have
all this variety in our meals. If we are
travelling, we may eat whatever is
available on the way. It may not be
possible for some of us, to eat such a
variety of items, most of the time.
There must be some reason though,
why meals usually consist of such a
distribution. Do you think that our body
needs different kinds of food for some
special purpose?
1.1 WHAT DO DIFFERENT FOOD
ITEMS CONTAIN?
We know that each dish is usually made
up of one or more ingredients, which
we get from plants or animals. These
ingredients contain some components
that are needed by our body. These
Components of Food
Table 1.1 Some common meals of different regions/states
/ n o i g e R
e t a t S
n i a r g f o m e t I
f o m e t I
d l a t a e m /
s e l b a t e g e V r e h t O s
b a j n u P i k k a M ) n r o c ( i t o r
a m j a R
) s n a e b y e n d i K (
g a a s n o s r a S
) y r r u c f a e l d r a t s u M (
, d r u C e e h g
a r h d n A
h s e d a r P
e c i R
l a d r a u T d n a
m a s a r ( u r a h c )
u r u d n u K ( i a k a d n o d )
, k l i m r e t t u B e e h g ,
( e l k c i p i a k a v a a )
Activity 1
Our meals usually have at least one item
made of some kind of grain. Other items
could be a dal or a dish of meat and
vegetables. It may also include items like
Rationalised 2023-24
2 SCIENCE
Fig. 1.1  Testing for starch
components are called nutrients. The
major nutrients in our food are named
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins
and minerals. In addition, food contains
dietary fibres and water which are also
needed by our body.
Do all foods contain all these
nutrients? With some simple methods
we can test whether cooked food or a
raw ingredient contains one or more of
these nutrients. The tests for presence
of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
are simpler to do as compared to the
tests for other nutrients. Let us do these
tests and record all our observations
in Table 1.2.
For carrying out these tests, you will
need solutions of iodine, copper
sulphate and caustic soda. You will also
need a few test tubes and a dropper.
Try these tests on cooked food items
as well as raw materials. Table 1.2 shows
you a way to record the observations
from these tests. Some food items are
given in this table. You can conduct the
tests either with these or any other
available food items. Do these tests
carefully and do not try to eat or taste
any chemicals.
If the required solutions are not
available in readymade form, your
teacher can prepare them as given in
the box.
Let us begin by testing different
food items to see if they contain
carbohydrates. There are many
types of carbohydrates. The main
carbohydrates found in our food are in
the form of starch and sugars. We can
easily test if a food item contains starch.
Activity 2
Test for Starch
Take a small quantity of a food item or
a raw ingredient. Put 2-3 drops of dilute
iodine solution on it (Fig. 1.1). Observe
if there is any change in the colour of
the food item. Did it turn blue-black?
A blue-black colour indicates that it
contains starch.
e b n a c e n i d o i f o n o i t u l o s e t u l i d A
f o s p o r d w e f a g n i d d a y b d e r a p e r p
d e l l i f f l a h e b u t t s e t a o t e n i d o i e r u t c n i t
. r e t a w h t i w
e b n a c n o i t u l o s e t a h p l u s r e p p o C
f o ) g ( m a r g 2 g n i v l o s s i d y b d e r a p e r p
) L m ( e r t i l i l l i m 0 0 1 n i e t a h p l u s r e p p o c
. r e t a w f o
n i d e v l o s s i d a d o s c i t s u a c f o g 0 1
d e r i u q e r e h t s e k a m r e t a w f o L m 0 0 1
. a d o s c i t s u a c f o n o i t u l o s
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 3


1 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1
I
n lower classes, we made lists of the
food items that we eat. We also
identified food items eaten in
different parts of India and marked
these on its map.
A meal could consist of chapati, dal
and brinjal curry. Another may be rice,
sambar and a vegetable preparation of
lady’s finger (bhindi). Yet another meal
could be appam, fish curry and
vegetables.
curd, butter milk and pickles. Some
examples of meals from different regions
are given in Table 1.1. Select food items
and enter these in Table 1.1.
Sometimes, we may not really have
all this variety in our meals. If we are
travelling, we may eat whatever is
available on the way. It may not be
possible for some of us, to eat such a
variety of items, most of the time.
There must be some reason though,
why meals usually consist of such a
distribution. Do you think that our body
needs different kinds of food for some
special purpose?
1.1 WHAT DO DIFFERENT FOOD
ITEMS CONTAIN?
We know that each dish is usually made
up of one or more ingredients, which
we get from plants or animals. These
ingredients contain some components
that are needed by our body. These
Components of Food
Table 1.1 Some common meals of different regions/states
/ n o i g e R
e t a t S
n i a r g f o m e t I
f o m e t I
d l a t a e m /
s e l b a t e g e V r e h t O s
b a j n u P i k k a M ) n r o c ( i t o r
a m j a R
) s n a e b y e n d i K (
g a a s n o s r a S
) y r r u c f a e l d r a t s u M (
, d r u C e e h g
a r h d n A
h s e d a r P
e c i R
l a d r a u T d n a
m a s a r ( u r a h c )
u r u d n u K ( i a k a d n o d )
, k l i m r e t t u B e e h g ,
( e l k c i p i a k a v a a )
Activity 1
Our meals usually have at least one item
made of some kind of grain. Other items
could be a dal or a dish of meat and
vegetables. It may also include items like
Rationalised 2023-24
2 SCIENCE
Fig. 1.1  Testing for starch
components are called nutrients. The
major nutrients in our food are named
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins
and minerals. In addition, food contains
dietary fibres and water which are also
needed by our body.
Do all foods contain all these
nutrients? With some simple methods
we can test whether cooked food or a
raw ingredient contains one or more of
these nutrients. The tests for presence
of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
are simpler to do as compared to the
tests for other nutrients. Let us do these
tests and record all our observations
in Table 1.2.
For carrying out these tests, you will
need solutions of iodine, copper
sulphate and caustic soda. You will also
need a few test tubes and a dropper.
Try these tests on cooked food items
as well as raw materials. Table 1.2 shows
you a way to record the observations
from these tests. Some food items are
given in this table. You can conduct the
tests either with these or any other
available food items. Do these tests
carefully and do not try to eat or taste
any chemicals.
If the required solutions are not
available in readymade form, your
teacher can prepare them as given in
the box.
Let us begin by testing different
food items to see if they contain
carbohydrates. There are many
types of carbohydrates. The main
carbohydrates found in our food are in
the form of starch and sugars. We can
easily test if a food item contains starch.
Activity 2
Test for Starch
Take a small quantity of a food item or
a raw ingredient. Put 2-3 drops of dilute
iodine solution on it (Fig. 1.1). Observe
if there is any change in the colour of
the food item. Did it turn blue-black?
A blue-black colour indicates that it
contains starch.
e b n a c e n i d o i f o n o i t u l o s e t u l i d A
f o s p o r d w e f a g n i d d a y b d e r a p e r p
d e l l i f f l a h e b u t t s e t a o t e n i d o i e r u t c n i t
. r e t a w h t i w
e b n a c n o i t u l o s e t a h p l u s r e p p o C
f o ) g ( m a r g 2 g n i v l o s s i d y b d e r a p e r p
) L m ( e r t i l i l l i m 0 0 1 n i e t a h p l u s r e p p o c
. r e t a w f o
n i d e v l o s s i d a d o s c i t s u a c f o g 0 1
d e r i u q e r e h t s e k a m r e t a w f o L m 0 0 1
. a d o s c i t s u a c f o n o i t u l o s
Rationalised 2023-24
3 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
Repeat this test with other food items
to find out which of these contain starch.
Enter all your observations in Table 1.2.
Test for Protein
Take a small quantity of a food item for
testing. If the food you want to test is a
solid, you first need to make a paste of
Fig. 1.2 Testing for protein
Table  1.2 Nutrients present in some
food items
m e t i d o o F
h c r a t S
) t n e s e r p (
n i e t o r P
) t n e s e r p (
t a F
) t n e s e r p (
o t a t o p w a R s e Y
k l i M s e Y
t u n d n u o r G s e Y
d e k o o c n U
d e r e d w o p
e c i r
e c i r d e k o o C
t u n o c o c y r D
d e k o o c n U
r a u t l a d
) d e r e d w o p (
d e k o o C l a d
y n a f o e c i l s A
e l b a t e g e v
y n a f o e c i l s A
t i u r f
g g e d e l i o B
e t i h w (
) n o i t r o p
it or powder it. Grind or mash a
small quantity of the food item.
Put some of this in a clean test
tube, add 10 drops of water to it
and shake the test tube.
Now, using a dropper, add
two drops of solution of copper
sulphate and ten drops of
solution of caustic soda to the
test tube (Fig. 1.2). Shake well
and let the test tube stand for a few
minutes. What do you see? Did the
contents of the test tube turn violet? A
violet colour indicates presence of
proteins in the food item.
Now, you can repeat this test on other
food items.
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 4


1 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1
I
n lower classes, we made lists of the
food items that we eat. We also
identified food items eaten in
different parts of India and marked
these on its map.
A meal could consist of chapati, dal
and brinjal curry. Another may be rice,
sambar and a vegetable preparation of
lady’s finger (bhindi). Yet another meal
could be appam, fish curry and
vegetables.
curd, butter milk and pickles. Some
examples of meals from different regions
are given in Table 1.1. Select food items
and enter these in Table 1.1.
Sometimes, we may not really have
all this variety in our meals. If we are
travelling, we may eat whatever is
available on the way. It may not be
possible for some of us, to eat such a
variety of items, most of the time.
There must be some reason though,
why meals usually consist of such a
distribution. Do you think that our body
needs different kinds of food for some
special purpose?
1.1 WHAT DO DIFFERENT FOOD
ITEMS CONTAIN?
We know that each dish is usually made
up of one or more ingredients, which
we get from plants or animals. These
ingredients contain some components
that are needed by our body. These
Components of Food
Table 1.1 Some common meals of different regions/states
/ n o i g e R
e t a t S
n i a r g f o m e t I
f o m e t I
d l a t a e m /
s e l b a t e g e V r e h t O s
b a j n u P i k k a M ) n r o c ( i t o r
a m j a R
) s n a e b y e n d i K (
g a a s n o s r a S
) y r r u c f a e l d r a t s u M (
, d r u C e e h g
a r h d n A
h s e d a r P
e c i R
l a d r a u T d n a
m a s a r ( u r a h c )
u r u d n u K ( i a k a d n o d )
, k l i m r e t t u B e e h g ,
( e l k c i p i a k a v a a )
Activity 1
Our meals usually have at least one item
made of some kind of grain. Other items
could be a dal or a dish of meat and
vegetables. It may also include items like
Rationalised 2023-24
2 SCIENCE
Fig. 1.1  Testing for starch
components are called nutrients. The
major nutrients in our food are named
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins
and minerals. In addition, food contains
dietary fibres and water which are also
needed by our body.
Do all foods contain all these
nutrients? With some simple methods
we can test whether cooked food or a
raw ingredient contains one or more of
these nutrients. The tests for presence
of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
are simpler to do as compared to the
tests for other nutrients. Let us do these
tests and record all our observations
in Table 1.2.
For carrying out these tests, you will
need solutions of iodine, copper
sulphate and caustic soda. You will also
need a few test tubes and a dropper.
Try these tests on cooked food items
as well as raw materials. Table 1.2 shows
you a way to record the observations
from these tests. Some food items are
given in this table. You can conduct the
tests either with these or any other
available food items. Do these tests
carefully and do not try to eat or taste
any chemicals.
If the required solutions are not
available in readymade form, your
teacher can prepare them as given in
the box.
Let us begin by testing different
food items to see if they contain
carbohydrates. There are many
types of carbohydrates. The main
carbohydrates found in our food are in
the form of starch and sugars. We can
easily test if a food item contains starch.
Activity 2
Test for Starch
Take a small quantity of a food item or
a raw ingredient. Put 2-3 drops of dilute
iodine solution on it (Fig. 1.1). Observe
if there is any change in the colour of
the food item. Did it turn blue-black?
A blue-black colour indicates that it
contains starch.
e b n a c e n i d o i f o n o i t u l o s e t u l i d A
f o s p o r d w e f a g n i d d a y b d e r a p e r p
d e l l i f f l a h e b u t t s e t a o t e n i d o i e r u t c n i t
. r e t a w h t i w
e b n a c n o i t u l o s e t a h p l u s r e p p o C
f o ) g ( m a r g 2 g n i v l o s s i d y b d e r a p e r p
) L m ( e r t i l i l l i m 0 0 1 n i e t a h p l u s r e p p o c
. r e t a w f o
n i d e v l o s s i d a d o s c i t s u a c f o g 0 1
d e r i u q e r e h t s e k a m r e t a w f o L m 0 0 1
. a d o s c i t s u a c f o n o i t u l o s
Rationalised 2023-24
3 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
Repeat this test with other food items
to find out which of these contain starch.
Enter all your observations in Table 1.2.
Test for Protein
Take a small quantity of a food item for
testing. If the food you want to test is a
solid, you first need to make a paste of
Fig. 1.2 Testing for protein
Table  1.2 Nutrients present in some
food items
m e t i d o o F
h c r a t S
) t n e s e r p (
n i e t o r P
) t n e s e r p (
t a F
) t n e s e r p (
o t a t o p w a R s e Y
k l i M s e Y
t u n d n u o r G s e Y
d e k o o c n U
d e r e d w o p
e c i r
e c i r d e k o o C
t u n o c o c y r D
d e k o o c n U
r a u t l a d
) d e r e d w o p (
d e k o o C l a d
y n a f o e c i l s A
e l b a t e g e v
y n a f o e c i l s A
t i u r f
g g e d e l i o B
e t i h w (
) n o i t r o p
it or powder it. Grind or mash a
small quantity of the food item.
Put some of this in a clean test
tube, add 10 drops of water to it
and shake the test tube.
Now, using a dropper, add
two drops of solution of copper
sulphate and ten drops of
solution of caustic soda to the
test tube (Fig. 1.2). Shake well
and let the test tube stand for a few
minutes. What do you see? Did the
contents of the test tube turn violet? A
violet colour indicates presence of
proteins in the food item.
Now, you can repeat this test on other
food items.
Rationalised 2023-24
4 SCIENCE
and carbohydrates are also called
‘energy giving foods’ (Fig. 1.3 and
Fig. 1.4).
Proteins are needed for the growth
and repair of our body. Foods proteins
Test for Fats
Take a small quantity of a food item.
Wrap it in a piece of paper and crush it.
Take care that the paper does not tear.
Now, straighten the paper and observe
it carefully. Does it have an oily patch?
Hold the paper against light. Are you
able to see the light faintly, through
this patch?
An oily patch on paper shows that
the food item contains fat. The food
items may sometimes contain a little
water. Therefore, after you have rubbed
an item on paper, let the paper dry for a
while. If there were any water that may
have come from food, it would dry up
after some time. If no oily patch shows
up after this, the food item does not
contain any fat.
What do these tests show? Are fats,
proteins and starch present in all the
food items that you tested? Does a food
item contain more than one nutrient?
Do you find any food item that does not
contain any of these nutrients?
We tested food items for three
nutrients — carbohydrates, proteins
and fats. There are also other nutrients
like vitamins and minerals that are
present in different food items. Why do
we need all these nutrients?
1.2 WHAT DO VARIOUS NUTRIENTS DO
FOR OUR BODY?
Carbohydrates mainly provide energy
to our body. Fats also give us energy.
In fact, fats give much more energy
as compared to the same amount of
carbohydrates. Foods containing fats
Fig. 1.3 Some sources of carbohydrates
Fig. 1.4 Some sources of fats: (a) plant sources
and (b) animal sources
(a)
(b)
Sugarcane Sweet potato
Wheat
Rice
Bajra
Melon
Mango
Potato
Maize
Papaya
Groundnuts
Nuts
Til
Meat
Fish
Eggs
Rationalised 2023-24
Page 5


1 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
1
I
n lower classes, we made lists of the
food items that we eat. We also
identified food items eaten in
different parts of India and marked
these on its map.
A meal could consist of chapati, dal
and brinjal curry. Another may be rice,
sambar and a vegetable preparation of
lady’s finger (bhindi). Yet another meal
could be appam, fish curry and
vegetables.
curd, butter milk and pickles. Some
examples of meals from different regions
are given in Table 1.1. Select food items
and enter these in Table 1.1.
Sometimes, we may not really have
all this variety in our meals. If we are
travelling, we may eat whatever is
available on the way. It may not be
possible for some of us, to eat such a
variety of items, most of the time.
There must be some reason though,
why meals usually consist of such a
distribution. Do you think that our body
needs different kinds of food for some
special purpose?
1.1 WHAT DO DIFFERENT FOOD
ITEMS CONTAIN?
We know that each dish is usually made
up of one or more ingredients, which
we get from plants or animals. These
ingredients contain some components
that are needed by our body. These
Components of Food
Table 1.1 Some common meals of different regions/states
/ n o i g e R
e t a t S
n i a r g f o m e t I
f o m e t I
d l a t a e m /
s e l b a t e g e V r e h t O s
b a j n u P i k k a M ) n r o c ( i t o r
a m j a R
) s n a e b y e n d i K (
g a a s n o s r a S
) y r r u c f a e l d r a t s u M (
, d r u C e e h g
a r h d n A
h s e d a r P
e c i R
l a d r a u T d n a
m a s a r ( u r a h c )
u r u d n u K ( i a k a d n o d )
, k l i m r e t t u B e e h g ,
( e l k c i p i a k a v a a )
Activity 1
Our meals usually have at least one item
made of some kind of grain. Other items
could be a dal or a dish of meat and
vegetables. It may also include items like
Rationalised 2023-24
2 SCIENCE
Fig. 1.1  Testing for starch
components are called nutrients. The
major nutrients in our food are named
carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins
and minerals. In addition, food contains
dietary fibres and water which are also
needed by our body.
Do all foods contain all these
nutrients? With some simple methods
we can test whether cooked food or a
raw ingredient contains one or more of
these nutrients. The tests for presence
of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
are simpler to do as compared to the
tests for other nutrients. Let us do these
tests and record all our observations
in Table 1.2.
For carrying out these tests, you will
need solutions of iodine, copper
sulphate and caustic soda. You will also
need a few test tubes and a dropper.
Try these tests on cooked food items
as well as raw materials. Table 1.2 shows
you a way to record the observations
from these tests. Some food items are
given in this table. You can conduct the
tests either with these or any other
available food items. Do these tests
carefully and do not try to eat or taste
any chemicals.
If the required solutions are not
available in readymade form, your
teacher can prepare them as given in
the box.
Let us begin by testing different
food items to see if they contain
carbohydrates. There are many
types of carbohydrates. The main
carbohydrates found in our food are in
the form of starch and sugars. We can
easily test if a food item contains starch.
Activity 2
Test for Starch
Take a small quantity of a food item or
a raw ingredient. Put 2-3 drops of dilute
iodine solution on it (Fig. 1.1). Observe
if there is any change in the colour of
the food item. Did it turn blue-black?
A blue-black colour indicates that it
contains starch.
e b n a c e n i d o i f o n o i t u l o s e t u l i d A
f o s p o r d w e f a g n i d d a y b d e r a p e r p
d e l l i f f l a h e b u t t s e t a o t e n i d o i e r u t c n i t
. r e t a w h t i w
e b n a c n o i t u l o s e t a h p l u s r e p p o C
f o ) g ( m a r g 2 g n i v l o s s i d y b d e r a p e r p
) L m ( e r t i l i l l i m 0 0 1 n i e t a h p l u s r e p p o c
. r e t a w f o
n i d e v l o s s i d a d o s c i t s u a c f o g 0 1
d e r i u q e r e h t s e k a m r e t a w f o L m 0 0 1
. a d o s c i t s u a c f o n o i t u l o s
Rationalised 2023-24
3 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
Repeat this test with other food items
to find out which of these contain starch.
Enter all your observations in Table 1.2.
Test for Protein
Take a small quantity of a food item for
testing. If the food you want to test is a
solid, you first need to make a paste of
Fig. 1.2 Testing for protein
Table  1.2 Nutrients present in some
food items
m e t i d o o F
h c r a t S
) t n e s e r p (
n i e t o r P
) t n e s e r p (
t a F
) t n e s e r p (
o t a t o p w a R s e Y
k l i M s e Y
t u n d n u o r G s e Y
d e k o o c n U
d e r e d w o p
e c i r
e c i r d e k o o C
t u n o c o c y r D
d e k o o c n U
r a u t l a d
) d e r e d w o p (
d e k o o C l a d
y n a f o e c i l s A
e l b a t e g e v
y n a f o e c i l s A
t i u r f
g g e d e l i o B
e t i h w (
) n o i t r o p
it or powder it. Grind or mash a
small quantity of the food item.
Put some of this in a clean test
tube, add 10 drops of water to it
and shake the test tube.
Now, using a dropper, add
two drops of solution of copper
sulphate and ten drops of
solution of caustic soda to the
test tube (Fig. 1.2). Shake well
and let the test tube stand for a few
minutes. What do you see? Did the
contents of the test tube turn violet? A
violet colour indicates presence of
proteins in the food item.
Now, you can repeat this test on other
food items.
Rationalised 2023-24
4 SCIENCE
and carbohydrates are also called
‘energy giving foods’ (Fig. 1.3 and
Fig. 1.4).
Proteins are needed for the growth
and repair of our body. Foods proteins
Test for Fats
Take a small quantity of a food item.
Wrap it in a piece of paper and crush it.
Take care that the paper does not tear.
Now, straighten the paper and observe
it carefully. Does it have an oily patch?
Hold the paper against light. Are you
able to see the light faintly, through
this patch?
An oily patch on paper shows that
the food item contains fat. The food
items may sometimes contain a little
water. Therefore, after you have rubbed
an item on paper, let the paper dry for a
while. If there were any water that may
have come from food, it would dry up
after some time. If no oily patch shows
up after this, the food item does not
contain any fat.
What do these tests show? Are fats,
proteins and starch present in all the
food items that you tested? Does a food
item contain more than one nutrient?
Do you find any food item that does not
contain any of these nutrients?
We tested food items for three
nutrients — carbohydrates, proteins
and fats. There are also other nutrients
like vitamins and minerals that are
present in different food items. Why do
we need all these nutrients?
1.2 WHAT DO VARIOUS NUTRIENTS DO
FOR OUR BODY?
Carbohydrates mainly provide energy
to our body. Fats also give us energy.
In fact, fats give much more energy
as compared to the same amount of
carbohydrates. Foods containing fats
Fig. 1.3 Some sources of carbohydrates
Fig. 1.4 Some sources of fats: (a) plant sources
and (b) animal sources
(a)
(b)
Sugarcane Sweet potato
Wheat
Rice
Bajra
Melon
Mango
Potato
Maize
Papaya
Groundnuts
Nuts
Til
Meat
Fish
Eggs
Rationalised 2023-24
5 COMPONENTS OF FOOD
are often called ‘body building foods’
(Fig 1.5).
Vitamins help in protecting our body
against diseases. Vitamins also help in
keeping our eyes, bones, teeth and gums
healthy.
Vitamins are of different kinds
known by different names. Some of these
are Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D,
Vitamin E and K. There is also a group
of vitamins called Vitamin B-complex.
Our body needs all types of vitamins in
small quantities. Vitamin A keeps our
skin and eyes healthy. Vitamin C helps
body to fight against many diseases.
Vitamin D helps our body to use
calcium for bones and teeth. Foods that
are rich in different vitamins are shown
in Fig. 1.6 to Fig. 1.9.
Minerals are needed by our body in
small amounts. Each one is essential
Fig. 1.5 Some sources of proteins: (a) plant
sources and (b) animal sources
Meat
Eggs
Fish
Peas
Gram Moong Tuar dal
Beans
Soyabeans
(a)
(b)
Paneer
Fig. 1.6 Some sources of Vitamin A
Liver
Guava
Lemon
Amla
Fig. 1.7 Some sources of Vitamin B
Fig. 1.8 Some sources of Vitamin C
Fig. 1.9 Some sources of Vitamin D
Tomato
Orange
Papaya
Carrot
Mango
Wheat
Rice
Green
Chilli
Fish
Egg
Liver
Rationalised 2023-24
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FAQs on NCERT Textbook: Components of Food - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

1. What are the six components of food?
Ans. The six components of food are: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water.
2. What is the role of carbohydrates in our body?
Ans. Carbohydrates provide energy to our body. They are the primary source of energy for our brain and muscles. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose which is used by the body to produce energy.
3. Why are proteins essential for our body?
Ans. Proteins are essential for the growth and repair of the body. They are also important for the formation of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are the building blocks of the body.
4. What are the functions of fats in our body?
Ans. Fats are important for the absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K. They also provide energy to the body and help to insulate and protect the body's organs. Fats are also important for the formation of hormones and cell membranes.
5. Why is water important for our body?
Ans. Water is essential for the proper functioning of the body. It helps to regulate body temperature, transport nutrients and oxygen to cells, and remove waste products from the body. Water is also important for the lubrication of joints and the protection of organs.
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