NCERT Textbook - फिराक गोरखपुरी Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Created by: Anant Ahuja

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - फिराक गोरखपुरी Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vkjksg
56
fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh
ewy uke % j?kqifr lgk; ^fI
+
kQjkd*
tUe % 28 vxLr] lu~ 1896] xksj[kiqj (mÙkj izns'k)
f'k{kk % jkeo`Q".k  dh dgkfu;ksa ls 'kqjQvkr] ckn dh f'k{kk
vjch] I
+
kQkjlh vkSj vaxzs”kh esaA 1917 esa fMIVh dysDVj osQ in
ij p;fur] ij Lojkt vkanksyu osQ fy, 1918 esa in&R;kxA
1920 esa Lok/hurk vkanksyu esa fgLlsnkjh osQ dkj.k Ms<+ o"kZ dh
tsyA bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; osQ vaxzs”kh foHkkx esa vè;kid
jgsA
lEeku % xqys&uXek osQ fy, lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
KkuihB iqjLdkj vkSj lksfo;r ySaM usg: vokMZ
egÙoiw.kZ o`Qfr;k¡ % xqys&uXek] c”es f”kanxh% jaxs&'kk;jh] mnZw x”kyxksbZ
fuèku % lu~ 1983
vc rqels jQ[klr gksrk gw¡ vkvks l¡Hkkyks lk”ks&x”ky @
u, rjkus NsM+ks @ esjs uXeksa dks uhan vkrh gS
mnwZ 'kk;jh dk cM+k fgLlk jQekfu;r] jgL; vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk ls c¡/k jgk gS ftlesa
yksdthou vkSj izo`Qfr osQ i{k cgqr de mHkj ik, gSaA u”khj vdcjkcknh] bYrkI
+
kQ gqlSu
gkyh tSls ftu oqQN 'kk;jksa us bl fjok;r dks rksM+k gS] muesa ,d izeq[k uke fI
+
kQjkd
xksj[kiqjh dk Hkh gSA
fI
+
kQjkd us ijaijkxr Hkkocks/ vkSj 'kCn&HkaMkj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, mls u;h Hkk"kk
vkSj u, fo"k;ksa ls tksM+kA muosQ ;gk¡ lkekftd nq[k&nnZ O;fDrxr vuqHkwfr cudj 'kk;jh
esa <yk gSA balku osQ gkFkksa balku ij tks xq”kjrh gS mldh rY[k lPpkbZ vkSj vkus okys dy
osQ izfr ,d mEehn] nksuksa dks Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ izrhdksa ls tksM+dj fI
+
kQjkd
us viuh 'kk;jh dk vuwBk egy [kM+k fd;kA mnwZ 'kk;jh vius yk{kf.kd iz;ksxksa vkSj
pqLr eqgkojsnkjh osQ fy, fo[;kr gSA 'ksj fy[ks ugha tkrs] dgs tkrs gSaA ;kuh ,d rjg
9
+++++
Page 2


vkjksg
56
fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh
ewy uke % j?kqifr lgk; ^fI
+
kQjkd*
tUe % 28 vxLr] lu~ 1896] xksj[kiqj (mÙkj izns'k)
f'k{kk % jkeo`Q".k  dh dgkfu;ksa ls 'kqjQvkr] ckn dh f'k{kk
vjch] I
+
kQkjlh vkSj vaxzs”kh esaA 1917 esa fMIVh dysDVj osQ in
ij p;fur] ij Lojkt vkanksyu osQ fy, 1918 esa in&R;kxA
1920 esa Lok/hurk vkanksyu esa fgLlsnkjh osQ dkj.k Ms<+ o"kZ dh
tsyA bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; osQ vaxzs”kh foHkkx esa vè;kid
jgsA
lEeku % xqys&uXek osQ fy, lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
KkuihB iqjLdkj vkSj lksfo;r ySaM usg: vokMZ
egÙoiw.kZ o`Qfr;k¡ % xqys&uXek] c”es f”kanxh% jaxs&'kk;jh] mnZw x”kyxksbZ
fuèku % lu~ 1983
vc rqels jQ[klr gksrk gw¡ vkvks l¡Hkkyks lk”ks&x”ky @
u, rjkus NsM+ks @ esjs uXeksa dks uhan vkrh gS
mnwZ 'kk;jh dk cM+k fgLlk jQekfu;r] jgL; vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk ls c¡/k jgk gS ftlesa
yksdthou vkSj izo`Qfr osQ i{k cgqr de mHkj ik, gSaA u”khj vdcjkcknh] bYrkI
+
kQ gqlSu
gkyh tSls ftu oqQN 'kk;jksa us bl fjok;r dks rksM+k gS] muesa ,d izeq[k uke fI
+
kQjkd
xksj[kiqjh dk Hkh gSA
fI
+
kQjkd us ijaijkxr Hkkocks/ vkSj 'kCn&HkaMkj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, mls u;h Hkk"kk
vkSj u, fo"k;ksa ls tksM+kA muosQ ;gk¡ lkekftd nq[k&nnZ O;fDrxr vuqHkwfr cudj 'kk;jh
esa <yk gSA balku osQ gkFkksa balku ij tks xq”kjrh gS mldh rY[k lPpkbZ vkSj vkus okys dy
osQ izfr ,d mEehn] nksuksa dks Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ izrhdksa ls tksM+dj fI
+
kQjkd
us viuh 'kk;jh dk vuwBk egy [kM+k fd;kA mnwZ 'kk;jh vius yk{kf.kd iz;ksxksa vkSj
pqLr eqgkojsnkjh osQ fy, fo[;kr gSA 'ksj fy[ks ugha tkrs] dgs tkrs gSaA ;kuh ,d rjg
9
+++++
#ckb;k¡
57
dk laokn izeq[k gksrk gSA ehj vkSj xkfyc dh rjg fI
+
kQjkd us Hkh dgus dh bl 'kSyh dks
lk/dj vke&vkneh ;k lk/kj.k&tu ls viuh ckr dgh gSA izo`Qfr] ekSle vkSj HkkSfrd
txr osQ lkSan;Z dks 'kk;jh dk fo"k; cukrs gq, dgk] ¶fnO;rk HkkSfrdrk ls i`FkoQ oLrq ugha
gSA ftls ge HkkSfrd dgrs gSa ogh fnO; Hkh gSA¸
fI
+
kQjkd dh #ckbZ esa fganh dk ,d ?kjsyw :i fn[krk gSA Hkk"kk lgt vkSj izlax Hkh
lwjnkl osQ okRlY; o.kZu dh lknxh dh ;kn fnykrk gSA eq>s pk¡n pkfg,] eS;k jh] eSa
panz f[kykSuk ySgksa tSls ¯cc vkt Hkh mu cPpksa osQ fy, ,d euyqHkkou f[kykSuk gS tks
okrkuqowQfyr dejksa esa can ugha jgrs] Nr ij pVkbZ fcNkdj lksrs gSa rFkk pankekek osQ
ufn;k fdukjs mrjus vkSj dfYir nwèk&Hkkr [kkus dh dYiuk ls fugky gSaA ekek Hkh rks
,d lk{kkr f[kykSuk gS cPpksa dkµ[kkldj mu cPpksa dk ftuosQ thou esa eg¡xs f[kykSus
Hkys u gksa ij tks panzkHk fj'rksa dk eeZ le>rs gSa! ,d dfBu nkSj gS ;gµ
?kj ykSV cgqr jks, ek¡&cki vosQys esa]
fe^h osQ f[kykSus Hkh lLrs u Fks esys esa
yksdk nsuk] ?kqVfu;ksa esa ysdj diM+s fiUgkuk] xslqvksa esa oaQ?kh djuk] :iorh
eq[kM+k] ueZ ned] ftn;k;k ckyd] jl dh iqryhµ;s oqQN foy{k.k iz;ksx gSa] fganh]
mnZw vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ vuwBs xBcaèku osQ ftls xkaèkh th fganqLrkuh osQ :i esa iYyfor djuk
pkgrs FksA ek¡ gkFk esa vkbZuk nsdj cPps dks cgyk jgh gSµ¶ns[k] vkbZus esa pk¡n mrj vk;k
gSA¸ pk¡n dh ijNkb± Hkh pk¡n gh gSA dYiuk dh vk¡[k dk Hkyk D;k eqdkcykA ¶:iorh
eq[kM+s iS ueZ ned¸ ykus osQ fy, NBs&Nekls] ioZ&R;ksgkj ij gh lgh] oqQN uUgha I
+
kQjekb'ksa
Hkh iwjh dj nh tkrh gSaµnhokyh esa phuh&fe^h osQ f[kykSus] jk[kh esa ^fctyh dh rjg
ped jgs yPNs*A
j{kkcaèku ,d ehBk caèku gSA j{kkcaèku osQ dPps èkkxksa ij fctyh osQ yPNs gSaA lkou
esa j{kkcaèku vkrk gSA lkou dk tks lacaèk >huh ?kVk ls gS] ?kVk dk tks lacaèk fctyh ls]
ogh lacaèk HkkbZ dk cgu lsA
ikB esa fI
+
kQjkd dh ,d x”ky Hkh 'kkfey gSA jQckb;ksa dh rjg gh fI
+
kQjkd dh
x”kyksa esa Hkh ¯gnh lekt vkSj mnwZ 'kk;jh dh ijaijk Hkjiwj gSA bldk vn~Hkqr uewuk gS ;g
x”kyA ;g x”ky oqQN bl rjg cksyrh gS fd ftlesa nnZ Hkh gS] ,d 'kk;j dh Bld Hkh
gS vkSj lkFk gh gS dkO;&f'kYi dh og mQ¡pkbZ] tks x”ky dh fo'ks"krk ekuh tkrh gSA
fQ+ jkd xksj[kiqjh
Page 3


vkjksg
56
fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh
ewy uke % j?kqifr lgk; ^fI
+
kQjkd*
tUe % 28 vxLr] lu~ 1896] xksj[kiqj (mÙkj izns'k)
f'k{kk % jkeo`Q".k  dh dgkfu;ksa ls 'kqjQvkr] ckn dh f'k{kk
vjch] I
+
kQkjlh vkSj vaxzs”kh esaA 1917 esa fMIVh dysDVj osQ in
ij p;fur] ij Lojkt vkanksyu osQ fy, 1918 esa in&R;kxA
1920 esa Lok/hurk vkanksyu esa fgLlsnkjh osQ dkj.k Ms<+ o"kZ dh
tsyA bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; osQ vaxzs”kh foHkkx esa vè;kid
jgsA
lEeku % xqys&uXek osQ fy, lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
KkuihB iqjLdkj vkSj lksfo;r ySaM usg: vokMZ
egÙoiw.kZ o`Qfr;k¡ % xqys&uXek] c”es f”kanxh% jaxs&'kk;jh] mnZw x”kyxksbZ
fuèku % lu~ 1983
vc rqels jQ[klr gksrk gw¡ vkvks l¡Hkkyks lk”ks&x”ky @
u, rjkus NsM+ks @ esjs uXeksa dks uhan vkrh gS
mnwZ 'kk;jh dk cM+k fgLlk jQekfu;r] jgL; vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk ls c¡/k jgk gS ftlesa
yksdthou vkSj izo`Qfr osQ i{k cgqr de mHkj ik, gSaA u”khj vdcjkcknh] bYrkI
+
kQ gqlSu
gkyh tSls ftu oqQN 'kk;jksa us bl fjok;r dks rksM+k gS] muesa ,d izeq[k uke fI
+
kQjkd
xksj[kiqjh dk Hkh gSA
fI
+
kQjkd us ijaijkxr Hkkocks/ vkSj 'kCn&HkaMkj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, mls u;h Hkk"kk
vkSj u, fo"k;ksa ls tksM+kA muosQ ;gk¡ lkekftd nq[k&nnZ O;fDrxr vuqHkwfr cudj 'kk;jh
esa <yk gSA balku osQ gkFkksa balku ij tks xq”kjrh gS mldh rY[k lPpkbZ vkSj vkus okys dy
osQ izfr ,d mEehn] nksuksa dks Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ izrhdksa ls tksM+dj fI
+
kQjkd
us viuh 'kk;jh dk vuwBk egy [kM+k fd;kA mnwZ 'kk;jh vius yk{kf.kd iz;ksxksa vkSj
pqLr eqgkojsnkjh osQ fy, fo[;kr gSA 'ksj fy[ks ugha tkrs] dgs tkrs gSaA ;kuh ,d rjg
9
+++++
#ckb;k¡
57
dk laokn izeq[k gksrk gSA ehj vkSj xkfyc dh rjg fI
+
kQjkd us Hkh dgus dh bl 'kSyh dks
lk/dj vke&vkneh ;k lk/kj.k&tu ls viuh ckr dgh gSA izo`Qfr] ekSle vkSj HkkSfrd
txr osQ lkSan;Z dks 'kk;jh dk fo"k; cukrs gq, dgk] ¶fnO;rk HkkSfrdrk ls i`FkoQ oLrq ugha
gSA ftls ge HkkSfrd dgrs gSa ogh fnO; Hkh gSA¸
fI
+
kQjkd dh #ckbZ esa fganh dk ,d ?kjsyw :i fn[krk gSA Hkk"kk lgt vkSj izlax Hkh
lwjnkl osQ okRlY; o.kZu dh lknxh dh ;kn fnykrk gSA eq>s pk¡n pkfg,] eS;k jh] eSa
panz f[kykSuk ySgksa tSls ¯cc vkt Hkh mu cPpksa osQ fy, ,d euyqHkkou f[kykSuk gS tks
okrkuqowQfyr dejksa esa can ugha jgrs] Nr ij pVkbZ fcNkdj lksrs gSa rFkk pankekek osQ
ufn;k fdukjs mrjus vkSj dfYir nwèk&Hkkr [kkus dh dYiuk ls fugky gSaA ekek Hkh rks
,d lk{kkr f[kykSuk gS cPpksa dkµ[kkldj mu cPpksa dk ftuosQ thou esa eg¡xs f[kykSus
Hkys u gksa ij tks panzkHk fj'rksa dk eeZ le>rs gSa! ,d dfBu nkSj gS ;gµ
?kj ykSV cgqr jks, ek¡&cki vosQys esa]
fe^h osQ f[kykSus Hkh lLrs u Fks esys esa
yksdk nsuk] ?kqVfu;ksa esa ysdj diM+s fiUgkuk] xslqvksa esa oaQ?kh djuk] :iorh
eq[kM+k] ueZ ned] ftn;k;k ckyd] jl dh iqryhµ;s oqQN foy{k.k iz;ksx gSa] fganh]
mnZw vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ vuwBs xBcaèku osQ ftls xkaèkh th fganqLrkuh osQ :i esa iYyfor djuk
pkgrs FksA ek¡ gkFk esa vkbZuk nsdj cPps dks cgyk jgh gSµ¶ns[k] vkbZus esa pk¡n mrj vk;k
gSA¸ pk¡n dh ijNkb± Hkh pk¡n gh gSA dYiuk dh vk¡[k dk Hkyk D;k eqdkcykA ¶:iorh
eq[kM+s iS ueZ ned¸ ykus osQ fy, NBs&Nekls] ioZ&R;ksgkj ij gh lgh] oqQN uUgha I
+
kQjekb'ksa
Hkh iwjh dj nh tkrh gSaµnhokyh esa phuh&fe^h osQ f[kykSus] jk[kh esa ^fctyh dh rjg
ped jgs yPNs*A
j{kkcaèku ,d ehBk caèku gSA j{kkcaèku osQ dPps èkkxksa ij fctyh osQ yPNs gSaA lkou
esa j{kkcaèku vkrk gSA lkou dk tks lacaèk >huh ?kVk ls gS] ?kVk dk tks lacaèk fctyh ls]
ogh lacaèk HkkbZ dk cgu lsA
ikB esa fI
+
kQjkd dh ,d x”ky Hkh 'kkfey gSA jQckb;ksa dh rjg gh fI
+
kQjkd dh
x”kyksa esa Hkh ¯gnh lekt vkSj mnwZ 'kk;jh dh ijaijk Hkjiwj gSA bldk vn~Hkqr uewuk gS ;g
x”kyA ;g x”ky oqQN bl rjg cksyrh gS fd ftlesa nnZ Hkh gS] ,d 'kk;j dh Bld Hkh
gS vkSj lkFk gh gS dkO;&f'kYi dh og mQ¡pkbZ] tks x”ky dh fo'ks"krk ekuh tkrh gSA
fQ+ jkd xksj[kiqjh vkjksg
58
#ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡
vk¡xu  esa  fy,  pk¡n  osQ  VqdM+s  dks  [kM+h
gkFkksa  is  >qykrh  gS  mls  xksn&Hkjh
jg&jg  osQ  gok  esa  tks  yksdk nsrh gS
xw¡t  mBrh  gS  f[kyf[kykrs  cPps  dh  g¡lh
ugyk   osQ   NyosQ&NyosQ   fueZy   ty   ls
my>s   gq,   xslqvksa   esa   oaQ?kh   djosQ
fdl I;kj ls ns[krk gS cPpk eq¡g dks
tc  ?kqVfu;ksa  esa  ys  osQ  gS  fiUgkrh  diMs+
nhokyh  dh  'kke  ?kj  iqrs  vkSj  lts
phuh   osQ   f[kykSus  txexkrs  ykos
oks  :iorh  eq[kM+s  iS  bd  ueZ  ned
cPps  osQ  ?kjkSans  esa  tykrh  gS  fn,
vk¡xu  esa Bqud  jgk  gS  f”kn;k;k  gS
ckyd   rks   gbZ  pk¡n  iS yypk;k  gS
niZ.k  mls  ns  osQ  dg jgh  gS ek¡
ns[k  vkbZus  esa  pk¡n  mrj  vk;k  gS
j{kkcaèku  dh  lqcg  jl  dh  iqryh
Nk;h gS  ?kVk  xxu  dh  gydh&gydh
fctyh dh rjg ped jgs gSa yPNs
HkkbZ   osQ   gS  ck¡èkrh   pedrh   jk[kh
l jQckbZ mnwZ vkSj I
+
kQkjlh dk ,d Nan ;k ys[ku 'kSyh gS] ftlesa pkj iafDr;k¡ gksrh gSaA bldh igyh] nwljh
vkSj pkSFkh iafDr esa rqd (dkfI
+
kQ;k) feyk;k  tkrk gS rFkk rhljh iafDr LoPNan gksrh gSA
Page 4


vkjksg
56
fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh
ewy uke % j?kqifr lgk; ^fI
+
kQjkd*
tUe % 28 vxLr] lu~ 1896] xksj[kiqj (mÙkj izns'k)
f'k{kk % jkeo`Q".k  dh dgkfu;ksa ls 'kqjQvkr] ckn dh f'k{kk
vjch] I
+
kQkjlh vkSj vaxzs”kh esaA 1917 esa fMIVh dysDVj osQ in
ij p;fur] ij Lojkt vkanksyu osQ fy, 1918 esa in&R;kxA
1920 esa Lok/hurk vkanksyu esa fgLlsnkjh osQ dkj.k Ms<+ o"kZ dh
tsyA bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; osQ vaxzs”kh foHkkx esa vè;kid
jgsA
lEeku % xqys&uXek osQ fy, lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
KkuihB iqjLdkj vkSj lksfo;r ySaM usg: vokMZ
egÙoiw.kZ o`Qfr;k¡ % xqys&uXek] c”es f”kanxh% jaxs&'kk;jh] mnZw x”kyxksbZ
fuèku % lu~ 1983
vc rqels jQ[klr gksrk gw¡ vkvks l¡Hkkyks lk”ks&x”ky @
u, rjkus NsM+ks @ esjs uXeksa dks uhan vkrh gS
mnwZ 'kk;jh dk cM+k fgLlk jQekfu;r] jgL; vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk ls c¡/k jgk gS ftlesa
yksdthou vkSj izo`Qfr osQ i{k cgqr de mHkj ik, gSaA u”khj vdcjkcknh] bYrkI
+
kQ gqlSu
gkyh tSls ftu oqQN 'kk;jksa us bl fjok;r dks rksM+k gS] muesa ,d izeq[k uke fI
+
kQjkd
xksj[kiqjh dk Hkh gSA
fI
+
kQjkd us ijaijkxr Hkkocks/ vkSj 'kCn&HkaMkj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, mls u;h Hkk"kk
vkSj u, fo"k;ksa ls tksM+kA muosQ ;gk¡ lkekftd nq[k&nnZ O;fDrxr vuqHkwfr cudj 'kk;jh
esa <yk gSA balku osQ gkFkksa balku ij tks xq”kjrh gS mldh rY[k lPpkbZ vkSj vkus okys dy
osQ izfr ,d mEehn] nksuksa dks Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ izrhdksa ls tksM+dj fI
+
kQjkd
us viuh 'kk;jh dk vuwBk egy [kM+k fd;kA mnwZ 'kk;jh vius yk{kf.kd iz;ksxksa vkSj
pqLr eqgkojsnkjh osQ fy, fo[;kr gSA 'ksj fy[ks ugha tkrs] dgs tkrs gSaA ;kuh ,d rjg
9
+++++
#ckb;k¡
57
dk laokn izeq[k gksrk gSA ehj vkSj xkfyc dh rjg fI
+
kQjkd us Hkh dgus dh bl 'kSyh dks
lk/dj vke&vkneh ;k lk/kj.k&tu ls viuh ckr dgh gSA izo`Qfr] ekSle vkSj HkkSfrd
txr osQ lkSan;Z dks 'kk;jh dk fo"k; cukrs gq, dgk] ¶fnO;rk HkkSfrdrk ls i`FkoQ oLrq ugha
gSA ftls ge HkkSfrd dgrs gSa ogh fnO; Hkh gSA¸
fI
+
kQjkd dh #ckbZ esa fganh dk ,d ?kjsyw :i fn[krk gSA Hkk"kk lgt vkSj izlax Hkh
lwjnkl osQ okRlY; o.kZu dh lknxh dh ;kn fnykrk gSA eq>s pk¡n pkfg,] eS;k jh] eSa
panz f[kykSuk ySgksa tSls ¯cc vkt Hkh mu cPpksa osQ fy, ,d euyqHkkou f[kykSuk gS tks
okrkuqowQfyr dejksa esa can ugha jgrs] Nr ij pVkbZ fcNkdj lksrs gSa rFkk pankekek osQ
ufn;k fdukjs mrjus vkSj dfYir nwèk&Hkkr [kkus dh dYiuk ls fugky gSaA ekek Hkh rks
,d lk{kkr f[kykSuk gS cPpksa dkµ[kkldj mu cPpksa dk ftuosQ thou esa eg¡xs f[kykSus
Hkys u gksa ij tks panzkHk fj'rksa dk eeZ le>rs gSa! ,d dfBu nkSj gS ;gµ
?kj ykSV cgqr jks, ek¡&cki vosQys esa]
fe^h osQ f[kykSus Hkh lLrs u Fks esys esa
yksdk nsuk] ?kqVfu;ksa esa ysdj diM+s fiUgkuk] xslqvksa esa oaQ?kh djuk] :iorh
eq[kM+k] ueZ ned] ftn;k;k ckyd] jl dh iqryhµ;s oqQN foy{k.k iz;ksx gSa] fganh]
mnZw vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ vuwBs xBcaèku osQ ftls xkaèkh th fganqLrkuh osQ :i esa iYyfor djuk
pkgrs FksA ek¡ gkFk esa vkbZuk nsdj cPps dks cgyk jgh gSµ¶ns[k] vkbZus esa pk¡n mrj vk;k
gSA¸ pk¡n dh ijNkb± Hkh pk¡n gh gSA dYiuk dh vk¡[k dk Hkyk D;k eqdkcykA ¶:iorh
eq[kM+s iS ueZ ned¸ ykus osQ fy, NBs&Nekls] ioZ&R;ksgkj ij gh lgh] oqQN uUgha I
+
kQjekb'ksa
Hkh iwjh dj nh tkrh gSaµnhokyh esa phuh&fe^h osQ f[kykSus] jk[kh esa ^fctyh dh rjg
ped jgs yPNs*A
j{kkcaèku ,d ehBk caèku gSA j{kkcaèku osQ dPps èkkxksa ij fctyh osQ yPNs gSaA lkou
esa j{kkcaèku vkrk gSA lkou dk tks lacaèk >huh ?kVk ls gS] ?kVk dk tks lacaèk fctyh ls]
ogh lacaèk HkkbZ dk cgu lsA
ikB esa fI
+
kQjkd dh ,d x”ky Hkh 'kkfey gSA jQckb;ksa dh rjg gh fI
+
kQjkd dh
x”kyksa esa Hkh ¯gnh lekt vkSj mnwZ 'kk;jh dh ijaijk Hkjiwj gSA bldk vn~Hkqr uewuk gS ;g
x”kyA ;g x”ky oqQN bl rjg cksyrh gS fd ftlesa nnZ Hkh gS] ,d 'kk;j dh Bld Hkh
gS vkSj lkFk gh gS dkO;&f'kYi dh og mQ¡pkbZ] tks x”ky dh fo'ks"krk ekuh tkrh gSA
fQ+ jkd xksj[kiqjh vkjksg
58
#ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡
vk¡xu  esa  fy,  pk¡n  osQ  VqdM+s  dks  [kM+h
gkFkksa  is  >qykrh  gS  mls  xksn&Hkjh
jg&jg  osQ  gok  esa  tks  yksdk nsrh gS
xw¡t  mBrh  gS  f[kyf[kykrs  cPps  dh  g¡lh
ugyk   osQ   NyosQ&NyosQ   fueZy   ty   ls
my>s   gq,   xslqvksa   esa   oaQ?kh   djosQ
fdl I;kj ls ns[krk gS cPpk eq¡g dks
tc  ?kqVfu;ksa  esa  ys  osQ  gS  fiUgkrh  diMs+
nhokyh  dh  'kke  ?kj  iqrs  vkSj  lts
phuh   osQ   f[kykSus  txexkrs  ykos
oks  :iorh  eq[kM+s  iS  bd  ueZ  ned
cPps  osQ  ?kjkSans  esa  tykrh  gS  fn,
vk¡xu  esa Bqud  jgk  gS  f”kn;k;k  gS
ckyd   rks   gbZ  pk¡n  iS yypk;k  gS
niZ.k  mls  ns  osQ  dg jgh  gS ek¡
ns[k  vkbZus  esa  pk¡n  mrj  vk;k  gS
j{kkcaèku  dh  lqcg  jl  dh  iqryh
Nk;h gS  ?kVk  xxu  dh  gydh&gydh
fctyh dh rjg ped jgs gSa yPNs
HkkbZ   osQ   gS  ck¡èkrh   pedrh   jk[kh
l jQckbZ mnwZ vkSj I
+
kQkjlh dk ,d Nan ;k ys[ku 'kSyh gS] ftlesa pkj iafDr;k¡ gksrh gSaA bldh igyh] nwljh
vkSj pkSFkh iafDr esa rqd (dkfI
+
kQ;k) feyk;k  tkrk gS rFkk rhljh iafDr LoPNan gksrh gSA
#ckb;k¡
59
x”ky
ukSjl  xqaps  ia[kfM+;ksa  dh  uk”kqd  fxjgsa  [kksys   gSa
;k  mM+  tkus  dks  jaxks&cw  xqy'ku  esa  ij  rksys  gSaA
rkjs   vk¡[ksa   >idkosa   gSa   ”kjkZ&”kjkZ   lks;s  gSa
rqe  Hkh lquks gks ;kjks! 'kc esa lÂkVs  oqQN cksys gSa
ge gksa ;k fdLer gks gekjh nksuksa dks bd gh dke feyk
fdLer gedks jks ysos gS ge fdLer dks jks ys gSaA
tks eq>dks cnuke djs gSa dk'k os bruk lksp losaQ
esjk  ijnk  [kksys  gSa  ;k  viuk  ijnk  [kksys  gSa
;s dher Hkh vnk djs gSa ge cnqjQLrh&,&gks'kks&gokl
rsjk  lkSnk  djus  okys  nhokuk  Hkh  gks  ys  gSa
rsjs xe dk ikls&vnc gS oqQN nqfu;k dk [k;ky Hkh gS
lcls fNik  osQ nnZ osQ ekjs pqiosQ&pqiosQ jks ys  gSa
fI
+
kQrjr dk dk;e gS rok”kqu vkyes&gqLuks&b'd esa Hkh
mldks mruk gh ikrs gSa [kqn dks ftruk [kks ys gSa
vkcks&rkc v'vkj u iwNks rqe Hkh vk¡[ksa jD[kks gks
;s txex cSrksa dh ned gS ;k ge eksrh jksys gSa
,sls  esa  rw  ;kn  vk,  gS  vaTkqeus&e;  esa  ¯jnksa  dks
jkr x,  xnw±  iS  I
+
kQfj'rs  ckcs&xqug  tx  [kksys gSa
lnosQ fI
+
kQjkd ,”kk”ks&lq[ku osQ oSQls mM+k yh ;s vkok”k
bu x”kyksa osQ ijnksa esa rks ^ehj* dh x”kysa cksys gSa
#ckb;k¡@xt+y
Page 5


vkjksg
56
fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh fQjkd xksj[kiqjh
ewy uke % j?kqifr lgk; ^fI
+
kQjkd*
tUe % 28 vxLr] lu~ 1896] xksj[kiqj (mÙkj izns'k)
f'k{kk % jkeo`Q".k  dh dgkfu;ksa ls 'kqjQvkr] ckn dh f'k{kk
vjch] I
+
kQkjlh vkSj vaxzs”kh esaA 1917 esa fMIVh dysDVj osQ in
ij p;fur] ij Lojkt vkanksyu osQ fy, 1918 esa in&R;kxA
1920 esa Lok/hurk vkanksyu esa fgLlsnkjh osQ dkj.k Ms<+ o"kZ dh
tsyA bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; osQ vaxzs”kh foHkkx esa vè;kid
jgsA
lEeku % xqys&uXek osQ fy, lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj]
KkuihB iqjLdkj vkSj lksfo;r ySaM usg: vokMZ
egÙoiw.kZ o`Qfr;k¡ % xqys&uXek] c”es f”kanxh% jaxs&'kk;jh] mnZw x”kyxksbZ
fuèku % lu~ 1983
vc rqels jQ[klr gksrk gw¡ vkvks l¡Hkkyks lk”ks&x”ky @
u, rjkus NsM+ks @ esjs uXeksa dks uhan vkrh gS
mnwZ 'kk;jh dk cM+k fgLlk jQekfu;r] jgL; vkSj 'kkL=kh;rk ls c¡/k jgk gS ftlesa
yksdthou vkSj izo`Qfr osQ i{k cgqr de mHkj ik, gSaA u”khj vdcjkcknh] bYrkI
+
kQ gqlSu
gkyh tSls ftu oqQN 'kk;jksa us bl fjok;r dks rksM+k gS] muesa ,d izeq[k uke fI
+
kQjkd
xksj[kiqjh dk Hkh gSA
fI
+
kQjkd us ijaijkxr Hkkocks/ vkSj 'kCn&HkaMkj dk mi;ksx djrs gq, mls u;h Hkk"kk
vkSj u, fo"k;ksa ls tksM+kA muosQ ;gk¡ lkekftd nq[k&nnZ O;fDrxr vuqHkwfr cudj 'kk;jh
esa <yk gSA balku osQ gkFkksa balku ij tks xq”kjrh gS mldh rY[k lPpkbZ vkSj vkus okys dy
osQ izfr ,d mEehn] nksuksa dks Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ izrhdksa ls tksM+dj fI
+
kQjkd
us viuh 'kk;jh dk vuwBk egy [kM+k fd;kA mnwZ 'kk;jh vius yk{kf.kd iz;ksxksa vkSj
pqLr eqgkojsnkjh osQ fy, fo[;kr gSA 'ksj fy[ks ugha tkrs] dgs tkrs gSaA ;kuh ,d rjg
9
+++++
#ckb;k¡
57
dk laokn izeq[k gksrk gSA ehj vkSj xkfyc dh rjg fI
+
kQjkd us Hkh dgus dh bl 'kSyh dks
lk/dj vke&vkneh ;k lk/kj.k&tu ls viuh ckr dgh gSA izo`Qfr] ekSle vkSj HkkSfrd
txr osQ lkSan;Z dks 'kk;jh dk fo"k; cukrs gq, dgk] ¶fnO;rk HkkSfrdrk ls i`FkoQ oLrq ugha
gSA ftls ge HkkSfrd dgrs gSa ogh fnO; Hkh gSA¸
fI
+
kQjkd dh #ckbZ esa fganh dk ,d ?kjsyw :i fn[krk gSA Hkk"kk lgt vkSj izlax Hkh
lwjnkl osQ okRlY; o.kZu dh lknxh dh ;kn fnykrk gSA eq>s pk¡n pkfg,] eS;k jh] eSa
panz f[kykSuk ySgksa tSls ¯cc vkt Hkh mu cPpksa osQ fy, ,d euyqHkkou f[kykSuk gS tks
okrkuqowQfyr dejksa esa can ugha jgrs] Nr ij pVkbZ fcNkdj lksrs gSa rFkk pankekek osQ
ufn;k fdukjs mrjus vkSj dfYir nwèk&Hkkr [kkus dh dYiuk ls fugky gSaA ekek Hkh rks
,d lk{kkr f[kykSuk gS cPpksa dkµ[kkldj mu cPpksa dk ftuosQ thou esa eg¡xs f[kykSus
Hkys u gksa ij tks panzkHk fj'rksa dk eeZ le>rs gSa! ,d dfBu nkSj gS ;gµ
?kj ykSV cgqr jks, ek¡&cki vosQys esa]
fe^h osQ f[kykSus Hkh lLrs u Fks esys esa
yksdk nsuk] ?kqVfu;ksa esa ysdj diM+s fiUgkuk] xslqvksa esa oaQ?kh djuk] :iorh
eq[kM+k] ueZ ned] ftn;k;k ckyd] jl dh iqryhµ;s oqQN foy{k.k iz;ksx gSa] fganh]
mnZw vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ vuwBs xBcaèku osQ ftls xkaèkh th fganqLrkuh osQ :i esa iYyfor djuk
pkgrs FksA ek¡ gkFk esa vkbZuk nsdj cPps dks cgyk jgh gSµ¶ns[k] vkbZus esa pk¡n mrj vk;k
gSA¸ pk¡n dh ijNkb± Hkh pk¡n gh gSA dYiuk dh vk¡[k dk Hkyk D;k eqdkcykA ¶:iorh
eq[kM+s iS ueZ ned¸ ykus osQ fy, NBs&Nekls] ioZ&R;ksgkj ij gh lgh] oqQN uUgha I
+
kQjekb'ksa
Hkh iwjh dj nh tkrh gSaµnhokyh esa phuh&fe^h osQ f[kykSus] jk[kh esa ^fctyh dh rjg
ped jgs yPNs*A
j{kkcaèku ,d ehBk caèku gSA j{kkcaèku osQ dPps èkkxksa ij fctyh osQ yPNs gSaA lkou
esa j{kkcaèku vkrk gSA lkou dk tks lacaèk >huh ?kVk ls gS] ?kVk dk tks lacaèk fctyh ls]
ogh lacaèk HkkbZ dk cgu lsA
ikB esa fI
+
kQjkd dh ,d x”ky Hkh 'kkfey gSA jQckb;ksa dh rjg gh fI
+
kQjkd dh
x”kyksa esa Hkh ¯gnh lekt vkSj mnwZ 'kk;jh dh ijaijk Hkjiwj gSA bldk vn~Hkqr uewuk gS ;g
x”kyA ;g x”ky oqQN bl rjg cksyrh gS fd ftlesa nnZ Hkh gS] ,d 'kk;j dh Bld Hkh
gS vkSj lkFk gh gS dkO;&f'kYi dh og mQ¡pkbZ] tks x”ky dh fo'ks"krk ekuh tkrh gSA
fQ+ jkd xksj[kiqjh vkjksg
58
#ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡ #ckb;k¡
vk¡xu  esa  fy,  pk¡n  osQ  VqdM+s  dks  [kM+h
gkFkksa  is  >qykrh  gS  mls  xksn&Hkjh
jg&jg  osQ  gok  esa  tks  yksdk nsrh gS
xw¡t  mBrh  gS  f[kyf[kykrs  cPps  dh  g¡lh
ugyk   osQ   NyosQ&NyosQ   fueZy   ty   ls
my>s   gq,   xslqvksa   esa   oaQ?kh   djosQ
fdl I;kj ls ns[krk gS cPpk eq¡g dks
tc  ?kqVfu;ksa  esa  ys  osQ  gS  fiUgkrh  diMs+
nhokyh  dh  'kke  ?kj  iqrs  vkSj  lts
phuh   osQ   f[kykSus  txexkrs  ykos
oks  :iorh  eq[kM+s  iS  bd  ueZ  ned
cPps  osQ  ?kjkSans  esa  tykrh  gS  fn,
vk¡xu  esa Bqud  jgk  gS  f”kn;k;k  gS
ckyd   rks   gbZ  pk¡n  iS yypk;k  gS
niZ.k  mls  ns  osQ  dg jgh  gS ek¡
ns[k  vkbZus  esa  pk¡n  mrj  vk;k  gS
j{kkcaèku  dh  lqcg  jl  dh  iqryh
Nk;h gS  ?kVk  xxu  dh  gydh&gydh
fctyh dh rjg ped jgs gSa yPNs
HkkbZ   osQ   gS  ck¡èkrh   pedrh   jk[kh
l jQckbZ mnwZ vkSj I
+
kQkjlh dk ,d Nan ;k ys[ku 'kSyh gS] ftlesa pkj iafDr;k¡ gksrh gSaA bldh igyh] nwljh
vkSj pkSFkh iafDr esa rqd (dkfI
+
kQ;k) feyk;k  tkrk gS rFkk rhljh iafDr LoPNan gksrh gSA
#ckb;k¡
59
x”ky
ukSjl  xqaps  ia[kfM+;ksa  dh  uk”kqd  fxjgsa  [kksys   gSa
;k  mM+  tkus  dks  jaxks&cw  xqy'ku  esa  ij  rksys  gSaA
rkjs   vk¡[ksa   >idkosa   gSa   ”kjkZ&”kjkZ   lks;s  gSa
rqe  Hkh lquks gks ;kjks! 'kc esa lÂkVs  oqQN cksys gSa
ge gksa ;k fdLer gks gekjh nksuksa dks bd gh dke feyk
fdLer gedks jks ysos gS ge fdLer dks jks ys gSaA
tks eq>dks cnuke djs gSa dk'k os bruk lksp losaQ
esjk  ijnk  [kksys  gSa  ;k  viuk  ijnk  [kksys  gSa
;s dher Hkh vnk djs gSa ge cnqjQLrh&,&gks'kks&gokl
rsjk  lkSnk  djus  okys  nhokuk  Hkh  gks  ys  gSa
rsjs xe dk ikls&vnc gS oqQN nqfu;k dk [k;ky Hkh gS
lcls fNik  osQ nnZ osQ ekjs pqiosQ&pqiosQ jks ys  gSa
fI
+
kQrjr dk dk;e gS rok”kqu vkyes&gqLuks&b'd esa Hkh
mldks mruk gh ikrs gSa [kqn dks ftruk [kks ys gSa
vkcks&rkc v'vkj u iwNks rqe Hkh vk¡[ksa jD[kks gks
;s txex cSrksa dh ned gS ;k ge eksrh jksys gSa
,sls  esa  rw  ;kn  vk,  gS  vaTkqeus&e;  esa  ¯jnksa  dks
jkr x,  xnw±  iS  I
+
kQfj'rs  ckcs&xqug  tx  [kksys gSa
lnosQ fI
+
kQjkd ,”kk”ks&lq[ku osQ oSQls mM+k yh ;s vkok”k
bu x”kyksa osQ ijnksa esa rks ^ehj* dh x”kysa cksys gSa
#ckb;k¡@xt+y vkjksg
60
vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl
ikB osQ lkFk
1- 'kk;j jk[kh osQ yPNs dks fctyh dh ped dh rjg dgdj D;k Hkko O;aftr djuk pkgrk gS\
2- [kqn dk ijnk [kksyus ls D;k vk'k; gS\
3- fdLer gedks jks ysos gS ge fdLer dks jks ys gSaµ bl iafDr esa 'kk;j dh fdLer osQ lkFk
ruk&ruh dk fj'rk vfHkO;Dr gqvk gSA ppkZ dhft,A
       fVIi.kh djsa
(d) xksnh osQ pk¡n vkSj xxu osQ pk¡n dk fj'rkA
([k) lkou dh ?kVk,¡ o j{kkcaèku dk ioZA
dfork osQ vklikl
1- bu jQckb;ksa ls fganh] mnwZ vkSj yksdHkk"kk osQ feys&tqys iz;ksxksa dks Nk¡fV,A
2- fI+kQjkd us lquks gks] jD[kks gks vkfn 'kCn ehj dh 'kk;jh osQ r”kZ ij bLrseky fd, gSaA ,slh
gh ehj dh oqQN x”kysa <w¡<+ dj fyf[k,A
vkilnkjh
dfork esa ,d Hkko] ,d fopkj gksrs gq, Hkh mldk vank”ks c;k¡ ;k Hkk"kk osQ lkFk mldk crkZo
vyx&vyx :i esa vfHkO;fDr ikrk gSA bl ckr dks è;ku j[krs gq, uhps nh xbZ dforkvksa
dks if<+, vkSj nh xbZ fI
+
kQjkd dh x”ky@jQckbZ esa ls lekukFkhZ iafDr;k¡ <w¡f<+,A
(d) eS;k eSa rks panz f[kykSuk ySgksaA
µlwjnkl
([k) fo;ksxh gksxk igyk dfo
vkg ls mitk gksxk xku
meM+ dj vk¡[kksa ls pqipki
cgh gksxh dfork vutku
µlqfe=kkuanu iar
(x) lhl mrkjs Hkqb± èkjs rc fefygSa djrkj
   µdchj
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