NCERT Textbook - गजानन माधव ‘मुक्तिबोध’ Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - गजानन माधव ‘मुक्तिबोध’ Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk
tUe % 13 uoacj lu~ 1917] ';ksiqj] Xokfy;j (eè;
izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pk¡n dk eq¡g Vs<+k gS] Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd èkwy
(dfork laxzg)_ dkB dk liuk] foik=k] lrg ls mBrk
vkneh (dFkk lkfgR;)_ dkek;uh&,d iqufoZpkj] u;h
dfork dk vkRela?k"kZ] u;s lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] (vc
^vkf[kj jpuk D;ksa* uke ls) leh{kk dh leL;k,¡] ,d
lkfgfR;d dh Mk;jh (vkykspuk)_ Hkkjr % bfrgkl vkSj
laLÑfr
fuèku % 11 flracj lu~ 1964] u;h fnYyh esa
gekjh gkj dk cnyk pqdkus vk,xk] ladYièkekZ psruk dk jDrIykfor Loj]
gekjs gh ân; dk xqIr Lo.kkZ{kj] izdV gksdj fodV gks tk,xkA
 gkj dk cnyk pqdkus okys ladYi/ekZ dfo eqfDrcks/ dk iwjk thou la?k"kZ esa chrkA
mUgksaus 20 o"kZ dh NksVh mez esa cM+uxj fefMy LowQy esa ekLVjh dhA rRi'pkr 'kqtkyiqj]
mTtSu] dksydkrk] bankSj] eqacbZ] caxykSj] cukjl] tcyiqj] jktuak¡nxk¡o vkfn LFkkuksa ij
ekLVjh ls i=kdkfjrk rd dk dke fd;kA oqQN le;  rd ikB~;iqLrosaQ Hkh fy[khaA
Nk;kokn vkSj LoPNanrkoknh dfork osQ ckn tc u;h dfork vkbZ rks eqfDrcksèk
mlosQ vxqvk dfo;ksa esa ls ,d FksA ejkBh lajpuk ls izHkkfor yacs okD;ksa us mudh dfork
dks vke ikBd osQ fy, dfBu cuk;k ysfdu muesa HkkoukRed vkSj fopkjkRed mQtkZ
vVwV Fkh] tSls dksbZ uSlfxZd var%lzksr gks tks dHkh pqdrk gh ugha cfYd yxkrkj
vfèkdkfèkd osx vkSj rhozrk osQ lkFk meM+rk pyk vkrk gSA ;g mQtkZ vusdkusd
dYiuk&fp=kksa vkSj iSaQVsfl;ksa oQk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrh gSA eqfDrcksèk dh jpukRed mQtkZ
5
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xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk
tUe % 13 uoacj lu~ 1917] ';ksiqj] Xokfy;j (eè;
izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pk¡n dk eq¡g Vs<+k gS] Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd èkwy
(dfork laxzg)_ dkB dk liuk] foik=k] lrg ls mBrk
vkneh (dFkk lkfgR;)_ dkek;uh&,d iqufoZpkj] u;h
dfork dk vkRela?k"kZ] u;s lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] (vc
^vkf[kj jpuk D;ksa* uke ls) leh{kk dh leL;k,¡] ,d
lkfgfR;d dh Mk;jh (vkykspuk)_ Hkkjr % bfrgkl vkSj
laLÑfr
fuèku % 11 flracj lu~ 1964] u;h fnYyh esa
gekjh gkj dk cnyk pqdkus vk,xk] ladYièkekZ psruk dk jDrIykfor Loj]
gekjs gh ân; dk xqIr Lo.kkZ{kj] izdV gksdj fodV gks tk,xkA
 gkj dk cnyk pqdkus okys ladYi/ekZ dfo eqfDrcks/ dk iwjk thou la?k"kZ esa chrkA
mUgksaus 20 o"kZ dh NksVh mez esa cM+uxj fefMy LowQy esa ekLVjh dhA rRi'pkr 'kqtkyiqj]
mTtSu] dksydkrk] bankSj] eqacbZ] caxykSj] cukjl] tcyiqj] jktuak¡nxk¡o vkfn LFkkuksa ij
ekLVjh ls i=kdkfjrk rd dk dke fd;kA oqQN le;  rd ikB~;iqLrosaQ Hkh fy[khaA
Nk;kokn vkSj LoPNanrkoknh dfork osQ ckn tc u;h dfork vkbZ rks eqfDrcksèk
mlosQ vxqvk dfo;ksa esa ls ,d FksA ejkBh lajpuk ls izHkkfor yacs okD;ksa us mudh dfork
dks vke ikBd osQ fy, dfBu cuk;k ysfdu muesa HkkoukRed vkSj fopkjkRed mQtkZ
vVwV Fkh] tSls dksbZ uSlfxZd var%lzksr gks tks dHkh pqdrk gh ugha cfYd yxkrkj
vfèkdkfèkd osx vkSj rhozrk osQ lkFk meM+rk pyk vkrk gSA ;g mQtkZ vusdkusd
dYiuk&fp=kksa vkSj iSaQVsfl;ksa oQk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrh gSA eqfDrcksèk dh jpukRed mQtkZ
5
vkjksg
28
dk ,d cgqr cM+k va'k vkyksPkukRed ys[ku vkSj lkfgR; lacaèkh fparu esa lfozQ; jgkA
os ,d leFkZ i=kdkj Hkh FksA blosQ vykok jktuSfrd fo"k;ksa] varjjk"Vªh; ifjn`'; rFkk ns'k
dh vkfFkZd leL;kvksa ij yxkrkj fy[kk gSA dfo 'ke'ksj cgknqj flag osQ 'kCnksa esa mudh
dforkµ^vn~Hkqr laosQrksa Hkjh] ftKklkvksa ls vfLFkj] dHkh&nwj ls 'kksj epkrh dHkh dkuksa
esa pqipki jk”k dh ckrsa dgrh pyrh gSA gekjh ckrsa gedks lqukrh gSA ge vius dks ,dne
pfdr gksdj ns[krs gSa vkSj igys ls vfèkd igpkuus yxrs gSaA*
eqfDrcksèk dh dfork,¡ lkekU;r% cgqr yach gksrh gSA mUgksaus tks Hkh vis{kko`Qr NksVs
vkdkj dh dfork,¡ fy[kh gSa] muesa ls ,d gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS tks Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd /wy
esa ladfyr gSA ,d gksrk gS&^Lohdkjuk* vkSj nwljk gksrk gS& ^lg"kZ Lohdkjuk* ;kuh
[kq'kh&[kq'kh Lohdkj djukA ;g dfork thou osQ lc nq[k&lq[k] la?k"kZ&volkn] mBk&iVd
lE;d Hkko ls vaxhdkj djus dh izsj.kk nsrh gSA dfo dks tgk¡ ls ;g izsj.kk feyhµizsj.kk
osQ ml mRl rd Hkh gedks ys tkrh gSA ml fof'k"V O;fDr ;k lÙkk osQ blh ^lgtrk*
osQ pyrs mldks Lohdkj fd;k FkkµoqQN bl rjg Lohdkj (vkSj vkRelkr) fd;k Fkk fd
vkt rd og lkeus ugha Hkh gS rks Hkh vklikl mlosQ gksus dk ,glkl gSµ
eqLdkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
pw¡fd ;g ,glkl vkIykoudkjh gS vkSj dfork dk ^eSa* mldh Hkkoizo.krk osQ futh
i{k ls mcjdj flI
+
kZQ fopkj dh rjg mls thuk pkgrk gS D;ksafd  og c`gÙkj fo'o dh
xqfRFk;k¡ lqy>kus esa mldh enn djsxhA og fnoaxrk ek¡] iRuh] cgu] lgpjh dksbZ Hkh gks
ldrh gSA lgt Lusg dh mQ"ek tc fojg esa vfXuf'k[kk&lh míhIr gks mBh gS]
FkksM+h&FkksM+h&lh fuLlaxrk Hkh ,dne ls ”k:jh gks vkbZ gS vkSj og pkgus yxk gS
eksg&eqfDrA pkgus yxk gS fd Hkwyus dh izfozQ;k ,d vekol dh rjg mlosQ Hkhrj bl
rjg ?kfVr gks fd pk¡n ”kjk&lk vksV gks ysA v¡èksjs ls lkeuk gks rks fpÙk dh rkdr c<+sA
yxkrkj ;g HkkSfrd vkSj ekufld  voyac vanj ,d vKkr Hk; Hkh dk;e djrk gSA
eerk osQ ckny dh e¡Mjkrh dkseyrkµD;ksafd Hkhrj fijkrh gS
cgykrh&lgykrh vkReh;rk cjnk'r ugha gksrh gSA
n`<+rk vkSj rn~tU; dBksjrk Hkh cM+s ekuo&ewY; gSa] blfy, Hkwy tkuk Hkh ,d dyk
gSA vfr fdlh ph”k dh vPNh ughaA gj le; dh HkkoknzZrk Hkh de”kksj djrh gSA vfr'k;
izdk'k ls vk¡[ksa pkSafèk;k tkrh gSaA blfy, fdlh gn rd ojs.; gS v¡èksjk Hkh&foLe`fr dk
v¡èksjkA vkneh gjne lc oqQN ;kn djrk pys] rks thuk gh eqf'dy gks tk,A ^relks ek
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xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk
tUe % 13 uoacj lu~ 1917] ';ksiqj] Xokfy;j (eè;
izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pk¡n dk eq¡g Vs<+k gS] Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd èkwy
(dfork laxzg)_ dkB dk liuk] foik=k] lrg ls mBrk
vkneh (dFkk lkfgR;)_ dkek;uh&,d iqufoZpkj] u;h
dfork dk vkRela?k"kZ] u;s lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] (vc
^vkf[kj jpuk D;ksa* uke ls) leh{kk dh leL;k,¡] ,d
lkfgfR;d dh Mk;jh (vkykspuk)_ Hkkjr % bfrgkl vkSj
laLÑfr
fuèku % 11 flracj lu~ 1964] u;h fnYyh esa
gekjh gkj dk cnyk pqdkus vk,xk] ladYièkekZ psruk dk jDrIykfor Loj]
gekjs gh ân; dk xqIr Lo.kkZ{kj] izdV gksdj fodV gks tk,xkA
 gkj dk cnyk pqdkus okys ladYi/ekZ dfo eqfDrcks/ dk iwjk thou la?k"kZ esa chrkA
mUgksaus 20 o"kZ dh NksVh mez esa cM+uxj fefMy LowQy esa ekLVjh dhA rRi'pkr 'kqtkyiqj]
mTtSu] dksydkrk] bankSj] eqacbZ] caxykSj] cukjl] tcyiqj] jktuak¡nxk¡o vkfn LFkkuksa ij
ekLVjh ls i=kdkfjrk rd dk dke fd;kA oqQN le;  rd ikB~;iqLrosaQ Hkh fy[khaA
Nk;kokn vkSj LoPNanrkoknh dfork osQ ckn tc u;h dfork vkbZ rks eqfDrcksèk
mlosQ vxqvk dfo;ksa esa ls ,d FksA ejkBh lajpuk ls izHkkfor yacs okD;ksa us mudh dfork
dks vke ikBd osQ fy, dfBu cuk;k ysfdu muesa HkkoukRed vkSj fopkjkRed mQtkZ
vVwV Fkh] tSls dksbZ uSlfxZd var%lzksr gks tks dHkh pqdrk gh ugha cfYd yxkrkj
vfèkdkfèkd osx vkSj rhozrk osQ lkFk meM+rk pyk vkrk gSA ;g mQtkZ vusdkusd
dYiuk&fp=kksa vkSj iSaQVsfl;ksa oQk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrh gSA eqfDrcksèk dh jpukRed mQtkZ
5
vkjksg
28
dk ,d cgqr cM+k va'k vkyksPkukRed ys[ku vkSj lkfgR; lacaèkh fparu esa lfozQ; jgkA
os ,d leFkZ i=kdkj Hkh FksA blosQ vykok jktuSfrd fo"k;ksa] varjjk"Vªh; ifjn`'; rFkk ns'k
dh vkfFkZd leL;kvksa ij yxkrkj fy[kk gSA dfo 'ke'ksj cgknqj flag osQ 'kCnksa esa mudh
dforkµ^vn~Hkqr laosQrksa Hkjh] ftKklkvksa ls vfLFkj] dHkh&nwj ls 'kksj epkrh dHkh dkuksa
esa pqipki jk”k dh ckrsa dgrh pyrh gSA gekjh ckrsa gedks lqukrh gSA ge vius dks ,dne
pfdr gksdj ns[krs gSa vkSj igys ls vfèkd igpkuus yxrs gSaA*
eqfDrcksèk dh dfork,¡ lkekU;r% cgqr yach gksrh gSA mUgksaus tks Hkh vis{kko`Qr NksVs
vkdkj dh dfork,¡ fy[kh gSa] muesa ls ,d gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS tks Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd /wy
esa ladfyr gSA ,d gksrk gS&^Lohdkjuk* vkSj nwljk gksrk gS& ^lg"kZ Lohdkjuk* ;kuh
[kq'kh&[kq'kh Lohdkj djukA ;g dfork thou osQ lc nq[k&lq[k] la?k"kZ&volkn] mBk&iVd
lE;d Hkko ls vaxhdkj djus dh izsj.kk nsrh gSA dfo dks tgk¡ ls ;g izsj.kk feyhµizsj.kk
osQ ml mRl rd Hkh gedks ys tkrh gSA ml fof'k"V O;fDr ;k lÙkk osQ blh ^lgtrk*
osQ pyrs mldks Lohdkj fd;k FkkµoqQN bl rjg Lohdkj (vkSj vkRelkr) fd;k Fkk fd
vkt rd og lkeus ugha Hkh gS rks Hkh vklikl mlosQ gksus dk ,glkl gSµ
eqLdkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
pw¡fd ;g ,glkl vkIykoudkjh gS vkSj dfork dk ^eSa* mldh Hkkoizo.krk osQ futh
i{k ls mcjdj flI
+
kZQ fopkj dh rjg mls thuk pkgrk gS D;ksafd  og c`gÙkj fo'o dh
xqfRFk;k¡ lqy>kus esa mldh enn djsxhA og fnoaxrk ek¡] iRuh] cgu] lgpjh dksbZ Hkh gks
ldrh gSA lgt Lusg dh mQ"ek tc fojg esa vfXuf'k[kk&lh míhIr gks mBh gS]
FkksM+h&FkksM+h&lh fuLlaxrk Hkh ,dne ls ”k:jh gks vkbZ gS vkSj og pkgus yxk gS
eksg&eqfDrA pkgus yxk gS fd Hkwyus dh izfozQ;k ,d vekol dh rjg mlosQ Hkhrj bl
rjg ?kfVr gks fd pk¡n ”kjk&lk vksV gks ysA v¡èksjs ls lkeuk gks rks fpÙk dh rkdr c<+sA
yxkrkj ;g HkkSfrd vkSj ekufld  voyac vanj ,d vKkr Hk; Hkh dk;e djrk gSA
eerk osQ ckny dh e¡Mjkrh dkseyrkµD;ksafd Hkhrj fijkrh gS
cgykrh&lgykrh vkReh;rk cjnk'r ugha gksrh gSA
n`<+rk vkSj rn~tU; dBksjrk Hkh cM+s ekuo&ewY; gSa] blfy, Hkwy tkuk Hkh ,d dyk
gSA vfr fdlh ph”k dh vPNh ughaA gj le; dh HkkoknzZrk Hkh de”kksj djrh gSA vfr'k;
izdk'k ls vk¡[ksa pkSafèk;k tkrh gSaA blfy, fdlh gn rd ojs.; gS v¡èksjk Hkh&foLe`fr dk
v¡èksjkA vkneh gjne lc oqQN ;kn djrk pys] rks thuk gh eqf'dy gks tk,A ^relks ek
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
29
T;ksfrxZe;* ;fn ,d izdkj dk lp gS rks mruk gh cM+k lp gS ^ikrkyh v¡èksjs dh xqI
+
kQkvksa*
esa MwcukA Hkwyuk ^naM* lgh] fiQj Hkh iqjLdkj ekudj gh xzg.k djuk pkfg,A
èkq,¡ osQ ckny Hkh iw.kZ foLe`fr ?kfVr ugha dj ikrsA ;knksa dk èkq¡èkydk ogk¡ Hkh gSA
euq"; dh laiw.kZ psruk v¡èksjk&mtkyk] lq[k&nq[k] Le`fr&foLe`fr osQ rkuk&Hkjuh ls cquh ,d
dchjh pknj gS ftls vkRek pkjksa vksj ls ;kuh laiw.kZrk esa yisV ysuk pkgrh gSA thou dk
fu"d"kZ ;gh gS fd og fdlh dk ugha D;ksafd lc ^mldh* ijNkb± gSA
iz'u ;gk¡ ;g mBrk gS fd ^og* gS dkSu\ fnoaxrk ek¡ ;k fiz;k\ c`gÙkj thou&n'kZuµtks
bZ'oj&fujis{k gksrk gqvk Hkh mruk gh loZO;kih vkSj vkIykoudkjh gS ftruk dchj osQ jke
;k oM~LkZoFkZ dh ekr`euk izo`Qfr\ ;g xqRFkh u Hkh lqy>s rks Hkh dfork viuh eeZLif'kZrk
vkSj }a}foàyrk osQ dkj.k mruh gh laxr vkSj fof'k"V gSA lkèkd vkSj lkè; dh ,dkRerk]
^rsjk rq>dks lkSairk dk ykxS gS eksj* okyk ,slk fujgadkj fou; ikjaifjd lkfgR; ls brj
;kuh vkèkqfud dfork esa de gh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
xtkuu ek/ko eqfDrcks/k
Page 4


xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk
tUe % 13 uoacj lu~ 1917] ';ksiqj] Xokfy;j (eè;
izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pk¡n dk eq¡g Vs<+k gS] Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd èkwy
(dfork laxzg)_ dkB dk liuk] foik=k] lrg ls mBrk
vkneh (dFkk lkfgR;)_ dkek;uh&,d iqufoZpkj] u;h
dfork dk vkRela?k"kZ] u;s lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] (vc
^vkf[kj jpuk D;ksa* uke ls) leh{kk dh leL;k,¡] ,d
lkfgfR;d dh Mk;jh (vkykspuk)_ Hkkjr % bfrgkl vkSj
laLÑfr
fuèku % 11 flracj lu~ 1964] u;h fnYyh esa
gekjh gkj dk cnyk pqdkus vk,xk] ladYièkekZ psruk dk jDrIykfor Loj]
gekjs gh ân; dk xqIr Lo.kkZ{kj] izdV gksdj fodV gks tk,xkA
 gkj dk cnyk pqdkus okys ladYi/ekZ dfo eqfDrcks/ dk iwjk thou la?k"kZ esa chrkA
mUgksaus 20 o"kZ dh NksVh mez esa cM+uxj fefMy LowQy esa ekLVjh dhA rRi'pkr 'kqtkyiqj]
mTtSu] dksydkrk] bankSj] eqacbZ] caxykSj] cukjl] tcyiqj] jktuak¡nxk¡o vkfn LFkkuksa ij
ekLVjh ls i=kdkfjrk rd dk dke fd;kA oqQN le;  rd ikB~;iqLrosaQ Hkh fy[khaA
Nk;kokn vkSj LoPNanrkoknh dfork osQ ckn tc u;h dfork vkbZ rks eqfDrcksèk
mlosQ vxqvk dfo;ksa esa ls ,d FksA ejkBh lajpuk ls izHkkfor yacs okD;ksa us mudh dfork
dks vke ikBd osQ fy, dfBu cuk;k ysfdu muesa HkkoukRed vkSj fopkjkRed mQtkZ
vVwV Fkh] tSls dksbZ uSlfxZd var%lzksr gks tks dHkh pqdrk gh ugha cfYd yxkrkj
vfèkdkfèkd osx vkSj rhozrk osQ lkFk meM+rk pyk vkrk gSA ;g mQtkZ vusdkusd
dYiuk&fp=kksa vkSj iSaQVsfl;ksa oQk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrh gSA eqfDrcksèk dh jpukRed mQtkZ
5
vkjksg
28
dk ,d cgqr cM+k va'k vkyksPkukRed ys[ku vkSj lkfgR; lacaèkh fparu esa lfozQ; jgkA
os ,d leFkZ i=kdkj Hkh FksA blosQ vykok jktuSfrd fo"k;ksa] varjjk"Vªh; ifjn`'; rFkk ns'k
dh vkfFkZd leL;kvksa ij yxkrkj fy[kk gSA dfo 'ke'ksj cgknqj flag osQ 'kCnksa esa mudh
dforkµ^vn~Hkqr laosQrksa Hkjh] ftKklkvksa ls vfLFkj] dHkh&nwj ls 'kksj epkrh dHkh dkuksa
esa pqipki jk”k dh ckrsa dgrh pyrh gSA gekjh ckrsa gedks lqukrh gSA ge vius dks ,dne
pfdr gksdj ns[krs gSa vkSj igys ls vfèkd igpkuus yxrs gSaA*
eqfDrcksèk dh dfork,¡ lkekU;r% cgqr yach gksrh gSA mUgksaus tks Hkh vis{kko`Qr NksVs
vkdkj dh dfork,¡ fy[kh gSa] muesa ls ,d gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS tks Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd /wy
esa ladfyr gSA ,d gksrk gS&^Lohdkjuk* vkSj nwljk gksrk gS& ^lg"kZ Lohdkjuk* ;kuh
[kq'kh&[kq'kh Lohdkj djukA ;g dfork thou osQ lc nq[k&lq[k] la?k"kZ&volkn] mBk&iVd
lE;d Hkko ls vaxhdkj djus dh izsj.kk nsrh gSA dfo dks tgk¡ ls ;g izsj.kk feyhµizsj.kk
osQ ml mRl rd Hkh gedks ys tkrh gSA ml fof'k"V O;fDr ;k lÙkk osQ blh ^lgtrk*
osQ pyrs mldks Lohdkj fd;k FkkµoqQN bl rjg Lohdkj (vkSj vkRelkr) fd;k Fkk fd
vkt rd og lkeus ugha Hkh gS rks Hkh vklikl mlosQ gksus dk ,glkl gSµ
eqLdkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
pw¡fd ;g ,glkl vkIykoudkjh gS vkSj dfork dk ^eSa* mldh Hkkoizo.krk osQ futh
i{k ls mcjdj flI
+
kZQ fopkj dh rjg mls thuk pkgrk gS D;ksafd  og c`gÙkj fo'o dh
xqfRFk;k¡ lqy>kus esa mldh enn djsxhA og fnoaxrk ek¡] iRuh] cgu] lgpjh dksbZ Hkh gks
ldrh gSA lgt Lusg dh mQ"ek tc fojg esa vfXuf'k[kk&lh míhIr gks mBh gS]
FkksM+h&FkksM+h&lh fuLlaxrk Hkh ,dne ls ”k:jh gks vkbZ gS vkSj og pkgus yxk gS
eksg&eqfDrA pkgus yxk gS fd Hkwyus dh izfozQ;k ,d vekol dh rjg mlosQ Hkhrj bl
rjg ?kfVr gks fd pk¡n ”kjk&lk vksV gks ysA v¡èksjs ls lkeuk gks rks fpÙk dh rkdr c<+sA
yxkrkj ;g HkkSfrd vkSj ekufld  voyac vanj ,d vKkr Hk; Hkh dk;e djrk gSA
eerk osQ ckny dh e¡Mjkrh dkseyrkµD;ksafd Hkhrj fijkrh gS
cgykrh&lgykrh vkReh;rk cjnk'r ugha gksrh gSA
n`<+rk vkSj rn~tU; dBksjrk Hkh cM+s ekuo&ewY; gSa] blfy, Hkwy tkuk Hkh ,d dyk
gSA vfr fdlh ph”k dh vPNh ughaA gj le; dh HkkoknzZrk Hkh de”kksj djrh gSA vfr'k;
izdk'k ls vk¡[ksa pkSafèk;k tkrh gSaA blfy, fdlh gn rd ojs.; gS v¡èksjk Hkh&foLe`fr dk
v¡èksjkA vkneh gjne lc oqQN ;kn djrk pys] rks thuk gh eqf'dy gks tk,A ^relks ek
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
29
T;ksfrxZe;* ;fn ,d izdkj dk lp gS rks mruk gh cM+k lp gS ^ikrkyh v¡èksjs dh xqI
+
kQkvksa*
esa MwcukA Hkwyuk ^naM* lgh] fiQj Hkh iqjLdkj ekudj gh xzg.k djuk pkfg,A
èkq,¡ osQ ckny Hkh iw.kZ foLe`fr ?kfVr ugha dj ikrsA ;knksa dk èkq¡èkydk ogk¡ Hkh gSA
euq"; dh laiw.kZ psruk v¡èksjk&mtkyk] lq[k&nq[k] Le`fr&foLe`fr osQ rkuk&Hkjuh ls cquh ,d
dchjh pknj gS ftls vkRek pkjksa vksj ls ;kuh laiw.kZrk esa yisV ysuk pkgrh gSA thou dk
fu"d"kZ ;gh gS fd og fdlh dk ugha D;ksafd lc ^mldh* ijNkb± gSA
iz'u ;gk¡ ;g mBrk gS fd ^og* gS dkSu\ fnoaxrk ek¡ ;k fiz;k\ c`gÙkj thou&n'kZuµtks
bZ'oj&fujis{k gksrk gqvk Hkh mruk gh loZO;kih vkSj vkIykoudkjh gS ftruk dchj osQ jke
;k oM~LkZoFkZ dh ekr`euk izo`Qfr\ ;g xqRFkh u Hkh lqy>s rks Hkh dfork viuh eeZLif'kZrk
vkSj }a}foàyrk osQ dkj.k mruh gh laxr vkSj fof'k"V gSA lkèkd vkSj lkè; dh ,dkRerk]
^rsjk rq>dks lkSairk dk ykxS gS eksj* okyk ,slk fujgadkj fou; ikjaifjd lkfgR; ls brj
;kuh vkèkqfud dfork esa de gh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
xtkuu ek/ko eqfDrcks/k vkjksg
30
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
f”kanxh esa tks oqQN gS] tks Hkh gS
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS_
blfy, fd tks oqQN Hkh esjk gS
og rqEgsa I;kjk gSA
xjchyh xjhch ;g] ;s xaHkhj vuqHko lc
;g fopkj&oSHko lc
n`<+rk ;g] Hkhrj dh lfjrk ;g vfHkuo lc
ekSfyd gS] ekSfyd gS
blfy, fd iy&iy esa
tks oqQN Hkh tkxzr gS viyd gSµ
laosnu rqEgkjk gS! !
tkus D;k fj'rk gS] tkus D;k ukrk gS
ftruk Hkh m¡M+syrk gw¡] Hkj&Hkj fiQj vkrk gS
fny esa D;k >juk gS\
ehBs ikuh dk lksrk gS
Hkhrj og] mQij rqe
eqldkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
lpeqp eq>s naM nks fd Hkwyw¡ eSa Hkwyw¡ eSa
rqEgsa Hkwy tkus dh
nf{k.k èkzqoh vaèkdkj&vekoL;k
'kjhj ij] psgjs ij] varj esa ik yw¡ eSa
>syw¡ eSa] mlh esa ugk yw¡ eSa
Page 5


xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk xtkuu ekèko eqfDrcksèk
tUe % 13 uoacj lu~ 1917] ';ksiqj] Xokfy;j (eè;
izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pk¡n dk eq¡g Vs<+k gS] Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd èkwy
(dfork laxzg)_ dkB dk liuk] foik=k] lrg ls mBrk
vkneh (dFkk lkfgR;)_ dkek;uh&,d iqufoZpkj] u;h
dfork dk vkRela?k"kZ] u;s lkfgR; dk lkSan;Z'kkL=k] (vc
^vkf[kj jpuk D;ksa* uke ls) leh{kk dh leL;k,¡] ,d
lkfgfR;d dh Mk;jh (vkykspuk)_ Hkkjr % bfrgkl vkSj
laLÑfr
fuèku % 11 flracj lu~ 1964] u;h fnYyh esa
gekjh gkj dk cnyk pqdkus vk,xk] ladYièkekZ psruk dk jDrIykfor Loj]
gekjs gh ân; dk xqIr Lo.kkZ{kj] izdV gksdj fodV gks tk,xkA
 gkj dk cnyk pqdkus okys ladYi/ekZ dfo eqfDrcks/ dk iwjk thou la?k"kZ esa chrkA
mUgksaus 20 o"kZ dh NksVh mez esa cM+uxj fefMy LowQy esa ekLVjh dhA rRi'pkr 'kqtkyiqj]
mTtSu] dksydkrk] bankSj] eqacbZ] caxykSj] cukjl] tcyiqj] jktuak¡nxk¡o vkfn LFkkuksa ij
ekLVjh ls i=kdkfjrk rd dk dke fd;kA oqQN le;  rd ikB~;iqLrosaQ Hkh fy[khaA
Nk;kokn vkSj LoPNanrkoknh dfork osQ ckn tc u;h dfork vkbZ rks eqfDrcksèk
mlosQ vxqvk dfo;ksa esa ls ,d FksA ejkBh lajpuk ls izHkkfor yacs okD;ksa us mudh dfork
dks vke ikBd osQ fy, dfBu cuk;k ysfdu muesa HkkoukRed vkSj fopkjkRed mQtkZ
vVwV Fkh] tSls dksbZ uSlfxZd var%lzksr gks tks dHkh pqdrk gh ugha cfYd yxkrkj
vfèkdkfèkd osx vkSj rhozrk osQ lkFk meM+rk pyk vkrk gSA ;g mQtkZ vusdkusd
dYiuk&fp=kksa vkSj iSaQVsfl;ksa oQk vkdkj xzg.k dj ysrh gSA eqfDrcksèk dh jpukRed mQtkZ
5
vkjksg
28
dk ,d cgqr cM+k va'k vkyksPkukRed ys[ku vkSj lkfgR; lacaèkh fparu esa lfozQ; jgkA
os ,d leFkZ i=kdkj Hkh FksA blosQ vykok jktuSfrd fo"k;ksa] varjjk"Vªh; ifjn`'; rFkk ns'k
dh vkfFkZd leL;kvksa ij yxkrkj fy[kk gSA dfo 'ke'ksj cgknqj flag osQ 'kCnksa esa mudh
dforkµ^vn~Hkqr laosQrksa Hkjh] ftKklkvksa ls vfLFkj] dHkh&nwj ls 'kksj epkrh dHkh dkuksa
esa pqipki jk”k dh ckrsa dgrh pyrh gSA gekjh ckrsa gedks lqukrh gSA ge vius dks ,dne
pfdr gksdj ns[krs gSa vkSj igys ls vfèkd igpkuus yxrs gSaA*
eqfDrcksèk dh dfork,¡ lkekU;r% cgqr yach gksrh gSA mUgksaus tks Hkh vis{kko`Qr NksVs
vkdkj dh dfork,¡ fy[kh gSa] muesa ls ,d gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS tks Hkwjh&Hkwjh [kkd /wy
esa ladfyr gSA ,d gksrk gS&^Lohdkjuk* vkSj nwljk gksrk gS& ^lg"kZ Lohdkjuk* ;kuh
[kq'kh&[kq'kh Lohdkj djukA ;g dfork thou osQ lc nq[k&lq[k] la?k"kZ&volkn] mBk&iVd
lE;d Hkko ls vaxhdkj djus dh izsj.kk nsrh gSA dfo dks tgk¡ ls ;g izsj.kk feyhµizsj.kk
osQ ml mRl rd Hkh gedks ys tkrh gSA ml fof'k"V O;fDr ;k lÙkk osQ blh ^lgtrk*
osQ pyrs mldks Lohdkj fd;k FkkµoqQN bl rjg Lohdkj (vkSj vkRelkr) fd;k Fkk fd
vkt rd og lkeus ugha Hkh gS rks Hkh vklikl mlosQ gksus dk ,glkl gSµ
eqLdkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
pw¡fd ;g ,glkl vkIykoudkjh gS vkSj dfork dk ^eSa* mldh Hkkoizo.krk osQ futh
i{k ls mcjdj flI
+
kZQ fopkj dh rjg mls thuk pkgrk gS D;ksafd  og c`gÙkj fo'o dh
xqfRFk;k¡ lqy>kus esa mldh enn djsxhA og fnoaxrk ek¡] iRuh] cgu] lgpjh dksbZ Hkh gks
ldrh gSA lgt Lusg dh mQ"ek tc fojg esa vfXuf'k[kk&lh míhIr gks mBh gS]
FkksM+h&FkksM+h&lh fuLlaxrk Hkh ,dne ls ”k:jh gks vkbZ gS vkSj og pkgus yxk gS
eksg&eqfDrA pkgus yxk gS fd Hkwyus dh izfozQ;k ,d vekol dh rjg mlosQ Hkhrj bl
rjg ?kfVr gks fd pk¡n ”kjk&lk vksV gks ysA v¡èksjs ls lkeuk gks rks fpÙk dh rkdr c<+sA
yxkrkj ;g HkkSfrd vkSj ekufld  voyac vanj ,d vKkr Hk; Hkh dk;e djrk gSA
eerk osQ ckny dh e¡Mjkrh dkseyrkµD;ksafd Hkhrj fijkrh gS
cgykrh&lgykrh vkReh;rk cjnk'r ugha gksrh gSA
n`<+rk vkSj rn~tU; dBksjrk Hkh cM+s ekuo&ewY; gSa] blfy, Hkwy tkuk Hkh ,d dyk
gSA vfr fdlh ph”k dh vPNh ughaA gj le; dh HkkoknzZrk Hkh de”kksj djrh gSA vfr'k;
izdk'k ls vk¡[ksa pkSafèk;k tkrh gSaA blfy, fdlh gn rd ojs.; gS v¡èksjk Hkh&foLe`fr dk
v¡èksjkA vkneh gjne lc oqQN ;kn djrk pys] rks thuk gh eqf'dy gks tk,A ^relks ek
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
29
T;ksfrxZe;* ;fn ,d izdkj dk lp gS rks mruk gh cM+k lp gS ^ikrkyh v¡èksjs dh xqI
+
kQkvksa*
esa MwcukA Hkwyuk ^naM* lgh] fiQj Hkh iqjLdkj ekudj gh xzg.k djuk pkfg,A
èkq,¡ osQ ckny Hkh iw.kZ foLe`fr ?kfVr ugha dj ikrsA ;knksa dk èkq¡èkydk ogk¡ Hkh gSA
euq"; dh laiw.kZ psruk v¡èksjk&mtkyk] lq[k&nq[k] Le`fr&foLe`fr osQ rkuk&Hkjuh ls cquh ,d
dchjh pknj gS ftls vkRek pkjksa vksj ls ;kuh laiw.kZrk esa yisV ysuk pkgrh gSA thou dk
fu"d"kZ ;gh gS fd og fdlh dk ugha D;ksafd lc ^mldh* ijNkb± gSA
iz'u ;gk¡ ;g mBrk gS fd ^og* gS dkSu\ fnoaxrk ek¡ ;k fiz;k\ c`gÙkj thou&n'kZuµtks
bZ'oj&fujis{k gksrk gqvk Hkh mruk gh loZO;kih vkSj vkIykoudkjh gS ftruk dchj osQ jke
;k oM~LkZoFkZ dh ekr`euk izo`Qfr\ ;g xqRFkh u Hkh lqy>s rks Hkh dfork viuh eeZLif'kZrk
vkSj }a}foàyrk osQ dkj.k mruh gh laxr vkSj fof'k"V gSA lkèkd vkSj lkè; dh ,dkRerk]
^rsjk rq>dks lkSairk dk ykxS gS eksj* okyk ,slk fujgadkj fou; ikjaifjd lkfgR; ls brj
;kuh vkèkqfud dfork esa de gh fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
xtkuu ek/ko eqfDrcks/k vkjksg
30
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
f”kanxh esa tks oqQN gS] tks Hkh gS
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS_
blfy, fd tks oqQN Hkh esjk gS
og rqEgsa I;kjk gSA
xjchyh xjhch ;g] ;s xaHkhj vuqHko lc
;g fopkj&oSHko lc
n`<+rk ;g] Hkhrj dh lfjrk ;g vfHkuo lc
ekSfyd gS] ekSfyd gS
blfy, fd iy&iy esa
tks oqQN Hkh tkxzr gS viyd gSµ
laosnu rqEgkjk gS! !
tkus D;k fj'rk gS] tkus D;k ukrk gS
ftruk Hkh m¡M+syrk gw¡] Hkj&Hkj fiQj vkrk gS
fny esa D;k >juk gS\
ehBs ikuh dk lksrk gS
Hkhrj og] mQij rqe
eqldkrk pk¡n T;ksa èkjrh ij jkr&Hkj
eq> ij R;ksa rqEgkjk gh f[kyrk og psgjk gS!
lpeqp eq>s naM nks fd Hkwyw¡ eSa Hkwyw¡ eSa
rqEgsa Hkwy tkus dh
nf{k.k èkzqoh vaèkdkj&vekoL;k
'kjhj ij] psgjs ij] varj esa ik yw¡ eSa
>syw¡ eSa] mlh esa ugk yw¡ eSa
lg"kZ Lohdkjk gS
31
blfy, fd rqels gh ifjosf"Vr vkPNkfnr
jgus dk je.kh; ;g mtsyk vc
lgk ugha tkrk gSA
ugha lgk tkrk gSA
eerk osQ ckny dh e¡Mjkrh dkseyrkµ
Hkhrj fijkrh gS
de”kksj vkSj v{ke vc gks xbZ gS vkRek ;g
NViVkrh Nkrh dks HkforO;rk Mjkrh gS
cgykrh lgykrh vkReh;rk cjnk'r ugha gksrh gS!!
Read More
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