NCERT Textbook - हरिवंशराय बच्चन Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - हरिवंशराय बच्चन Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Created by: Anant Ahuja
 Page 1


dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM
Page 2


dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM
yxrk ugha gS fny esjk mtM+s n;kj esa
fdldh  cuh  gS  vkyes&ukik;nkj  esa
cqycqy dks ckxck¡ ls u lÕ;kn ls fxyk
fdLer esa oSQn fy[kh Fkh] I
+
kQlys cgkj esa
bu  gljrksa  ls  dg nks  dgha  vkSj  tk clsa
bruh txg dgk¡ gS  fnys&nkxnkj esa
bd 'kk[ks&xqy is cSB osQ cqycqy gS 'kknek¡
dk¡Vs  fcNk  fn,  gSa  fnys&ykyg”kkj esa
mezs&njk”k  ek¡x  osQ  yk,  Fks  pkj  fnu
nks vkj”kw  esa dV x, nks bar”kkj  esa
fnu  ¯”knxh  osQ  [kRe  gq,  'kke  gks  xbZ
iSQyk
  osQ  ik¡o  lks,¡xs  oqQats&e”kkj  esa
fdruk  gS  cnulhc  ”kI
+
kQj  nÝ
+
u  osQ  fy,
nks  x”k  ”kehu  Hkh  u  feyh  owQ,&;kj  esa
(1857 osQ 150 o"kZ gksus ij)
cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj
Page 3


dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM
yxrk ugha gS fny esjk mtM+s n;kj esa
fdldh  cuh  gS  vkyes&ukik;nkj  esa
cqycqy dks ckxck¡ ls u lÕ;kn ls fxyk
fdLer esa oSQn fy[kh Fkh] I
+
kQlys cgkj esa
bu  gljrksa  ls  dg nks  dgha  vkSj  tk clsa
bruh txg dgk¡ gS  fnys&nkxnkj esa
bd 'kk[ks&xqy is cSB osQ cqycqy gS 'kknek¡
dk¡Vs  fcNk  fn,  gSa  fnys&ykyg”kkj esa
mezs&njk”k  ek¡x  osQ  yk,  Fks  pkj  fnu
nks vkj”kw  esa dV x, nks bar”kkj  esa
fnu  ¯”knxh  osQ  [kRe  gq,  'kke  gks  xbZ
iSQyk
  osQ  ik¡o  lks,¡xs  oqQats&e”kkj  esa
fdruk  gS  cnulhc  ”kI
+
kQj  nÝ
+
u  osQ  fy,
nks  x”k  ”kehu  Hkh  u  feyh  owQ,&;kj  esa
(1857 osQ 150 o"kZ gksus ij)
cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj
gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjoaaaaa' ' ' ' 'kkkkk jk jk jk jk jk; ; ; ; ; cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu
tUe % lu~ 1907] bykgkckn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % eèkq'kkyk (1935)] eèkqckyk (1938)]
eèkqdy'k (1938)] fu'kk fuea=k.k] ,dkar laxhr] vkoqQy&varj]
feyu;kfeuh] lrjafx.kh] vkjrh vkSj vaxkjs] u, iqjkus >jks[ks]
VwVh&iwQVh dfM+;k¡ (dkO; laxzg)_ D;k Hkwyw¡ D;k ;kn d:¡]
uhM+ dk fuekZ.k fiQj] clsjs ls nwj] n'k}kj ls lksiku rd
(vkRedFkk pkj [kaM)_ gSeysV] tuxhrk] eSdcsFk (vuqokn)_
izoklh dh Mk;jh (Mk;jh)
mudk iwjk okÄ~e; ^cPpu xzaFkkoyh* osQ uke ls nl [kaMksa
esa izdkf'krA
fuèku % lu~ 2003] eqacbZ esa
iwoZ pyus osQ cVksgh ckV dh igpku dj ys
1942&1952 rd bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; esa izkè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh osQ lkfgfR;d
dk;ZØeksa ls lac¼] fiQj fons'k ea=kky; esa ¯gnh fo'ks"kK jgsA nksuksa egk;q¼ksa osQ chp eè;oxZ
osQ fo{kqCèk] fodYk eu dks cPpu us ok.kh dk ojnku fn;kA mUgksaus Nk;kokn dh yk{kf.kd
oØrk osQ ctk; lhèkh&lknh thoar Hkk"kk vkSj laosnuflDr xs; 'kSyh esa viuh ckr dghA
O;fDrxr thou esa ?kVh ?kVukvksa dh lgt vuqHkwfr dh bZekunkj vfHkO;fDr cPpu osQ
;gk¡ dfork cudj izdV gqbZA ;g fo'ks"krk ¯gnh dkO; lalkj esa mudh foy{k.k yksdfiz;rk
dk ewy vkèkkj gSA
eè;;qxhu I
+
kQkjlh osQ dfo mej [kÕ;ke dk eLrkukiu gfjoa'k jk; cPpu dh
izkjafHkd dforkvksa fo'ks"kdj e/q'kkyk esa ,d vn~Hkqr vFkZ&foLrkj ikrk gSµthou ,d rjg
dk eèkqdy'k gS] nqfu;k eèkq'kkyk gS] dYiuk lkdh vkSj dfork og I;kyk ftlesa <kydj
thou ikBd dks fiyk;k tkrk gSA dfork dk ,d ?kw¡V thou dk ,d ?kw¡V gSA iwjh rUe;rk
ls thou dk ?kw¡V Hkjsa] dM+ok&[k^k Hkh lgt Hkko ls Lohdkj djsa rks varr% ,d
1
Page 4


dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM
yxrk ugha gS fny esjk mtM+s n;kj esa
fdldh  cuh  gS  vkyes&ukik;nkj  esa
cqycqy dks ckxck¡ ls u lÕ;kn ls fxyk
fdLer esa oSQn fy[kh Fkh] I
+
kQlys cgkj esa
bu  gljrksa  ls  dg nks  dgha  vkSj  tk clsa
bruh txg dgk¡ gS  fnys&nkxnkj esa
bd 'kk[ks&xqy is cSB osQ cqycqy gS 'kknek¡
dk¡Vs  fcNk  fn,  gSa  fnys&ykyg”kkj esa
mezs&njk”k  ek¡x  osQ  yk,  Fks  pkj  fnu
nks vkj”kw  esa dV x, nks bar”kkj  esa
fnu  ¯”knxh  osQ  [kRe  gq,  'kke  gks  xbZ
iSQyk
  osQ  ik¡o  lks,¡xs  oqQats&e”kkj  esa
fdruk  gS  cnulhc  ”kI
+
kQj  nÝ
+
u  osQ  fy,
nks  x”k  ”kehu  Hkh  u  feyh  owQ,&;kj  esa
(1857 osQ 150 o"kZ gksus ij)
cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj
gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjoaaaaa' ' ' ' 'kkkkk jk jk jk jk jk; ; ; ; ; cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu
tUe % lu~ 1907] bykgkckn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % eèkq'kkyk (1935)] eèkqckyk (1938)]
eèkqdy'k (1938)] fu'kk fuea=k.k] ,dkar laxhr] vkoqQy&varj]
feyu;kfeuh] lrjafx.kh] vkjrh vkSj vaxkjs] u, iqjkus >jks[ks]
VwVh&iwQVh dfM+;k¡ (dkO; laxzg)_ D;k Hkwyw¡ D;k ;kn d:¡]
uhM+ dk fuekZ.k fiQj] clsjs ls nwj] n'k}kj ls lksiku rd
(vkRedFkk pkj [kaM)_ gSeysV] tuxhrk] eSdcsFk (vuqokn)_
izoklh dh Mk;jh (Mk;jh)
mudk iwjk okÄ~e; ^cPpu xzaFkkoyh* osQ uke ls nl [kaMksa
esa izdkf'krA
fuèku % lu~ 2003] eqacbZ esa
iwoZ pyus osQ cVksgh ckV dh igpku dj ys
1942&1952 rd bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; esa izkè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh osQ lkfgfR;d
dk;ZØeksa ls lac¼] fiQj fons'k ea=kky; esa ¯gnh fo'ks"kK jgsA nksuksa egk;q¼ksa osQ chp eè;oxZ
osQ fo{kqCèk] fodYk eu dks cPpu us ok.kh dk ojnku fn;kA mUgksaus Nk;kokn dh yk{kf.kd
oØrk osQ ctk; lhèkh&lknh thoar Hkk"kk vkSj laosnuflDr xs; 'kSyh esa viuh ckr dghA
O;fDrxr thou esa ?kVh ?kVukvksa dh lgt vuqHkwfr dh bZekunkj vfHkO;fDr cPpu osQ
;gk¡ dfork cudj izdV gqbZA ;g fo'ks"krk ¯gnh dkO; lalkj esa mudh foy{k.k yksdfiz;rk
dk ewy vkèkkj gSA
eè;;qxhu I
+
kQkjlh osQ dfo mej [kÕ;ke dk eLrkukiu gfjoa'k jk; cPpu dh
izkjafHkd dforkvksa fo'ks"kdj e/q'kkyk esa ,d vn~Hkqr vFkZ&foLrkj ikrk gSµthou ,d rjg
dk eèkqdy'k gS] nqfu;k eèkq'kkyk gS] dYiuk lkdh vkSj dfork og I;kyk ftlesa <kydj
thou ikBd dks fiyk;k tkrk gSA dfork dk ,d ?kw¡V thou dk ,d ?kw¡V gSA iwjh rUe;rk
ls thou dk ?kw¡V Hkjsa] dM+ok&[k^k Hkh lgt Hkko ls Lohdkj djsa rks varr% ,d
1
4
vkjksg
lwfI
+
kQ;kuk&lh cs[k;kyh eu ij Nk,xh] ,d osQ cgkus lkjh nqfu;k ls b'd gks tk,xk] vkSj
rsjk&esjk osQ leLr >xMs+ dkI
+
kwQj gks tk,¡xsA bls cPpu dk gkykoknh n'kZu dgrs gSaA
;g ckr è;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd mudh ;qxcksèk&lacaèkh dfork,¡ tks ckn esa fy[kh xb±]
mudk ewY;kadu vHkh rd de gh gks ik;k gSA cPpu dk dfo&:i lcls fo[;kr gS]
ij mUgksaus dgkuh] ukVd] Mk;jh vkfn osQ lkFk csgrjhu vkRedFkk Hkh fy[kh gSµtks
bZekunkj vkReLoho`Qfr vkSj izkaty 'kSyh osQ dkj.k fujarj iBuh; cuh gqbZ gSA
;gk¡ mudh dfork vkReifjp; rFkk xhr laxzg fu'kk fuea=k.k dk ,d xhr fn;k
tk jgk gSA vius dks tkuuk nqfu;k dks tkuus ls T;knk dfBu gSA lekt ls O;fDr dk ukrk
[k^k&ehBk rks gksrk gh gSA txthou ls iwjh rjg fujis{k jguk laHko ugha! nqfu;k vius
O;aX;&ck.k vkSj 'kklu&iz'kklu ls pkgs ftruk d"V ns] ij nqfu;k ls dVdj euq"; jg Hkh
ugha ikrkA D;ksafd mldh viuh vfLerk] viuh igpku dk mRl] mldk ifjos'k gh mldh
nqfu;k gSµ viuk ifjp; nsrs gq, og yxkrkj nqfu;k ls vius f}èkkRed vkSj }a}kRed lacaèkksa
dk eeZ gh mn~?kkfVr djrk pyrk gS vkSj iwjh dfork dk lkjka'k ,d iafDr esa ;g curk
gS fd nqfu;k ls esjk lacaèk izhfrdyg dk gS] esjk thou fojQ¼ksa dk lkeatL; gSµ mUeknksa
esa volkn] jksnu esa jkx] 'khry ok.kh esa vkx] fojQ¼ksa dk fojksèkkHkklewyd
lkeatL; lkèkrs&lkèkrs gh og cs[kqnh] og eLrh] og nhokuxh O;fDrRo esa mrj vkbZ gS
fd nqfu;k esa gw¡] nqfu;k dk rycxkj ugha gw¡ @ ck”kkj ls xq”kjk gw¡ [kjhnkj ugha gw¡µ
tSlk oqQN dgus dk BLlk iSnk gqvk gSA ;g BLlk gh Nk;koknksÙkj xhfrdkO; dk izk.k gSA
fdlh vlaHko vkn'kZ (;wVksfi;k) dh ryk'k esa lkjh nqfu;knkjh Bqdjkdj ml Hkko ls nqfu;k
ls bUgsa dksbZ okLrk ugha gSA izhfr&dyg dk ;gh forku vkSj fojksèkkHkkl dk ;g foxzg bUgsa
nwj fVefVekrs rkjs dh vcw> jgL;kRedrk ls ygkyksV j[krk gSA fu'kk fuea=k.k ls m¼`r
xhr esa izo`Qfr osQ nSfud ifjorZu'khyrk osQ lanHkZ esa izkf.k&oxZ (fo'ks"kdj euq";) osQ
èkM+drs ân; dks lquus dh dkO;kRed dksf'k'k gSA cgqr gh ljy lokZuqHkwr ¯ccksa osQ ”kfj;s
fdlh vxkspj lR; dh :gkuh Nqvu eglwl djk nsuk cPpu dh tks vyx fo'ks"krk gS]
;g xhr mldk ,d csgrj uewuk gSA fdlh fiz; vkyacu ;k fo"k; ls Hkkoh lk{kkRdkj dk
vk'oklu gh gekjs iz;kl osQ  ixksa dh xfr esa papy rs”kh Hkj ldrk gSµ vU;Fkk ge
f'kfFkyrk vkSj fiQj tM+rk dks izkIr gksus osQ vfHkf'kIr gks tkrs gSaA xhr bl cM+s lR; osQ
lkFk le; osQ xq”kjrs tkus osQ ,glkl esa y{;&izkfIr osQ fy, oqQN dj xq”kjus dk t”ck
Hkh fy, gq, gSA
Page 5


dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM dkO; [kaM
yxrk ugha gS fny esjk mtM+s n;kj esa
fdldh  cuh  gS  vkyes&ukik;nkj  esa
cqycqy dks ckxck¡ ls u lÕ;kn ls fxyk
fdLer esa oSQn fy[kh Fkh] I
+
kQlys cgkj esa
bu  gljrksa  ls  dg nks  dgha  vkSj  tk clsa
bruh txg dgk¡ gS  fnys&nkxnkj esa
bd 'kk[ks&xqy is cSB osQ cqycqy gS 'kknek¡
dk¡Vs  fcNk  fn,  gSa  fnys&ykyg”kkj esa
mezs&njk”k  ek¡x  osQ  yk,  Fks  pkj  fnu
nks vkj”kw  esa dV x, nks bar”kkj  esa
fnu  ¯”knxh  osQ  [kRe  gq,  'kke  gks  xbZ
iSQyk
  osQ  ik¡o  lks,¡xs  oqQats&e”kkj  esa
fdruk  gS  cnulhc  ”kI
+
kQj  nÝ
+
u  osQ  fy,
nks  x”k  ”kehu  Hkh  u  feyh  owQ,&;kj  esa
(1857 osQ 150 o"kZ gksus ij)
cgknqj'kkg ”kI
+
kQj
gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjo gfjoaaaaa' ' ' ' 'kkkkk jk jk jk jk jk; ; ; ; ; cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu cPpu
tUe % lu~ 1907] bykgkckn
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % eèkq'kkyk (1935)] eèkqckyk (1938)]
eèkqdy'k (1938)] fu'kk fuea=k.k] ,dkar laxhr] vkoqQy&varj]
feyu;kfeuh] lrjafx.kh] vkjrh vkSj vaxkjs] u, iqjkus >jks[ks]
VwVh&iwQVh dfM+;k¡ (dkO; laxzg)_ D;k Hkwyw¡ D;k ;kn d:¡]
uhM+ dk fuekZ.k fiQj] clsjs ls nwj] n'k}kj ls lksiku rd
(vkRedFkk pkj [kaM)_ gSeysV] tuxhrk] eSdcsFk (vuqokn)_
izoklh dh Mk;jh (Mk;jh)
mudk iwjk okÄ~e; ^cPpu xzaFkkoyh* osQ uke ls nl [kaMksa
esa izdkf'krA
fuèku % lu~ 2003] eqacbZ esa
iwoZ pyus osQ cVksgh ckV dh igpku dj ys
1942&1952 rd bykgkckn fo'ofo|ky; esa izkè;kid] vkdk'kok.kh osQ lkfgfR;d
dk;ZØeksa ls lac¼] fiQj fons'k ea=kky; esa ¯gnh fo'ks"kK jgsA nksuksa egk;q¼ksa osQ chp eè;oxZ
osQ fo{kqCèk] fodYk eu dks cPpu us ok.kh dk ojnku fn;kA mUgksaus Nk;kokn dh yk{kf.kd
oØrk osQ ctk; lhèkh&lknh thoar Hkk"kk vkSj laosnuflDr xs; 'kSyh esa viuh ckr dghA
O;fDrxr thou esa ?kVh ?kVukvksa dh lgt vuqHkwfr dh bZekunkj vfHkO;fDr cPpu osQ
;gk¡ dfork cudj izdV gqbZA ;g fo'ks"krk ¯gnh dkO; lalkj esa mudh foy{k.k yksdfiz;rk
dk ewy vkèkkj gSA
eè;;qxhu I
+
kQkjlh osQ dfo mej [kÕ;ke dk eLrkukiu gfjoa'k jk; cPpu dh
izkjafHkd dforkvksa fo'ks"kdj e/q'kkyk esa ,d vn~Hkqr vFkZ&foLrkj ikrk gSµthou ,d rjg
dk eèkqdy'k gS] nqfu;k eèkq'kkyk gS] dYiuk lkdh vkSj dfork og I;kyk ftlesa <kydj
thou ikBd dks fiyk;k tkrk gSA dfork dk ,d ?kw¡V thou dk ,d ?kw¡V gSA iwjh rUe;rk
ls thou dk ?kw¡V Hkjsa] dM+ok&[k^k Hkh lgt Hkko ls Lohdkj djsa rks varr% ,d
1
4
vkjksg
lwfI
+
kQ;kuk&lh cs[k;kyh eu ij Nk,xh] ,d osQ cgkus lkjh nqfu;k ls b'd gks tk,xk] vkSj
rsjk&esjk osQ leLr >xMs+ dkI
+
kwQj gks tk,¡xsA bls cPpu dk gkykoknh n'kZu dgrs gSaA
;g ckr è;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd mudh ;qxcksèk&lacaèkh dfork,¡ tks ckn esa fy[kh xb±]
mudk ewY;kadu vHkh rd de gh gks ik;k gSA cPpu dk dfo&:i lcls fo[;kr gS]
ij mUgksaus dgkuh] ukVd] Mk;jh vkfn osQ lkFk csgrjhu vkRedFkk Hkh fy[kh gSµtks
bZekunkj vkReLoho`Qfr vkSj izkaty 'kSyh osQ dkj.k fujarj iBuh; cuh gqbZ gSA
;gk¡ mudh dfork vkReifjp; rFkk xhr laxzg fu'kk fuea=k.k dk ,d xhr fn;k
tk jgk gSA vius dks tkuuk nqfu;k dks tkuus ls T;knk dfBu gSA lekt ls O;fDr dk ukrk
[k^k&ehBk rks gksrk gh gSA txthou ls iwjh rjg fujis{k jguk laHko ugha! nqfu;k vius
O;aX;&ck.k vkSj 'kklu&iz'kklu ls pkgs ftruk d"V ns] ij nqfu;k ls dVdj euq"; jg Hkh
ugha ikrkA D;ksafd mldh viuh vfLerk] viuh igpku dk mRl] mldk ifjos'k gh mldh
nqfu;k gSµ viuk ifjp; nsrs gq, og yxkrkj nqfu;k ls vius f}èkkRed vkSj }a}kRed lacaèkksa
dk eeZ gh mn~?kkfVr djrk pyrk gS vkSj iwjh dfork dk lkjka'k ,d iafDr esa ;g curk
gS fd nqfu;k ls esjk lacaèk izhfrdyg dk gS] esjk thou fojQ¼ksa dk lkeatL; gSµ mUeknksa
esa volkn] jksnu esa jkx] 'khry ok.kh esa vkx] fojQ¼ksa dk fojksèkkHkklewyd
lkeatL; lkèkrs&lkèkrs gh og cs[kqnh] og eLrh] og nhokuxh O;fDrRo esa mrj vkbZ gS
fd nqfu;k esa gw¡] nqfu;k dk rycxkj ugha gw¡ @ ck”kkj ls xq”kjk gw¡ [kjhnkj ugha gw¡µ
tSlk oqQN dgus dk BLlk iSnk gqvk gSA ;g BLlk gh Nk;koknksÙkj xhfrdkO; dk izk.k gSA
fdlh vlaHko vkn'kZ (;wVksfi;k) dh ryk'k esa lkjh nqfu;knkjh Bqdjkdj ml Hkko ls nqfu;k
ls bUgsa dksbZ okLrk ugha gSA izhfr&dyg dk ;gh forku vkSj fojksèkkHkkl dk ;g foxzg bUgsa
nwj fVefVekrs rkjs dh vcw> jgL;kRedrk ls ygkyksV j[krk gSA fu'kk fuea=k.k ls m¼`r
xhr esa izo`Qfr osQ nSfud ifjorZu'khyrk osQ lanHkZ esa izkf.k&oxZ (fo'ks"kdj euq";) osQ
èkM+drs ân; dks lquus dh dkO;kRed dksf'k'k gSA cgqr gh ljy lokZuqHkwr ¯ccksa osQ ”kfj;s
fdlh vxkspj lR; dh :gkuh Nqvu eglwl djk nsuk cPpu dh tks vyx fo'ks"krk gS]
;g xhr mldk ,d csgrj uewuk gSA fdlh fiz; vkyacu ;k fo"k; ls Hkkoh lk{kkRdkj dk
vk'oklu gh gekjs iz;kl osQ  ixksa dh xfr esa papy rs”kh Hkj ldrk gSµ vU;Fkk ge
f'kfFkyrk vkSj fiQj tM+rk dks izkIr gksus osQ vfHkf'kIr gks tkrs gSaA xhr bl cM+s lR; osQ
lkFk le; osQ xq”kjrs tkus osQ ,glkl esa y{;&izkfIr osQ fy, oqQN dj xq”kjus dk t”ck
Hkh fy, gq, gSA
vkReifjp;@xhr
5
vkReifjp; vkReifjp; vkReifjp; vkReifjp; vkReifjp;
eSa  tx&thou  dk  Hkkj  fy,  fiQjrk gw¡]
fiQj  Hkh  thou  esa I;kj  fy,  fiQjrk gw¡_
dj  fn;k  fdlh  us  >ao`Qr  ftudks  Nwdj
eSa  lk¡lksa  osQ  nks  rkj  fy,  fiQjrk  gw¡!
eSa  Lusg&lqjk  dk  iku  fd;k  djrk gw¡]
eSa dHkh u tx  dk  è;ku  fd;k  djrk gw¡]
tx  iwN  jgk  mudks]  tks  tx  dh xkrs]
eSa  vius  eu  dk  xku  fd;k  djrk  gw¡!
eSa  fut  mj  osQ  mn~xkj  fy,  fiQjrk  gw¡]
eSa  fut  mj  osQ  migkj  fy,  fiQjrk  gw¡_
gS  ;g  viw.kZ  lalkj  u  eq>dks  Hkkrk
eSa  LoIuksa  dk  lalkj  fy,  fiQjrk  gw¡!
eSa  tyk  ân;  eas  vfXu]  ngk  djrk  gw¡]
lq[k&nq[k  nksuksa  esa  eXu  jgk  djrk  gw¡_
tx  Hko&lkxj  rjus  dks  uko  cuk,]
eSa  Hko  ekStksa  ij  eLr  cgk  djrk  gw¡!
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