NCERT Textbook - Jawaharlal Nehru Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Jawaharlal Nehru Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


112/vkjksg
lPph laLÑfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izsj.kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh èkjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+sa tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSaA
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)
tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (¯gnh vuqokn)] ¯gnqLrku
dh leL;k,¡] Lokèkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vªfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964
tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d
laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk¡ osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkaèkh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfèkos'ku osQ vè;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ek¡x dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,¡
cukb±] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLÑfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


112/vkjksg
lPph laLÑfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izsj.kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh èkjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+sa tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSaA
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)
tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (¯gnh vuqokn)] ¯gnqLrku
dh leL;k,¡] Lokèkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vªfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964
tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d
laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk¡ osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkaèkh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfèkos'ku osQ vè;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ek¡x dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,¡
cukb±] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLÑfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/113
esa tkus tkrs FksA 'kkafr] v¯glk vkSj ekuork osQ fgek;rh usg: us varjjk"Vªh; Lrj
ij fo'o'kkafr vkSj iap'khy osQ fl¼karksa dk izpkj fd;kA
izLrqr ikB fganqLrku dh dgkuh dk ik¡pok¡ vè;k; gSA vaxzs”kh ls Hkk"kkarj
gfjHkkÅ mikè;k; us fd;k gSA blesa ia- usg: us crk;k gS fd fdl rjg ns'k
osQ dksus&dksus esa vk;ksftr tylksa esa tkdj os vke yksxksa dks crkrs Fks fd vusd
fgLlksa esa c¡Vk gksus osQ ckn Hkh fganqLrku ,d gSA bl vikj iSQyko osQ chp ,drk
osQ D;k vkèkkj gSa vkSj D;ksa Hkkjr ,d ns'k gS] ftlosQ lHkh fgLlksa dh fu;fr ,d
gh rjhosQ ls curh&fcxM+rh gS–;gh iwjs ikB dh fo"k;oLrq gSA blh Øe esa
ia- usg: us Hkkjr ekrk 'kCn ij Hkh  fopkj fd;k gS vkSj mudk fu"d"kZ gS fd
Hkkjr ekrk dh t; dk eryc gS] ;gk¡ osQ djksM+ksa&djksM+ yksxksa dh t;A dgus
dh ”k:jr ugha fd vius NksVs vkdkj osQ ckoTkwn bl ys[k dk dF; vR;ar fojkV
vkSj izLrqrhdj.k iSuk gSA
tokgjyky usg:/113
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


112/vkjksg
lPph laLÑfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izsj.kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh èkjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+sa tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSaA
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)
tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (¯gnh vuqokn)] ¯gnqLrku
dh leL;k,¡] Lokèkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vªfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964
tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d
laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk¡ osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkaèkh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfèkos'ku osQ vè;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ek¡x dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,¡
cukb±] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLÑfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/113
esa tkus tkrs FksA 'kkafr] v¯glk vkSj ekuork osQ fgek;rh usg: us varjjk"Vªh; Lrj
ij fo'o'kkafr vkSj iap'khy osQ fl¼karksa dk izpkj fd;kA
izLrqr ikB fganqLrku dh dgkuh dk ik¡pok¡ vè;k; gSA vaxzs”kh ls Hkk"kkarj
gfjHkkÅ mikè;k; us fd;k gSA blesa ia- usg: us crk;k gS fd fdl rjg ns'k
osQ dksus&dksus esa vk;ksftr tylksa esa tkdj os vke yksxksa dks crkrs Fks fd vusd
fgLlksa esa c¡Vk gksus osQ ckn Hkh fganqLrku ,d gSA bl vikj iSQyko osQ chp ,drk
osQ D;k vkèkkj gSa vkSj D;ksa Hkkjr ,d ns'k gS] ftlosQ lHkh fgLlksa dh fu;fr ,d
gh rjhosQ ls curh&fcxM+rh gS–;gh iwjs ikB dh fo"k;oLrq gSA blh Øe esa
ia- usg: us Hkkjr ekrk 'kCn ij Hkh  fopkj fd;k gS vkSj mudk fu"d"kZ gS fd
Hkkjr ekrk dh t; dk eryc gS] ;gk¡ osQ djksM+ksa&djksM+ yksxksa dh t;A dgus
dh ”k:jr ugha fd vius NksVs vkdkj osQ ckoTkwn bl ys[k dk dF; vR;ar fojkV
vkSj izLrqrhdj.k iSuk gSA
tokgjyky usg:/113
© NCERT
not to be republished
114/vkjksg
Hkkjr ekrk
vdlj tc eSa ,d tyls ls nwljs tyls esa tkrk gksrk] vkSj bl rjg pDdj
dkVrk jgrk gksrk Fkk] rks bu tylksa esa eSa vius lquus okyksa ls vius bl fganqLrku
;k Hkkjr dh ppkZ djrkA Hkkjr ,d laLÑr 'kCn gS vkSj bl tkfr osQ ijaijkxr
laLFkkid osQ uke ls fudyk gqvk gSA eSa 'kgjksa esa ,slk cgqr de djrk] D;ksafd
ogk¡ osQ lquus okys oqQN ”;knk l;kus Fks vkSj mUgsa nwljs gh fdLe dh fx”kk dh
”k:jr FkhA ysfdu fdlkuksa ls] ftudk u”kfj;k egnwn Fkk] eSa bl cM+s ns'k dh
ppkZ djrk] ftldh vk”kknh osQ fy, ge yksx dksf'k'k dj jgs Fks vkSj crkrk fd
fdl rjg ns'k dk ,d fgLlk nwljs ls Tkqnk gksrs gq, Hkh fganqLrku ,d FkkA eSa mu
elyksa dk f”kØ djrk] tks mÙkj ls ysdj nfD[ku rd vkSj iwjc ls ysdj ifPNe
rd] fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;d&lk¡ Fks] vkSj LojkT; dk Hkh f”kØ djrk] tks FkksM+s yksxksa
osQ fy, ugha] cfYd lHkh osQ I
+
kQk;ns osQ fy, gks ldrk FkkA
eSa mÙkj&ifPNe esa [kScj osQ njsZ ls ysdj èkqj nfD[ku esa dU;koqQekjh rd dh
viuh ;k=kk dk gky crkrk vkSj ;g dgrk fd lHkh txg fdlku eq>ls ,d&ls
loky djrs] D;ksafd mudh rdyhI
+
ksaQ ,d&lh Fkhaµ;kuh xjhcksa] d”kZnkjksa] i¡wthifr;ksa
osQ f'koaQts] ”kehankj] egktu] dM+s yxku vkSj lwn] iqfyl osQ ”kqYe] vkSj ;s lHkh
ckrsa xq¡Fkh gqbZ Fkha] ml <Is osQ lkFk] ftls ,d fons'kh ljdkj us ge ij ykn j[kk
Fkk vkSj buls NqVdkjk Hkh lHkh dks gkfly djuk FkkA eSaus bl ckr dh dksf'k'k
dh fd yksx lkjs fganqLrku osQ ckjs esa lkspsa vkSj oqQN gn rd bl cM+h nqfu;k osQ
ckjs esa Hkh] ftlosQ ge ,d tq”k gSaA eSa viuh ckrphr esa phu] Lisu] vchflfu;k]
eè; ;wjksi] feÏ vkSj ifPNeh ,f'k;k esa gksusokys d'ked'kksa dk f”kØ Hkh ys
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


112/vkjksg
lPph laLÑfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izsj.kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh èkjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+sa tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSaA
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)
tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (¯gnh vuqokn)] ¯gnqLrku
dh leL;k,¡] Lokèkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vªfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964
tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d
laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk¡ osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkaèkh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfèkos'ku osQ vè;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ek¡x dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,¡
cukb±] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLÑfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/113
esa tkus tkrs FksA 'kkafr] v¯glk vkSj ekuork osQ fgek;rh usg: us varjjk"Vªh; Lrj
ij fo'o'kkafr vkSj iap'khy osQ fl¼karksa dk izpkj fd;kA
izLrqr ikB fganqLrku dh dgkuh dk ik¡pok¡ vè;k; gSA vaxzs”kh ls Hkk"kkarj
gfjHkkÅ mikè;k; us fd;k gSA blesa ia- usg: us crk;k gS fd fdl rjg ns'k
osQ dksus&dksus esa vk;ksftr tylksa esa tkdj os vke yksxksa dks crkrs Fks fd vusd
fgLlksa esa c¡Vk gksus osQ ckn Hkh fganqLrku ,d gSA bl vikj iSQyko osQ chp ,drk
osQ D;k vkèkkj gSa vkSj D;ksa Hkkjr ,d ns'k gS] ftlosQ lHkh fgLlksa dh fu;fr ,d
gh rjhosQ ls curh&fcxM+rh gS–;gh iwjs ikB dh fo"k;oLrq gSA blh Øe esa
ia- usg: us Hkkjr ekrk 'kCn ij Hkh  fopkj fd;k gS vkSj mudk fu"d"kZ gS fd
Hkkjr ekrk dh t; dk eryc gS] ;gk¡ osQ djksM+ksa&djksM+ yksxksa dh t;A dgus
dh ”k:jr ugha fd vius NksVs vkdkj osQ ckoTkwn bl ys[k dk dF; vR;ar fojkV
vkSj izLrqrhdj.k iSuk gSA
tokgjyky usg:/113
© NCERT
not to be republished
114/vkjksg
Hkkjr ekrk
vdlj tc eSa ,d tyls ls nwljs tyls esa tkrk gksrk] vkSj bl rjg pDdj
dkVrk jgrk gksrk Fkk] rks bu tylksa esa eSa vius lquus okyksa ls vius bl fganqLrku
;k Hkkjr dh ppkZ djrkA Hkkjr ,d laLÑr 'kCn gS vkSj bl tkfr osQ ijaijkxr
laLFkkid osQ uke ls fudyk gqvk gSA eSa 'kgjksa esa ,slk cgqr de djrk] D;ksafd
ogk¡ osQ lquus okys oqQN ”;knk l;kus Fks vkSj mUgsa nwljs gh fdLe dh fx”kk dh
”k:jr FkhA ysfdu fdlkuksa ls] ftudk u”kfj;k egnwn Fkk] eSa bl cM+s ns'k dh
ppkZ djrk] ftldh vk”kknh osQ fy, ge yksx dksf'k'k dj jgs Fks vkSj crkrk fd
fdl rjg ns'k dk ,d fgLlk nwljs ls Tkqnk gksrs gq, Hkh fganqLrku ,d FkkA eSa mu
elyksa dk f”kØ djrk] tks mÙkj ls ysdj nfD[ku rd vkSj iwjc ls ysdj ifPNe
rd] fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;d&lk¡ Fks] vkSj LojkT; dk Hkh f”kØ djrk] tks FkksM+s yksxksa
osQ fy, ugha] cfYd lHkh osQ I
+
kQk;ns osQ fy, gks ldrk FkkA
eSa mÙkj&ifPNe esa [kScj osQ njsZ ls ysdj èkqj nfD[ku esa dU;koqQekjh rd dh
viuh ;k=kk dk gky crkrk vkSj ;g dgrk fd lHkh txg fdlku eq>ls ,d&ls
loky djrs] D;ksafd mudh rdyhI
+
ksaQ ,d&lh Fkhaµ;kuh xjhcksa] d”kZnkjksa] i¡wthifr;ksa
osQ f'koaQts] ”kehankj] egktu] dM+s yxku vkSj lwn] iqfyl osQ ”kqYe] vkSj ;s lHkh
ckrsa xq¡Fkh gqbZ Fkha] ml <Is osQ lkFk] ftls ,d fons'kh ljdkj us ge ij ykn j[kk
Fkk vkSj buls NqVdkjk Hkh lHkh dks gkfly djuk FkkA eSaus bl ckr dh dksf'k'k
dh fd yksx lkjs fganqLrku osQ ckjs esa lkspsa vkSj oqQN gn rd bl cM+h nqfu;k osQ
ckjs esa Hkh] ftlosQ ge ,d tq”k gSaA eSa viuh ckrphr esa phu] Lisu] vchflfu;k]
eè; ;wjksi] feÏ vkSj ifPNeh ,f'k;k esa gksusokys d'ked'kksa dk f”kØ Hkh ys
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/115
vkrkA eSa mUgsa lksfo;r ;wfu;u esa gksus okyh vpjt&Hkjh rCnhfy;ksa dk gky Hkh
crkrk vkSj dgrk fd vejhdk us oSQlh rjDdh dh gSA ;g dke vklku u Fkk]
ysfdu tSlk eSaus le> j[kk Fkk] oSlk eqf'dy Hkh u FkkA bldh otg ;g Fkh fd
gekjs iqjkus egkdkO;ksa us vkSj iqjk.kksa dh dFkk&dgkfu;ksa us] ftUgsa os [kwc tkurs
Fks] mUgsa bl ns'k dh dYiuk djk nh Fkh] vkSj ges'kk oqQN yksx ,sls fey tkrs Fks]
ftUgksaus gekjs cM+s&cM+s rhFkks± dh ;k=kk dj j[kh Fkh] tks fganqLrku osQ pkjksa dksuksa
ij gSaA ;k gesa iqjkus flikgh fey tkrs] ftUgksaus fiNyh cM+h tax esa ;k vkSj èkkoksa
osQ flyflys esa fons'kksa esa ukSdfj;k¡ dh FkhaA lu~~ rhl osQ ckn tks vkfFkZd eanh iSnk
gqbZ Fkh] mldh otg ls nwljs eqYdksa osQ ckjs esa esjs gokys mudh le> esa vk
tkrs FksA
dHkh ,slk Hkh gksrk fd tc eSa fdlh tyls esa igq¡prk] rks esjk Lokxr ¶Hkkjr
ekrk dh t;!¸ bl ukjs ls ”kksj osQ lkFk fd;k tkrkA eSa yksxksa ls vpkud iwN
cSBrk fd bl ukjs ls mudk D;k eryc gS\ ;g Hkkjr ekrk dkSu gS] ftldh os
t; pkgrs gSaA esjs loky ls mUgsa oqQrwgy vkSj rkTTkqc gksrk vkSj oqQN tokc u cu
iM+us ij os ,d&nwljs dh rjI
+
kQ ;k esjh rjI
+
kQ ns[kus yx tkrsA eSa loky djrk gh
jgrkA vkf[kj ,d g^s&d^s tkV us] tks vufxur ihf<+;ksa ls fdlkuh djrk vk;k
Fkk] tokc fn;k fd Hkkjr ekrk ls mudk eryc èkjrh ls gSA dkSu&lh èkjrh\
[kkl muosQ xk¡o dh èkjrh ;k f”kys dh ;k lwcs dh ;k lkjs fganqLrku dh èkjrh
ls mudk eryc gS\ bl rjg loky&tokc pyrs jgrs] ;gk¡ rd fd os Åcdj
eq>ls dgus yxrs fd eSa gh crkm¡QA eSa bldh dksf'k'k djrk vkSj crkrk fd
fganqLrku og lc oqQN gS] ftls mUgksaus le> j[kk gS] ysfdu og blls Hkh cgqr
”;knk gSA fganqLrku osQ unh vkSj igkM+] taxy vkSj [ksr] tks gesa vUu nsrs gSa] ;s
lHkh gesa v”kh”k gSaA ysfdu vkf[kjdkj ftudh fxurh gS] os gSa fganqLrku osQ yksx]
muosQ vkSj esjs tSls yksx] tks bl lkjs ns'k esa iSQys gq, gSaA Hkkjr ekrk njvly ;gh
djksM+ksa yksx gSa] vkSj ¶Hkkjr ekrk dh t;!¸ ls eryc gqvk bu yksxksa dh t; dkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


112/vkjksg
lPph laLÑfr dks nqfu;k osQ gj dksus ls izsj.kk feyrh gS] ysfdu og
viuh gh èkjrh ij iSnk gksrh gS vkSj mldh tM+sa tu&eu esa lekbZ jgrh gSaA
(milagkj] Hkkjr dh [kkst)
tokgjyky usg:
tUe% lu~~ 1889] bykgkckn (m-iz-)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% esjh dgkuh (vkRedFkk) fo'o
bfrgkl dh >yd] fganqLrku dh dgkuh] firk
osQ i=k iq=kh osQ uke (¯gnh vuqokn)] ¯gnqLrku
dh leL;k,¡] Lokèkhurk vkSj mlosQ ckn]
jk"Vªfirk] Hkkjr dh cqfu;knh ,drk] yM+[kM+krh
nqfu;k vkfn (ys[kksa vkSj Hkk"k.kksa dk laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1964
tokgjyky usg: dk tUe bykgkckn osQ ,d
laiUu ifjokj esa gqvkA muosQ firk ogk¡ osQ cM+s odhy FksA usg: dh izkjafHkd
f'k{kk ?kj ij rFkk mPp f'k{kk baXySaM esa gSjks rFkk oSQfEczt esa gqbZA ogha ls odkyr
dh i<+kbZ Hkh dh ysfdu usg: ij xkaèkh th dk cgqr izHkko iM+kA mudh iqdkj
ij os i<+kbZ NksM+dj vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ esa tqV x,A vkxs pydj lu~~ 1929 esa
os Hkkjrh; jk"Vªh; dkaxzsl osQ ykgkSj vfèkos'ku osQ vè;{k cus vkSj iw.kZ Lora=krk
dh ek¡x dhA usg: dk >qdko lektokn dh vksj Hkh jgkA
lu~~ 1947 esa tc Hkkjr Lora=k gqvk rks usg: th igys iz/kuea=kh cus vkSj
Hkkjr osQ fuekZ.k esa var rd tqVs jgsA mUgksaus ns'k osQ fodkl osQ fy, dbZ ;kstuk,¡
cukb±] ftuesa vkfFkZd vkSj vkS|ksfxd izxfr rFkk oSKkfud vuqla/ku ls ysdj lkfgR;]
dyk] laLÑfr vkfn {ks=k 'kkfey FksA usg: th cPpksa osQ chp pkpk usg: osQ :i
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/113
esa tkus tkrs FksA 'kkafr] v¯glk vkSj ekuork osQ fgek;rh usg: us varjjk"Vªh; Lrj
ij fo'o'kkafr vkSj iap'khy osQ fl¼karksa dk izpkj fd;kA
izLrqr ikB fganqLrku dh dgkuh dk ik¡pok¡ vè;k; gSA vaxzs”kh ls Hkk"kkarj
gfjHkkÅ mikè;k; us fd;k gSA blesa ia- usg: us crk;k gS fd fdl rjg ns'k
osQ dksus&dksus esa vk;ksftr tylksa esa tkdj os vke yksxksa dks crkrs Fks fd vusd
fgLlksa esa c¡Vk gksus osQ ckn Hkh fganqLrku ,d gSA bl vikj iSQyko osQ chp ,drk
osQ D;k vkèkkj gSa vkSj D;ksa Hkkjr ,d ns'k gS] ftlosQ lHkh fgLlksa dh fu;fr ,d
gh rjhosQ ls curh&fcxM+rh gS–;gh iwjs ikB dh fo"k;oLrq gSA blh Øe esa
ia- usg: us Hkkjr ekrk 'kCn ij Hkh  fopkj fd;k gS vkSj mudk fu"d"kZ gS fd
Hkkjr ekrk dh t; dk eryc gS] ;gk¡ osQ djksM+ksa&djksM+ yksxksa dh t;A dgus
dh ”k:jr ugha fd vius NksVs vkdkj osQ ckoTkwn bl ys[k dk dF; vR;ar fojkV
vkSj izLrqrhdj.k iSuk gSA
tokgjyky usg:/113
© NCERT
not to be republished
114/vkjksg
Hkkjr ekrk
vdlj tc eSa ,d tyls ls nwljs tyls esa tkrk gksrk] vkSj bl rjg pDdj
dkVrk jgrk gksrk Fkk] rks bu tylksa esa eSa vius lquus okyksa ls vius bl fganqLrku
;k Hkkjr dh ppkZ djrkA Hkkjr ,d laLÑr 'kCn gS vkSj bl tkfr osQ ijaijkxr
laLFkkid osQ uke ls fudyk gqvk gSA eSa 'kgjksa esa ,slk cgqr de djrk] D;ksafd
ogk¡ osQ lquus okys oqQN ”;knk l;kus Fks vkSj mUgsa nwljs gh fdLe dh fx”kk dh
”k:jr FkhA ysfdu fdlkuksa ls] ftudk u”kfj;k egnwn Fkk] eSa bl cM+s ns'k dh
ppkZ djrk] ftldh vk”kknh osQ fy, ge yksx dksf'k'k dj jgs Fks vkSj crkrk fd
fdl rjg ns'k dk ,d fgLlk nwljs ls Tkqnk gksrs gq, Hkh fganqLrku ,d FkkA eSa mu
elyksa dk f”kØ djrk] tks mÙkj ls ysdj nfD[ku rd vkSj iwjc ls ysdj ifPNe
rd] fdlkuksa osQ fy, ;d&lk¡ Fks] vkSj LojkT; dk Hkh f”kØ djrk] tks FkksM+s yksxksa
osQ fy, ugha] cfYd lHkh osQ I
+
kQk;ns osQ fy, gks ldrk FkkA
eSa mÙkj&ifPNe esa [kScj osQ njsZ ls ysdj èkqj nfD[ku esa dU;koqQekjh rd dh
viuh ;k=kk dk gky crkrk vkSj ;g dgrk fd lHkh txg fdlku eq>ls ,d&ls
loky djrs] D;ksafd mudh rdyhI
+
ksaQ ,d&lh Fkhaµ;kuh xjhcksa] d”kZnkjksa] i¡wthifr;ksa
osQ f'koaQts] ”kehankj] egktu] dM+s yxku vkSj lwn] iqfyl osQ ”kqYe] vkSj ;s lHkh
ckrsa xq¡Fkh gqbZ Fkha] ml <Is osQ lkFk] ftls ,d fons'kh ljdkj us ge ij ykn j[kk
Fkk vkSj buls NqVdkjk Hkh lHkh dks gkfly djuk FkkA eSaus bl ckr dh dksf'k'k
dh fd yksx lkjs fganqLrku osQ ckjs esa lkspsa vkSj oqQN gn rd bl cM+h nqfu;k osQ
ckjs esa Hkh] ftlosQ ge ,d tq”k gSaA eSa viuh ckrphr esa phu] Lisu] vchflfu;k]
eè; ;wjksi] feÏ vkSj ifPNeh ,f'k;k esa gksusokys d'ked'kksa dk f”kØ Hkh ys
© NCERT
not to be republished
Hkkjr ekrk/115
vkrkA eSa mUgsa lksfo;r ;wfu;u esa gksus okyh vpjt&Hkjh rCnhfy;ksa dk gky Hkh
crkrk vkSj dgrk fd vejhdk us oSQlh rjDdh dh gSA ;g dke vklku u Fkk]
ysfdu tSlk eSaus le> j[kk Fkk] oSlk eqf'dy Hkh u FkkA bldh otg ;g Fkh fd
gekjs iqjkus egkdkO;ksa us vkSj iqjk.kksa dh dFkk&dgkfu;ksa us] ftUgsa os [kwc tkurs
Fks] mUgsa bl ns'k dh dYiuk djk nh Fkh] vkSj ges'kk oqQN yksx ,sls fey tkrs Fks]
ftUgksaus gekjs cM+s&cM+s rhFkks± dh ;k=kk dj j[kh Fkh] tks fganqLrku osQ pkjksa dksuksa
ij gSaA ;k gesa iqjkus flikgh fey tkrs] ftUgksaus fiNyh cM+h tax esa ;k vkSj èkkoksa
osQ flyflys esa fons'kksa esa ukSdfj;k¡ dh FkhaA lu~~ rhl osQ ckn tks vkfFkZd eanh iSnk
gqbZ Fkh] mldh otg ls nwljs eqYdksa osQ ckjs esa esjs gokys mudh le> esa vk
tkrs FksA
dHkh ,slk Hkh gksrk fd tc eSa fdlh tyls esa igq¡prk] rks esjk Lokxr ¶Hkkjr
ekrk dh t;!¸ bl ukjs ls ”kksj osQ lkFk fd;k tkrkA eSa yksxksa ls vpkud iwN
cSBrk fd bl ukjs ls mudk D;k eryc gS\ ;g Hkkjr ekrk dkSu gS] ftldh os
t; pkgrs gSaA esjs loky ls mUgsa oqQrwgy vkSj rkTTkqc gksrk vkSj oqQN tokc u cu
iM+us ij os ,d&nwljs dh rjI
+
kQ ;k esjh rjI
+
kQ ns[kus yx tkrsA eSa loky djrk gh
jgrkA vkf[kj ,d g^s&d^s tkV us] tks vufxur ihf<+;ksa ls fdlkuh djrk vk;k
Fkk] tokc fn;k fd Hkkjr ekrk ls mudk eryc èkjrh ls gSA dkSu&lh èkjrh\
[kkl muosQ xk¡o dh èkjrh ;k f”kys dh ;k lwcs dh ;k lkjs fganqLrku dh èkjrh
ls mudk eryc gS\ bl rjg loky&tokc pyrs jgrs] ;gk¡ rd fd os Åcdj
eq>ls dgus yxrs fd eSa gh crkm¡QA eSa bldh dksf'k'k djrk vkSj crkrk fd
fganqLrku og lc oqQN gS] ftls mUgksaus le> j[kk gS] ysfdu og blls Hkh cgqr
”;knk gSA fganqLrku osQ unh vkSj igkM+] taxy vkSj [ksr] tks gesa vUu nsrs gSa] ;s
lHkh gesa v”kh”k gSaA ysfdu vkf[kjdkj ftudh fxurh gS] os gSa fganqLrku osQ yksx]
muosQ vkSj esjs tSls yksx] tks bl lkjs ns'k esa iSQys gq, gSaA Hkkjr ekrk njvly ;gh
djksM+ksa yksx gSa] vkSj ¶Hkkjr ekrk dh t;!¸ ls eryc gqvk bu yksxksa dh t; dkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
116/vkjksg
eSa muls dgrk fd rqe bl Hkkjr ekrk osQ va'k gks] ,d rjg ls rqe gh Hkkjr
ekrk gks] vkSj tSls&tSls ;s fopkj muosQ eu esa cSBrs] mudh vk¡[kksa esa ped vk
tkrh] bl rjg] ekuks mUgksaus dksbZ cM+h [kkst dj yh gksA
vH;kl
ikB osQ lkFk
1- Hkkjr dh ppkZ usg: th dc vkSj fdlls djrs Fks\
2- usg: th Hkkjr osQ lHkh fdlkuksa ls dkSu&lk iz'u ckj&ckj djrs Fks\
3- nqfu;k osQ ckjs esa fdlkuksa dks crkuk usg: th osQ fy, D;ksa vklku Fkk\
4- fdlku lkekU;r% Hkkjr ekrk dk D;k vFkZ ysrs Fks\
5- Hkkjr ekrk osQ izfr usg: th dh D;k vo/kj.kk Fkh\
6- vk”kknh ls iwoZ fdlkuksa dks fdu leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk Fkk\
ikB osQ vkl&ikl
1- vk”kknh ls igys Hkkjr&fuekZ.k dks ysdj usg: osQ D;k lius Fks\ D;k vk”kknh osQ ckn os
lkdkj gq,\ ppkZ dhft,A
2- Hkkjr osQ fodkl dks ysdj vki D;k lius ns[krs gSa\
3- vkidh n`f"V esa Hkkjr ekrk vkSj fganqLrku dh D;k ladYiuk gS\ crkb,A
4- orZeku le; esa fdlkuksa dh fLFkfr fdl lhek rd cnyh gS\ ppkZ dj fyf[k,\
5- vk”kknh ls iwoZ vusd ukjs izpfyr FksA fdUgha nl ukjksa oQk ladyu djsa vkSj lanHkZ Hkh
fy[ksaA
Hkk"kk dh ckr
1- uhps fn, x, okD;ksa dk ikB osQ lanHkZ esa vFkZ fyf[k, &
nfD[ku] ifPNe] ;d&lk¡] ,d tq”k] <Is
2- uhps fn, x, laKk 'kCnksa osQ fo'ks"k.k :i fyf[k,µ
vk”kknh] ped] fganqLrku] fons'k] ljdkj] ;k=kk] iqjk.k] Hkkjr
© NCERT
not to be republished
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