NCERT Textbook - Krishan Chander Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Created by: Anant Ahuja

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Krishan Chander Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


100/vkjksg
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk ugha gS fd ekSr csjge gSA
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk gS fd vLirky csjge D;ksa gSa\
(vkbZus osQ lkeus)
Ñ'upanj
tUe% lu~~ 1914] iatkc osQ o”khjkckn xk¡o
(f”kyk&xqtjkadyka)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% ,d fxjTkk&,&[kand] ;wosQfyIV~l
dh Mkyh (dgkuh&laxzg)_ f'kdLr] ”kjxk¡o dh
jkuh] lM+d okil tkrh gS] vkleku jkS'ku gS]
,d xèks dh vkRedFkk] vUunkrk] ge og'kh gSa]
tc [ksr tkxs] ckou iÙks] ,d ok;fyu leanj
osQ fdukjs] dkx”k dh uko] esjh ;knksa osQ fdukjs
(miU;kl)
lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lfgr cgqr ls iqjLdkj
e`R;q% lu~~ 1977
izsepan osQ ckn ftu dgkuhdkjksa us dgkuh fo/k dks ubZ Å¡pkb;ksa rd igq¡pk;k]
muesa mnwZ dFkkdkj Ñ'upanj dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA izxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ls
mudk xgjk laca/ Fkk] ftldk vlj mudh jpukvksa esa Li"V :i ls >ydrk gSA
Ñ'upanj ,sls fxus&pqus ys[kdksa esa vkrs gSa] ftUgksaus ckn esa pydj ys[ku dks gh
jks”kh&jksVh dk lgkjk cuk;kA
Ñ'upanj dh izkFkfed f'k{kk iqaN (tEew ,oa d'ehj) esa gqbZA mPp f'k{kk osQ
fy, os lu~~ 1930 esa ykgkSj vk x, vkSj iQkWjesu fØf'p;u dkWyst esa izos'k fy;kA
1934 esa iatkc fo'ofo|ky; ls mUgksaus vaxzs”kh esa ,e-,- fd;kA ckn esa mudk
tqM+ko fI
+
kQYe txr ls gks x;k vkSj vafre le; rd os eqacbZ esa gh jgsA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


100/vkjksg
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk ugha gS fd ekSr csjge gSA
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk gS fd vLirky csjge D;ksa gSa\
(vkbZus osQ lkeus)
Ñ'upanj
tUe% lu~~ 1914] iatkc osQ o”khjkckn xk¡o
(f”kyk&xqtjkadyka)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% ,d fxjTkk&,&[kand] ;wosQfyIV~l
dh Mkyh (dgkuh&laxzg)_ f'kdLr] ”kjxk¡o dh
jkuh] lM+d okil tkrh gS] vkleku jkS'ku gS]
,d xèks dh vkRedFkk] vUunkrk] ge og'kh gSa]
tc [ksr tkxs] ckou iÙks] ,d ok;fyu leanj
osQ fdukjs] dkx”k dh uko] esjh ;knksa osQ fdukjs
(miU;kl)
lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lfgr cgqr ls iqjLdkj
e`R;q% lu~~ 1977
izsepan osQ ckn ftu dgkuhdkjksa us dgkuh fo/k dks ubZ Å¡pkb;ksa rd igq¡pk;k]
muesa mnwZ dFkkdkj Ñ'upanj dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA izxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ls
mudk xgjk laca/ Fkk] ftldk vlj mudh jpukvksa esa Li"V :i ls >ydrk gSA
Ñ'upanj ,sls fxus&pqus ys[kdksa esa vkrs gSa] ftUgksaus ckn esa pydj ys[ku dks gh
jks”kh&jksVh dk lgkjk cuk;kA
Ñ'upanj dh izkFkfed f'k{kk iqaN (tEew ,oa d'ehj) esa gqbZA mPp f'k{kk osQ
fy, os lu~~ 1930 esa ykgkSj vk x, vkSj iQkWjesu fØf'p;u dkWyst esa izos'k fy;kA
1934 esa iatkc fo'ofo|ky; ls mUgksaus vaxzs”kh esa ,e-,- fd;kA ckn esa mudk
tqM+ko fI
+
kQYe txr ls gks x;k vkSj vafre le; rd os eqacbZ esa gh jgsA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/101
;ksa rks Ñ'upanj us miU;kl] ukVd] fjiksrkZTk vkSj ys[k Hkh cgqr ls fy[ks gSa]
ysfdu mudh igpku dgkuhdkj osQ :i esa vf/d gqbZ gSA egky{eh dk iqy]
vkbZus osQ lkeus vkfn mudh e'kgwj dgkfu;k¡ gSaA mudh yksdfiz;rk bl dkj.k Hkh
gS fd os dkO;kRed jksekfu;r vkSj 'kSyh dh fofo/rk osQ dkj.k vyx eqdke
cukrs gSaA Ñ'upanj mnwZ dFkk&lkfgR; esa vuwBh jpuk'khyrk osQ fy, cgqpfpZr jgs
gSaA os izxfr'khy vkSj ;FkkFkZoknh u”kfj, ls fy[ks tkus okys lkfgR; osQ i{kèkj FksA
tkequ dk isM+ Ñ'upanj dh ,d izfl¼ gkL;&O;aX; dFkk gSA gkL;&O;aX;
osQ fy, ph”kksa dks vuqikr ls ”;knk iSQyk&iqQykdj fn[kykus dh ifjikVh iqjkuh
gS vkSj ;g dgkuh Hkh mldk vuqikyu djrh gSA blfy, ;gk¡ ?kVuk,¡ vfr'k;ksfDr&
iw.kZ vkSj vfo'oluh; tku iM+sa] rks dksbZ gSjr ughaA fo'oluh;rk ,slh jpukvksa
osQ ewY;kadu dh dlkSVh ugha gks ldrhA izLrqr ikB esa g¡lrs&g¡lrs gh gekjs Hkhrj
bl ckr dh le> iSnk gksrh gS fd dk;kZy;h rkSj&rjhdksa esa ik;k tkus okyk
foLrkj fdruk fujFkZd vkSj inkuqØe fdruk gkL;kLin gSA ckr ;gha rd ugha
jgrh\ bl O;oLFkk osQ laosnu'kwU; ,oa vekuoh; gksus dk i{k Hkh gekjs lkeus
vkrk gSA
Ñ'upanj/101
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


100/vkjksg
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk ugha gS fd ekSr csjge gSA
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk gS fd vLirky csjge D;ksa gSa\
(vkbZus osQ lkeus)
Ñ'upanj
tUe% lu~~ 1914] iatkc osQ o”khjkckn xk¡o
(f”kyk&xqtjkadyka)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% ,d fxjTkk&,&[kand] ;wosQfyIV~l
dh Mkyh (dgkuh&laxzg)_ f'kdLr] ”kjxk¡o dh
jkuh] lM+d okil tkrh gS] vkleku jkS'ku gS]
,d xèks dh vkRedFkk] vUunkrk] ge og'kh gSa]
tc [ksr tkxs] ckou iÙks] ,d ok;fyu leanj
osQ fdukjs] dkx”k dh uko] esjh ;knksa osQ fdukjs
(miU;kl)
lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lfgr cgqr ls iqjLdkj
e`R;q% lu~~ 1977
izsepan osQ ckn ftu dgkuhdkjksa us dgkuh fo/k dks ubZ Å¡pkb;ksa rd igq¡pk;k]
muesa mnwZ dFkkdkj Ñ'upanj dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA izxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ls
mudk xgjk laca/ Fkk] ftldk vlj mudh jpukvksa esa Li"V :i ls >ydrk gSA
Ñ'upanj ,sls fxus&pqus ys[kdksa esa vkrs gSa] ftUgksaus ckn esa pydj ys[ku dks gh
jks”kh&jksVh dk lgkjk cuk;kA
Ñ'upanj dh izkFkfed f'k{kk iqaN (tEew ,oa d'ehj) esa gqbZA mPp f'k{kk osQ
fy, os lu~~ 1930 esa ykgkSj vk x, vkSj iQkWjesu fØf'p;u dkWyst esa izos'k fy;kA
1934 esa iatkc fo'ofo|ky; ls mUgksaus vaxzs”kh esa ,e-,- fd;kA ckn esa mudk
tqM+ko fI
+
kQYe txr ls gks x;k vkSj vafre le; rd os eqacbZ esa gh jgsA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/101
;ksa rks Ñ'upanj us miU;kl] ukVd] fjiksrkZTk vkSj ys[k Hkh cgqr ls fy[ks gSa]
ysfdu mudh igpku dgkuhdkj osQ :i esa vf/d gqbZ gSA egky{eh dk iqy]
vkbZus osQ lkeus vkfn mudh e'kgwj dgkfu;k¡ gSaA mudh yksdfiz;rk bl dkj.k Hkh
gS fd os dkO;kRed jksekfu;r vkSj 'kSyh dh fofo/rk osQ dkj.k vyx eqdke
cukrs gSaA Ñ'upanj mnwZ dFkk&lkfgR; esa vuwBh jpuk'khyrk osQ fy, cgqpfpZr jgs
gSaA os izxfr'khy vkSj ;FkkFkZoknh u”kfj, ls fy[ks tkus okys lkfgR; osQ i{kèkj FksA
tkequ dk isM+ Ñ'upanj dh ,d izfl¼ gkL;&O;aX; dFkk gSA gkL;&O;aX;
osQ fy, ph”kksa dks vuqikr ls ”;knk iSQyk&iqQykdj fn[kykus dh ifjikVh iqjkuh
gS vkSj ;g dgkuh Hkh mldk vuqikyu djrh gSA blfy, ;gk¡ ?kVuk,¡ vfr'k;ksfDr&
iw.kZ vkSj vfo'oluh; tku iM+sa] rks dksbZ gSjr ughaA fo'oluh;rk ,slh jpukvksa
osQ ewY;kadu dh dlkSVh ugha gks ldrhA izLrqr ikB esa g¡lrs&g¡lrs gh gekjs Hkhrj
bl ckr dh le> iSnk gksrh gS fd dk;kZy;h rkSj&rjhdksa esa ik;k tkus okyk
foLrkj fdruk fujFkZd vkSj inkuqØe fdruk gkL;kLin gSA ckr ;gha rd ugha
jgrh\ bl O;oLFkk osQ laosnu'kwU; ,oa vekuoh; gksus dk i{k Hkh gekjs lkeus
vkrk gSA
Ñ'upanj/101
© NCERT
not to be republished
102/vkjksg
tkequ dk isM+
jkr dks cM+s ”kksj dk >DdM+ pykA lsozsQVsfj;sV osQ ykWu esa tkequ dk ,d isM+
fxj iM+kA losjs dks tc ekyh us ns[kk] rks mls irk pyk fd isM+ osQ uhps ,d
vkneh nck iM+k gSA
ekyh nkSM+k&nkSM+k pijklh osQ ikl x;k] pijklh nkSM+k&nkSM+k DyoZQ osQ ikl
x;k] DyoZQ nkSM+k&nkSM+k lqifjaVsaMsaV osQ ikl x;k] lqifjaVsaMsaV nkSM+k&nkSM+k ckgj ykWu
esa vk;kA feuVksa esa fxjs gq, isM+ osQ uhps ncs gq, vkneh osQ pkjksa vksj HkhM+ bd_h
gks xbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


100/vkjksg
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk ugha gS fd ekSr csjge gSA
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk gS fd vLirky csjge D;ksa gSa\
(vkbZus osQ lkeus)
Ñ'upanj
tUe% lu~~ 1914] iatkc osQ o”khjkckn xk¡o
(f”kyk&xqtjkadyka)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% ,d fxjTkk&,&[kand] ;wosQfyIV~l
dh Mkyh (dgkuh&laxzg)_ f'kdLr] ”kjxk¡o dh
jkuh] lM+d okil tkrh gS] vkleku jkS'ku gS]
,d xèks dh vkRedFkk] vUunkrk] ge og'kh gSa]
tc [ksr tkxs] ckou iÙks] ,d ok;fyu leanj
osQ fdukjs] dkx”k dh uko] esjh ;knksa osQ fdukjs
(miU;kl)
lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lfgr cgqr ls iqjLdkj
e`R;q% lu~~ 1977
izsepan osQ ckn ftu dgkuhdkjksa us dgkuh fo/k dks ubZ Å¡pkb;ksa rd igq¡pk;k]
muesa mnwZ dFkkdkj Ñ'upanj dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA izxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ls
mudk xgjk laca/ Fkk] ftldk vlj mudh jpukvksa esa Li"V :i ls >ydrk gSA
Ñ'upanj ,sls fxus&pqus ys[kdksa esa vkrs gSa] ftUgksaus ckn esa pydj ys[ku dks gh
jks”kh&jksVh dk lgkjk cuk;kA
Ñ'upanj dh izkFkfed f'k{kk iqaN (tEew ,oa d'ehj) esa gqbZA mPp f'k{kk osQ
fy, os lu~~ 1930 esa ykgkSj vk x, vkSj iQkWjesu fØf'p;u dkWyst esa izos'k fy;kA
1934 esa iatkc fo'ofo|ky; ls mUgksaus vaxzs”kh esa ,e-,- fd;kA ckn esa mudk
tqM+ko fI
+
kQYe txr ls gks x;k vkSj vafre le; rd os eqacbZ esa gh jgsA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/101
;ksa rks Ñ'upanj us miU;kl] ukVd] fjiksrkZTk vkSj ys[k Hkh cgqr ls fy[ks gSa]
ysfdu mudh igpku dgkuhdkj osQ :i esa vf/d gqbZ gSA egky{eh dk iqy]
vkbZus osQ lkeus vkfn mudh e'kgwj dgkfu;k¡ gSaA mudh yksdfiz;rk bl dkj.k Hkh
gS fd os dkO;kRed jksekfu;r vkSj 'kSyh dh fofo/rk osQ dkj.k vyx eqdke
cukrs gSaA Ñ'upanj mnwZ dFkk&lkfgR; esa vuwBh jpuk'khyrk osQ fy, cgqpfpZr jgs
gSaA os izxfr'khy vkSj ;FkkFkZoknh u”kfj, ls fy[ks tkus okys lkfgR; osQ i{kèkj FksA
tkequ dk isM+ Ñ'upanj dh ,d izfl¼ gkL;&O;aX; dFkk gSA gkL;&O;aX;
osQ fy, ph”kksa dks vuqikr ls ”;knk iSQyk&iqQykdj fn[kykus dh ifjikVh iqjkuh
gS vkSj ;g dgkuh Hkh mldk vuqikyu djrh gSA blfy, ;gk¡ ?kVuk,¡ vfr'k;ksfDr&
iw.kZ vkSj vfo'oluh; tku iM+sa] rks dksbZ gSjr ughaA fo'oluh;rk ,slh jpukvksa
osQ ewY;kadu dh dlkSVh ugha gks ldrhA izLrqr ikB esa g¡lrs&g¡lrs gh gekjs Hkhrj
bl ckr dh le> iSnk gksrh gS fd dk;kZy;h rkSj&rjhdksa esa ik;k tkus okyk
foLrkj fdruk fujFkZd vkSj inkuqØe fdruk gkL;kLin gSA ckr ;gha rd ugha
jgrh\ bl O;oLFkk osQ laosnu'kwU; ,oa vekuoh; gksus dk i{k Hkh gekjs lkeus
vkrk gSA
Ñ'upanj/101
© NCERT
not to be republished
102/vkjksg
tkequ dk isM+
jkr dks cM+s ”kksj dk >DdM+ pykA lsozsQVsfj;sV osQ ykWu esa tkequ dk ,d isM+
fxj iM+kA losjs dks tc ekyh us ns[kk] rks mls irk pyk fd isM+ osQ uhps ,d
vkneh nck iM+k gSA
ekyh nkSM+k&nkSM+k pijklh osQ ikl x;k] pijklh nkSM+k&nkSM+k DyoZQ osQ ikl
x;k] DyoZQ nkSM+k&nkSM+k lqifjaVsaMsaV osQ ikl x;k] lqifjaVsaMsaV nkSM+k&nkSM+k ckgj ykWu
esa vk;kA feuVksa esa fxjs gq, isM+ osQ uhps ncs gq, vkneh osQ pkjksa vksj HkhM+ bd_h
gks xbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/103
¶cspkjk tkequ dk isM+A fdruk iQynkj Fkk!** ,d DyoZQ cksykA
¶vkSj bldh tkequsa fdruh jlhyh gksrh Fkha!** nwljk DyoZQ ;kn djrs gq, cksykA
¶eSa iQyksa osQ ekSle esa >ksyh Hkjdj ys tkrk Fkk] esjs cPps bldh tkequsa
fdruh [kq'kh ls [kkrs FksA** rhljk DyoZQ yxHkx #vk¡lk gksdj cksykA
¶exj ;g vkneh\** ekyh us ncs gq, vkneh dh rjI
+
kQ b'kkjk fd;kA
¶gk¡] ;g vknehA** lqifjaVsaMsaV lksp esa iM+ x;kA
¶irk ugha f”aknk gS fd ej x;k\** ,d pijklh us iwNkA
¶ej x;k gksxk] bruk Hkkjh isM+ ftldh ihB ij fxjs og cp oSQls ldrk
gS\** nwljk pijklh cksykA
¶ugha] eSa f”kank gw¡A** ncs gq, vkneh us cM+h dfBurk ls djkgrs gq, dgkA
¶f”kank gS!** ,d DyoZQ us rkTTkqc ls dgkA
¶isM+ dks gVkdj bls tYnh ls fudky ysuk pkfg,A** ekyh us lq>ko fn;kA
¶eqf'dy ekywe gksrk gS]** ,d lqLr] dkepksj vkSj eksVk pijklh cksyk] ¶isM+
dk ruk cgqr Hkkjh vkSj o”kuh gSA**
¶D;k eqf'dy gS\** ekyh cksyk] ¶vxj lqifjaVsaMsaV lkgc gqDe nsa] rks vHkh
ianzg&chl ekyh] pijklh vkSj DyoZQ yxkdj isM+ osQ uhps ls ncs gq, vkneh dks
fudkyk tk ldrk gSA**
¶ekyh Bhd dgrk gS]** cgqr&ls DyoZQ ,d lkFk cksy iM+s]¶yxkvks ”kksj] ge
rS;kj gSaA**
,d lkFk cgqr ls yksx isM+ dks mBkus dks rS;kj gks x,A
¶Bgjks!** lqifjaVsaMsaV cksyk] ¶eSa vaMj&lsozsQVjh ls iwN yw¡A**
lqifjaVsaMsaV vaMj&lsozsQVjh osQ ikl x;kA vaMj&lsozsQVjh fMIVh lsozsQVjh osQ ikl
x;kA fMIVh lsozsQVjh TokbaV lsozsQVjh osQ ikl x;kA TokbaV lsozsQVjh phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh osQ
ikl x;kA phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh fefuLVj osQ ikl x;kA fefuLVj us phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh ls oqQN
dgkA phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh us TokbaV lsozsQVjh ls oqQN dgkA TokbaV lsozsQVjh us fMIVh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


100/vkjksg
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk ugha gS fd ekSr csjge gSA
vI
+
kQlksl bl ckr dk gS fd vLirky csjge D;ksa gSa\
(vkbZus osQ lkeus)
Ñ'upanj
tUe% lu~~ 1914] iatkc osQ o”khjkckn xk¡o
(f”kyk&xqtjkadyka)
izeqq[k jpuk,¡% ,d fxjTkk&,&[kand] ;wosQfyIV~l
dh Mkyh (dgkuh&laxzg)_ f'kdLr] ”kjxk¡o dh
jkuh] lM+d okil tkrh gS] vkleku jkS'ku gS]
,d xèks dh vkRedFkk] vUunkrk] ge og'kh gSa]
tc [ksr tkxs] ckou iÙks] ,d ok;fyu leanj
osQ fdukjs] dkx”k dh uko] esjh ;knksa osQ fdukjs
(miU;kl)
lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lfgr cgqr ls iqjLdkj
e`R;q% lu~~ 1977
izsepan osQ ckn ftu dgkuhdkjksa us dgkuh fo/k dks ubZ Å¡pkb;ksa rd igq¡pk;k]
muesa mnwZ dFkkdkj Ñ'upanj dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA izxfr'khy ys[kd la?k ls
mudk xgjk laca/ Fkk] ftldk vlj mudh jpukvksa esa Li"V :i ls >ydrk gSA
Ñ'upanj ,sls fxus&pqus ys[kdksa esa vkrs gSa] ftUgksaus ckn esa pydj ys[ku dks gh
jks”kh&jksVh dk lgkjk cuk;kA
Ñ'upanj dh izkFkfed f'k{kk iqaN (tEew ,oa d'ehj) esa gqbZA mPp f'k{kk osQ
fy, os lu~~ 1930 esa ykgkSj vk x, vkSj iQkWjesu fØf'p;u dkWyst esa izos'k fy;kA
1934 esa iatkc fo'ofo|ky; ls mUgksaus vaxzs”kh esa ,e-,- fd;kA ckn esa mudk
tqM+ko fI
+
kQYe txr ls gks x;k vkSj vafre le; rd os eqacbZ esa gh jgsA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/101
;ksa rks Ñ'upanj us miU;kl] ukVd] fjiksrkZTk vkSj ys[k Hkh cgqr ls fy[ks gSa]
ysfdu mudh igpku dgkuhdkj osQ :i esa vf/d gqbZ gSA egky{eh dk iqy]
vkbZus osQ lkeus vkfn mudh e'kgwj dgkfu;k¡ gSaA mudh yksdfiz;rk bl dkj.k Hkh
gS fd os dkO;kRed jksekfu;r vkSj 'kSyh dh fofo/rk osQ dkj.k vyx eqdke
cukrs gSaA Ñ'upanj mnwZ dFkk&lkfgR; esa vuwBh jpuk'khyrk osQ fy, cgqpfpZr jgs
gSaA os izxfr'khy vkSj ;FkkFkZoknh u”kfj, ls fy[ks tkus okys lkfgR; osQ i{kèkj FksA
tkequ dk isM+ Ñ'upanj dh ,d izfl¼ gkL;&O;aX; dFkk gSA gkL;&O;aX;
osQ fy, ph”kksa dks vuqikr ls ”;knk iSQyk&iqQykdj fn[kykus dh ifjikVh iqjkuh
gS vkSj ;g dgkuh Hkh mldk vuqikyu djrh gSA blfy, ;gk¡ ?kVuk,¡ vfr'k;ksfDr&
iw.kZ vkSj vfo'oluh; tku iM+sa] rks dksbZ gSjr ughaA fo'oluh;rk ,slh jpukvksa
osQ ewY;kadu dh dlkSVh ugha gks ldrhA izLrqr ikB esa g¡lrs&g¡lrs gh gekjs Hkhrj
bl ckr dh le> iSnk gksrh gS fd dk;kZy;h rkSj&rjhdksa esa ik;k tkus okyk
foLrkj fdruk fujFkZd vkSj inkuqØe fdruk gkL;kLin gSA ckr ;gha rd ugha
jgrh\ bl O;oLFkk osQ laosnu'kwU; ,oa vekuoh; gksus dk i{k Hkh gekjs lkeus
vkrk gSA
Ñ'upanj/101
© NCERT
not to be republished
102/vkjksg
tkequ dk isM+
jkr dks cM+s ”kksj dk >DdM+ pykA lsozsQVsfj;sV osQ ykWu esa tkequ dk ,d isM+
fxj iM+kA losjs dks tc ekyh us ns[kk] rks mls irk pyk fd isM+ osQ uhps ,d
vkneh nck iM+k gSA
ekyh nkSM+k&nkSM+k pijklh osQ ikl x;k] pijklh nkSM+k&nkSM+k DyoZQ osQ ikl
x;k] DyoZQ nkSM+k&nkSM+k lqifjaVsaMsaV osQ ikl x;k] lqifjaVsaMsaV nkSM+k&nkSM+k ckgj ykWu
esa vk;kA feuVksa esa fxjs gq, isM+ osQ uhps ncs gq, vkneh osQ pkjksa vksj HkhM+ bd_h
gks xbZA
© NCERT
not to be republished
tkequ dk isM+/103
¶cspkjk tkequ dk isM+A fdruk iQynkj Fkk!** ,d DyoZQ cksykA
¶vkSj bldh tkequsa fdruh jlhyh gksrh Fkha!** nwljk DyoZQ ;kn djrs gq, cksykA
¶eSa iQyksa osQ ekSle esa >ksyh Hkjdj ys tkrk Fkk] esjs cPps bldh tkequsa
fdruh [kq'kh ls [kkrs FksA** rhljk DyoZQ yxHkx #vk¡lk gksdj cksykA
¶exj ;g vkneh\** ekyh us ncs gq, vkneh dh rjI
+
kQ b'kkjk fd;kA
¶gk¡] ;g vknehA** lqifjaVsaMsaV lksp esa iM+ x;kA
¶irk ugha f”aknk gS fd ej x;k\** ,d pijklh us iwNkA
¶ej x;k gksxk] bruk Hkkjh isM+ ftldh ihB ij fxjs og cp oSQls ldrk
gS\** nwljk pijklh cksykA
¶ugha] eSa f”kank gw¡A** ncs gq, vkneh us cM+h dfBurk ls djkgrs gq, dgkA
¶f”kank gS!** ,d DyoZQ us rkTTkqc ls dgkA
¶isM+ dks gVkdj bls tYnh ls fudky ysuk pkfg,A** ekyh us lq>ko fn;kA
¶eqf'dy ekywe gksrk gS]** ,d lqLr] dkepksj vkSj eksVk pijklh cksyk] ¶isM+
dk ruk cgqr Hkkjh vkSj o”kuh gSA**
¶D;k eqf'dy gS\** ekyh cksyk] ¶vxj lqifjaVsaMsaV lkgc gqDe nsa] rks vHkh
ianzg&chl ekyh] pijklh vkSj DyoZQ yxkdj isM+ osQ uhps ls ncs gq, vkneh dks
fudkyk tk ldrk gSA**
¶ekyh Bhd dgrk gS]** cgqr&ls DyoZQ ,d lkFk cksy iM+s]¶yxkvks ”kksj] ge
rS;kj gSaA**
,d lkFk cgqr ls yksx isM+ dks mBkus dks rS;kj gks x,A
¶Bgjks!** lqifjaVsaMsaV cksyk] ¶eSa vaMj&lsozsQVjh ls iwN yw¡A**
lqifjaVsaMsaV vaMj&lsozsQVjh osQ ikl x;kA vaMj&lsozsQVjh fMIVh lsozsQVjh osQ ikl
x;kA fMIVh lsozsQVjh TokbaV lsozsQVjh osQ ikl x;kA TokbaV lsozsQVjh phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh osQ
ikl x;kA phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh fefuLVj osQ ikl x;kA fefuLVj us phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh ls oqQN
dgkA phI
+
kQ lsozsQVjh us TokbaV lsozsQVjh ls oqQN dgkA TokbaV lsozsQVjh us fMIVh
© NCERT
not to be republished
104/vkjksg
lsozsQVjh ls dgkA fMIVh lsozsQVjh us vaMj lsozsQVjh ls dgkA I
+
kQkby pyrh jghA
blh esa vkèkk fnu chr x;kA
nksigj osQ [kkus ij ncs gq, vkneh osQ pkjksa vksj cgqr HkhM+ gks xbZ FkhA yksx
rjg&rjg dh ckrsa dj jgs FksA oqQN eupys Dydks± us leL;k dks [kqn gh lqy>kuk
pkgkA os gqowQer osQ iSQlys dk bar”kkj fd, fcuk isM+ dks vius&vki gVk nsus dk
fu'p; dj jgs Fks fd brus esa lqifjaVsaMsaV I
+
kQkby fy, Hkkxk&Hkkxk vk;kA cksykµ
¶geyksx [kqn bl isM+ dks ugha gVk ldrsA geyksx O;kikj&foHkkx ls lacafèkr gSa]
vkSj ;g isM+ dh leL;k gS] tks Ñf"k&foHkkx osQ vèkhu gSA eSa bl I
+
kQkby dks vts±V
ekoZQ djosQ Ñf"k&foHkkx esa Hkst jgk gw¡µ ogk¡ ls mÙkj vkrs gh bl isM+ dks gVok
fn;k tk,xkA**
nwljs fnu Ñf"k&foHkkx ls mÙkj vk;k fd isM+ O;kikj&foHkkx osQ ykWu esa fxjk gS]
blfy, bl isM+ dks gVokus ;k u gVokus dh f”kEesnkjh O;kikj&foHkkx ij iM+rh gSA
;g mÙkj i<+dj O;kikj foHkkx dks xqLlk vk x;kA mUgksaus iQkSju fy[kk fd
isM+ksa dks gVokus ;k u gVokus dh f”kEesnkjh Ñf"k&foHkkx ij ykxw gksrh gS] O;kikj
foHkkx dk blls dksbZ lacaèk ugha gSA
nwljs fnu Hkh I
+
kQkby pyrh jghA 'kke dks tokc vk x;k–ge bl ekeys dks
gkWVhZdYpj fMikVZesaV osQ gokys dj jgs gSa] D;ksafd ;g ,d iQynkj isM+ dk ekeyk
gS vkSj ,xzhdYpj fMikVZesaV vukt vkSj [ksrh&ckM+h osQ ekeyksa esa I
+
kSQlyk djus
dk gdnkj gSA tkequ dk isM+ pw¡fd ,d iQynkj isM+ gS] blfy, ;g isM+
gkWVhZdYpj fMikVZesaV osQ varxZr vkrk gSA
jkr dks ekyh us ncs gq, vkneh dks nky&Hkkr f[kyk;k] tcfd mlosQ pkjksa
rjI
+
kQ iqfyl dk igjk Fkk fd dgha yksx dkuwu dks vius gkFk esa ysdj isM+ dks
[kqn ls gVokus dh dksf'k'k u djsaA exj ,d iqfyl dkaLVscy dks n;k vk xbZ vkSj
mlus ekyh dks ncs gq, vkneh dks [kkuk f[kykus dh bTkk”kr ns nhA
© NCERT
not to be republished
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