NCERT Textbook - Krishna Sobti Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Krishna Sobti Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


20/vkjksg
le; gh og jax gS tks vusd&vusd jaxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk
gS vkSj iBu&ikBu izfØ;k }kjk fiQj ,d gks tkrk gS
('kCnksa osQ vkyksd esa)
Ñ".kk lkscrh
tUe% lu~~ 1925] xqtjkr (if'peh iatkc&
orZeku esa ikfdLrku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% f”kanxhukek] fnyksnkfu'k]
,s yM+dh] le; ljxe (miU;kl)_ Mkj ls
fcNqM+h] fe=kks ejtkuh] cknyksa osQ ?ksjs] lwjteq[kh
v¡/sjs osQ] (dgkuh laxzg)_ ge&g'ker] 'kCnksa
osQ vkyksd esa ('kCnfp=k] laLej.k)
izeq[k lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku] fganh
vdkneh dk 'kykdk lEeku] lkfgR; vdkneh
dh egÙkj lnL;rk lfgr vusd jk"Vªh; iqjLdkjA
fganh dFkk lkfgR; esa Ñ".kk lkscrh dh fof'k"V igpku gSA os ekurh gSa fd de
fy[kuk fof'k"V fy[kuk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ la;fer ys[ku vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjh
jpukRedrk us viuk ,d fur u;k ikBd oxZ cuk;k gSA muosQ dbZ miU;klksa]
yach dgkfu;ksa vkSj laLej.kksa us fganh osQ lkfgfR;d lalkj esa viuh nh?kZthoh
mifLFkfr lqfuf'pr dh gSA mUgksaus fganh lkfgR; dks dbZ ,sls ;knxkj pfj=k fn,
gSa] ftUgsa vej dgk tk ldrk gSS_ tSls µ fe=kks] 'kkguh] g'ker vkfnA
Hkkjr ikfdLrku ij ftu ys[kdksa us fganh esa dkyt;h jpuk,¡ fy[kha] muesa
o`Q".kk lkscrh dk uke igyh drkj esa j[kk tk,xkA cfYd ;g dguk mfpr gksxk fd
;'kiky osQ >wBk&lp] jkgh eklwe j”kk osQ vk/k xk¡o vkSj Hkh"e lkguh osQ rel
osQ lkFk&lkFk o`Q".kk lkscrh dk f”kanxhukek bl izalx esa ,d fof'k"V miyfC/ gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


20/vkjksg
le; gh og jax gS tks vusd&vusd jaxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk
gS vkSj iBu&ikBu izfØ;k }kjk fiQj ,d gks tkrk gS
('kCnksa osQ vkyksd esa)
Ñ".kk lkscrh
tUe% lu~~ 1925] xqtjkr (if'peh iatkc&
orZeku esa ikfdLrku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% f”kanxhukek] fnyksnkfu'k]
,s yM+dh] le; ljxe (miU;kl)_ Mkj ls
fcNqM+h] fe=kks ejtkuh] cknyksa osQ ?ksjs] lwjteq[kh
v¡/sjs osQ] (dgkuh laxzg)_ ge&g'ker] 'kCnksa
osQ vkyksd esa ('kCnfp=k] laLej.k)
izeq[k lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku] fganh
vdkneh dk 'kykdk lEeku] lkfgR; vdkneh
dh egÙkj lnL;rk lfgr vusd jk"Vªh; iqjLdkjA
fganh dFkk lkfgR; esa Ñ".kk lkscrh dh fof'k"V igpku gSA os ekurh gSa fd de
fy[kuk fof'k"V fy[kuk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ la;fer ys[ku vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjh
jpukRedrk us viuk ,d fur u;k ikBd oxZ cuk;k gSA muosQ dbZ miU;klksa]
yach dgkfu;ksa vkSj laLej.kksa us fganh osQ lkfgfR;d lalkj esa viuh nh?kZthoh
mifLFkfr lqfuf'pr dh gSA mUgksaus fganh lkfgR; dks dbZ ,sls ;knxkj pfj=k fn,
gSa] ftUgsa vej dgk tk ldrk gSS_ tSls µ fe=kks] 'kkguh] g'ker vkfnA
Hkkjr ikfdLrku ij ftu ys[kdksa us fganh esa dkyt;h jpuk,¡ fy[kha] muesa
o`Q".kk lkscrh dk uke igyh drkj esa j[kk tk,xkA cfYd ;g dguk mfpr gksxk fd
;'kiky osQ >wBk&lp] jkgh eklwe j”kk osQ vk/k xk¡o vkSj Hkh"e lkguh osQ rel
osQ lkFk&lkFk o`Q".kk lkscrh dk f”kanxhukek bl izalx esa ,d fof'k"V miyfC/ gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/21
laLej.k osQ {ks=k esa ge&g'ker 'kh"kZd ls mudh o`Qfr dk fof'k"V LFkku gS]
ftlesa vius gh ,d nwljs O;fDrRo osQ :i esa mUgksaus g'ker uked pfj=k dk
l`tu dj ,d vn~Hkqr iz;ksx dk mnkgj.k izLrqr fd;k gSSA o`Q".kk th osQ Hkkf"kd
iz;ksx esa Hkh fofo/rk gSA mUgksaus fganh dh dFkk&Hkk"kk dks ,d foy{k.k rk”kxh nh
gSA laLo`Qrfu"B rRlerk] mnwZ dk ck¡diu] iatkch dh f”kankfnyh] ;s lc ,d
lkFk mudh jpukvksa esa ekStwn gSaA
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu 'kCnfp=k ge&g'ker uked laxzg ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu osQ O;fDrRo] #fp;ksa vkSj LoHkko dk 'kCnfp=k
[khapk x;k gSA fe;k¡ ulh#íhu vius elhgkbZ vank”k ls jksVh idkus dh dyk vkSj
mlesa vius [kkunkuh egkjr dks crkrs gSaA os ,sls bulku dk Hkh izfrfuf/Ro djrs gSa
tks vius is'ks dks dyk dk ntkZ nsrs gSa vkSj djosQ lh[kus dks vlyh gquj ekurs gSaA
Ñ".kk lkscrh/21
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


20/vkjksg
le; gh og jax gS tks vusd&vusd jaxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk
gS vkSj iBu&ikBu izfØ;k }kjk fiQj ,d gks tkrk gS
('kCnksa osQ vkyksd esa)
Ñ".kk lkscrh
tUe% lu~~ 1925] xqtjkr (if'peh iatkc&
orZeku esa ikfdLrku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% f”kanxhukek] fnyksnkfu'k]
,s yM+dh] le; ljxe (miU;kl)_ Mkj ls
fcNqM+h] fe=kks ejtkuh] cknyksa osQ ?ksjs] lwjteq[kh
v¡/sjs osQ] (dgkuh laxzg)_ ge&g'ker] 'kCnksa
osQ vkyksd esa ('kCnfp=k] laLej.k)
izeq[k lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku] fganh
vdkneh dk 'kykdk lEeku] lkfgR; vdkneh
dh egÙkj lnL;rk lfgr vusd jk"Vªh; iqjLdkjA
fganh dFkk lkfgR; esa Ñ".kk lkscrh dh fof'k"V igpku gSA os ekurh gSa fd de
fy[kuk fof'k"V fy[kuk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ la;fer ys[ku vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjh
jpukRedrk us viuk ,d fur u;k ikBd oxZ cuk;k gSA muosQ dbZ miU;klksa]
yach dgkfu;ksa vkSj laLej.kksa us fganh osQ lkfgfR;d lalkj esa viuh nh?kZthoh
mifLFkfr lqfuf'pr dh gSA mUgksaus fganh lkfgR; dks dbZ ,sls ;knxkj pfj=k fn,
gSa] ftUgsa vej dgk tk ldrk gSS_ tSls µ fe=kks] 'kkguh] g'ker vkfnA
Hkkjr ikfdLrku ij ftu ys[kdksa us fganh esa dkyt;h jpuk,¡ fy[kha] muesa
o`Q".kk lkscrh dk uke igyh drkj esa j[kk tk,xkA cfYd ;g dguk mfpr gksxk fd
;'kiky osQ >wBk&lp] jkgh eklwe j”kk osQ vk/k xk¡o vkSj Hkh"e lkguh osQ rel
osQ lkFk&lkFk o`Q".kk lkscrh dk f”kanxhukek bl izalx esa ,d fof'k"V miyfC/ gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/21
laLej.k osQ {ks=k esa ge&g'ker 'kh"kZd ls mudh o`Qfr dk fof'k"V LFkku gS]
ftlesa vius gh ,d nwljs O;fDrRo osQ :i esa mUgksaus g'ker uked pfj=k dk
l`tu dj ,d vn~Hkqr iz;ksx dk mnkgj.k izLrqr fd;k gSSA o`Q".kk th osQ Hkkf"kd
iz;ksx esa Hkh fofo/rk gSA mUgksaus fganh dh dFkk&Hkk"kk dks ,d foy{k.k rk”kxh nh
gSA laLo`Qrfu"B rRlerk] mnwZ dk ck¡diu] iatkch dh f”kankfnyh] ;s lc ,d
lkFk mudh jpukvksa esa ekStwn gSaA
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu 'kCnfp=k ge&g'ker uked laxzg ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu osQ O;fDrRo] #fp;ksa vkSj LoHkko dk 'kCnfp=k
[khapk x;k gSA fe;k¡ ulh#íhu vius elhgkbZ vank”k ls jksVh idkus dh dyk vkSj
mlesa vius [kkunkuh egkjr dks crkrs gSaA os ,sls bulku dk Hkh izfrfuf/Ro djrs gSa
tks vius is'ks dks dyk dk ntkZ nsrs gSa vkSj djosQ lh[kus dks vlyh gquj ekurs gSaA
Ñ".kk lkscrh/21
© NCERT
not to be republished
22/vkjksg
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu
lkgcksa] ml fnu viu efV;kegy dh rjI
+
kQ ls u xq”kj tkrs rks jktuhfr] lkfgR;
vkSj dyk osQ g”kkjksa&g”kkj elhgksa osQ èkwe&èkM+DosQ esa ukuckb;ksa osQ elhgk fe;k¡
ulh#íhu dks oSQls rks igpkurs vkSj oSQls mBkrs yqRI
+
kQ muosQ elhgh vank”k dk!
gqvk ;g fd ge ,d nqigjh tkek efLtn osQ vkM+s iM+s efV;kegy osQ x<S+;k
eqgYys dh vksj fudy x,A ,d fugk;r ekewyh v¡èksjh&lh nqdku ij iVkiV vkVs
dk <sj lurs ns[k fBBosQA lkspk] lsob;ksa dh rS;kjh gksxh] ij iwNus ij ekywe gqvk
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu dh nqdku ij [kM+s gSaA fe;k¡ e'kgwj gSa NIiu
fOkQLe dh jksfV;k¡ cukus osQ fy,A
geus tks vanj >k¡dk rks ik;k] fe;k¡ pkjikbZ ij cSBs chM+h dk e”kk ys jgs gSaA
ekSleksa dh ekj ls idk psgjk] vk¡[kksa esa dkb;k¡ Hkksykiu vkSj is'kkuh ij e¡ts gq,
dkjhxj osQ rsojA
gesa xkgd le> fe;k¡ us u”kj mBkbZµ^I
+
kQjekb,A*
f>>d ls dgkµ^vkils oqQN ,d loky iwNus Fksµvkidks oDr gks rks---*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu us iapg”kkjh vank”k ls flj fgyk;kµ^fudky ysaxs oDr FkksM+k]
ij ;g rks dfg,] vkidks iwNuk D;k gS\*
fiQj ?kwjdj ns[kk vkSj tksM+kµ^fe;k¡] dgha v[kckjuohl rks ugha gks\ ;g rks
[kksft;ksa dh [kqjkI
+
kQkr gSA ge rks v[kckj cukusokys vkSj v[kckj i<+usokysµnksukas
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


20/vkjksg
le; gh og jax gS tks vusd&vusd jaxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk
gS vkSj iBu&ikBu izfØ;k }kjk fiQj ,d gks tkrk gS
('kCnksa osQ vkyksd esa)
Ñ".kk lkscrh
tUe% lu~~ 1925] xqtjkr (if'peh iatkc&
orZeku esa ikfdLrku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% f”kanxhukek] fnyksnkfu'k]
,s yM+dh] le; ljxe (miU;kl)_ Mkj ls
fcNqM+h] fe=kks ejtkuh] cknyksa osQ ?ksjs] lwjteq[kh
v¡/sjs osQ] (dgkuh laxzg)_ ge&g'ker] 'kCnksa
osQ vkyksd esa ('kCnfp=k] laLej.k)
izeq[k lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku] fganh
vdkneh dk 'kykdk lEeku] lkfgR; vdkneh
dh egÙkj lnL;rk lfgr vusd jk"Vªh; iqjLdkjA
fganh dFkk lkfgR; esa Ñ".kk lkscrh dh fof'k"V igpku gSA os ekurh gSa fd de
fy[kuk fof'k"V fy[kuk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ la;fer ys[ku vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjh
jpukRedrk us viuk ,d fur u;k ikBd oxZ cuk;k gSA muosQ dbZ miU;klksa]
yach dgkfu;ksa vkSj laLej.kksa us fganh osQ lkfgfR;d lalkj esa viuh nh?kZthoh
mifLFkfr lqfuf'pr dh gSA mUgksaus fganh lkfgR; dks dbZ ,sls ;knxkj pfj=k fn,
gSa] ftUgsa vej dgk tk ldrk gSS_ tSls µ fe=kks] 'kkguh] g'ker vkfnA
Hkkjr ikfdLrku ij ftu ys[kdksa us fganh esa dkyt;h jpuk,¡ fy[kha] muesa
o`Q".kk lkscrh dk uke igyh drkj esa j[kk tk,xkA cfYd ;g dguk mfpr gksxk fd
;'kiky osQ >wBk&lp] jkgh eklwe j”kk osQ vk/k xk¡o vkSj Hkh"e lkguh osQ rel
osQ lkFk&lkFk o`Q".kk lkscrh dk f”kanxhukek bl izalx esa ,d fof'k"V miyfC/ gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/21
laLej.k osQ {ks=k esa ge&g'ker 'kh"kZd ls mudh o`Qfr dk fof'k"V LFkku gS]
ftlesa vius gh ,d nwljs O;fDrRo osQ :i esa mUgksaus g'ker uked pfj=k dk
l`tu dj ,d vn~Hkqr iz;ksx dk mnkgj.k izLrqr fd;k gSSA o`Q".kk th osQ Hkkf"kd
iz;ksx esa Hkh fofo/rk gSA mUgksaus fganh dh dFkk&Hkk"kk dks ,d foy{k.k rk”kxh nh
gSA laLo`Qrfu"B rRlerk] mnwZ dk ck¡diu] iatkch dh f”kankfnyh] ;s lc ,d
lkFk mudh jpukvksa esa ekStwn gSaA
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu 'kCnfp=k ge&g'ker uked laxzg ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu osQ O;fDrRo] #fp;ksa vkSj LoHkko dk 'kCnfp=k
[khapk x;k gSA fe;k¡ ulh#íhu vius elhgkbZ vank”k ls jksVh idkus dh dyk vkSj
mlesa vius [kkunkuh egkjr dks crkrs gSaA os ,sls bulku dk Hkh izfrfuf/Ro djrs gSa
tks vius is'ks dks dyk dk ntkZ nsrs gSa vkSj djosQ lh[kus dks vlyh gquj ekurs gSaA
Ñ".kk lkscrh/21
© NCERT
not to be republished
22/vkjksg
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu
lkgcksa] ml fnu viu efV;kegy dh rjI
+
kQ ls u xq”kj tkrs rks jktuhfr] lkfgR;
vkSj dyk osQ g”kkjksa&g”kkj elhgksa osQ èkwe&èkM+DosQ esa ukuckb;ksa osQ elhgk fe;k¡
ulh#íhu dks oSQls rks igpkurs vkSj oSQls mBkrs yqRI
+
kQ muosQ elhgh vank”k dk!
gqvk ;g fd ge ,d nqigjh tkek efLtn osQ vkM+s iM+s efV;kegy osQ x<S+;k
eqgYys dh vksj fudy x,A ,d fugk;r ekewyh v¡èksjh&lh nqdku ij iVkiV vkVs
dk <sj lurs ns[k fBBosQA lkspk] lsob;ksa dh rS;kjh gksxh] ij iwNus ij ekywe gqvk
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu dh nqdku ij [kM+s gSaA fe;k¡ e'kgwj gSa NIiu
fOkQLe dh jksfV;k¡ cukus osQ fy,A
geus tks vanj >k¡dk rks ik;k] fe;k¡ pkjikbZ ij cSBs chM+h dk e”kk ys jgs gSaA
ekSleksa dh ekj ls idk psgjk] vk¡[kksa esa dkb;k¡ Hkksykiu vkSj is'kkuh ij e¡ts gq,
dkjhxj osQ rsojA
gesa xkgd le> fe;k¡ us u”kj mBkbZµ^I
+
kQjekb,A*
f>>d ls dgkµ^vkils oqQN ,d loky iwNus Fksµvkidks oDr gks rks---*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu us iapg”kkjh vank”k ls flj fgyk;kµ^fudky ysaxs oDr FkksM+k]
ij ;g rks dfg,] vkidks iwNuk D;k gS\*
fiQj ?kwjdj ns[kk vkSj tksM+kµ^fe;k¡] dgha v[kckjuohl rks ugha gks\ ;g rks
[kksft;ksa dh [kqjkI
+
kQkr gSA ge rks v[kckj cukusokys vkSj v[kckj i<+usokysµnksukas
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/23
dks gh fuBYyk le>rs gSaA gk¡µdkedkth vkneh dks blls D;k dke gSA [kSj]
vkius ;gk¡ rd vkus dh rdyhI
+
kQ mBkbZ gh gS rks iwfN,µD;k iwNuk pkgrs gSa!*
^iwNuk ;g Fkk fd fOkQLe&fOkQLe dh jksVh idkus dk bYe vkius dgk¡ ls
gkfly fd;k\*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu us vk¡[kksa osQ oaQps ge ij isQj fn,A fiQj rjsjdj cksysµ^D;k
eryc\ iwfN, lkgcµukuckbZ bYe ysus dgha vkSj tk,xk\ D;k uxhuklk”k osQ
ikl\ D;k vkbZuklk”k osQ ikl\ D;k ehuklk”k osQ ikl\ ;k jI
+
kwQxj] j¡xjs”k ;k
rsyh&racksyh ls lh[kus tk,xk\ D;k I
+
kQjek fn;k lkgcµ;g rks gekjk [kkunkuh
is'kk BgjkA gk¡] bYe dh ckr iwfN, rks tks oqQN Hkh lh[kk] vius okfyn mLrkn
ls ghA eryc ;g fd ge ?kj ls u fudys fd dksbZ is'kk vf[r;kj djssaxsA tks
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


20/vkjksg
le; gh og jax gS tks vusd&vusd jaxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk
gS vkSj iBu&ikBu izfØ;k }kjk fiQj ,d gks tkrk gS
('kCnksa osQ vkyksd esa)
Ñ".kk lkscrh
tUe% lu~~ 1925] xqtjkr (if'peh iatkc&
orZeku esa ikfdLrku)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% f”kanxhukek] fnyksnkfu'k]
,s yM+dh] le; ljxe (miU;kl)_ Mkj ls
fcNqM+h] fe=kks ejtkuh] cknyksa osQ ?ksjs] lwjteq[kh
v¡/sjs osQ] (dgkuh laxzg)_ ge&g'ker] 'kCnksa
osQ vkyksd esa ('kCnfp=k] laLej.k)
izeq[k lEeku% lkfgR; vdkneh lEeku] fganh
vdkneh dk 'kykdk lEeku] lkfgR; vdkneh
dh egÙkj lnL;rk lfgr vusd jk"Vªh; iqjLdkjA
fganh dFkk lkfgR; esa Ñ".kk lkscrh dh fof'k"V igpku gSA os ekurh gSa fd de
fy[kuk fof'k"V fy[kuk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd muosQ la;fer ys[ku vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjh
jpukRedrk us viuk ,d fur u;k ikBd oxZ cuk;k gSA muosQ dbZ miU;klksa]
yach dgkfu;ksa vkSj laLej.kksa us fganh osQ lkfgfR;d lalkj esa viuh nh?kZthoh
mifLFkfr lqfuf'pr dh gSA mUgksaus fganh lkfgR; dks dbZ ,sls ;knxkj pfj=k fn,
gSa] ftUgsa vej dgk tk ldrk gSS_ tSls µ fe=kks] 'kkguh] g'ker vkfnA
Hkkjr ikfdLrku ij ftu ys[kdksa us fganh esa dkyt;h jpuk,¡ fy[kha] muesa
o`Q".kk lkscrh dk uke igyh drkj esa j[kk tk,xkA cfYd ;g dguk mfpr gksxk fd
;'kiky osQ >wBk&lp] jkgh eklwe j”kk osQ vk/k xk¡o vkSj Hkh"e lkguh osQ rel
osQ lkFk&lkFk o`Q".kk lkscrh dk f”kanxhukek bl izalx esa ,d fof'k"V miyfC/ gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/21
laLej.k osQ {ks=k esa ge&g'ker 'kh"kZd ls mudh o`Qfr dk fof'k"V LFkku gS]
ftlesa vius gh ,d nwljs O;fDrRo osQ :i esa mUgksaus g'ker uked pfj=k dk
l`tu dj ,d vn~Hkqr iz;ksx dk mnkgj.k izLrqr fd;k gSSA o`Q".kk th osQ Hkkf"kd
iz;ksx esa Hkh fofo/rk gSA mUgksaus fganh dh dFkk&Hkk"kk dks ,d foy{k.k rk”kxh nh
gSA laLo`Qrfu"B rRlerk] mnwZ dk ck¡diu] iatkch dh f”kankfnyh] ;s lc ,d
lkFk mudh jpukvksa esa ekStwn gSaA
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu 'kCnfp=k ge&g'ker uked laxzg ls fy;k x;k gSA blesa
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu osQ O;fDrRo] #fp;ksa vkSj LoHkko dk 'kCnfp=k
[khapk x;k gSA fe;k¡ ulh#íhu vius elhgkbZ vank”k ls jksVh idkus dh dyk vkSj
mlesa vius [kkunkuh egkjr dks crkrs gSaA os ,sls bulku dk Hkh izfrfuf/Ro djrs gSa
tks vius is'ks dks dyk dk ntkZ nsrs gSa vkSj djosQ lh[kus dks vlyh gquj ekurs gSaA
Ñ".kk lkscrh/21
© NCERT
not to be republished
22/vkjksg
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu
lkgcksa] ml fnu viu efV;kegy dh rjI
+
kQ ls u xq”kj tkrs rks jktuhfr] lkfgR;
vkSj dyk osQ g”kkjksa&g”kkj elhgksa osQ èkwe&èkM+DosQ esa ukuckb;ksa osQ elhgk fe;k¡
ulh#íhu dks oSQls rks igpkurs vkSj oSQls mBkrs yqRI
+
kQ muosQ elhgh vank”k dk!
gqvk ;g fd ge ,d nqigjh tkek efLtn osQ vkM+s iM+s efV;kegy osQ x<S+;k
eqgYys dh vksj fudy x,A ,d fugk;r ekewyh v¡èksjh&lh nqdku ij iVkiV vkVs
dk <sj lurs ns[k fBBosQA lkspk] lsob;ksa dh rS;kjh gksxh] ij iwNus ij ekywe gqvk
[kkunkuh ukuckbZ fe;k¡ ulh#íhu dh nqdku ij [kM+s gSaA fe;k¡ e'kgwj gSa NIiu
fOkQLe dh jksfV;k¡ cukus osQ fy,A
geus tks vanj >k¡dk rks ik;k] fe;k¡ pkjikbZ ij cSBs chM+h dk e”kk ys jgs gSaA
ekSleksa dh ekj ls idk psgjk] vk¡[kksa esa dkb;k¡ Hkksykiu vkSj is'kkuh ij e¡ts gq,
dkjhxj osQ rsojA
gesa xkgd le> fe;k¡ us u”kj mBkbZµ^I
+
kQjekb,A*
f>>d ls dgkµ^vkils oqQN ,d loky iwNus Fksµvkidks oDr gks rks---*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu us iapg”kkjh vank”k ls flj fgyk;kµ^fudky ysaxs oDr FkksM+k]
ij ;g rks dfg,] vkidks iwNuk D;k gS\*
fiQj ?kwjdj ns[kk vkSj tksM+kµ^fe;k¡] dgha v[kckjuohl rks ugha gks\ ;g rks
[kksft;ksa dh [kqjkI
+
kQkr gSA ge rks v[kckj cukusokys vkSj v[kckj i<+usokysµnksukas
© NCERT
not to be republished
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu/23
dks gh fuBYyk le>rs gSaA gk¡µdkedkth vkneh dks blls D;k dke gSA [kSj]
vkius ;gk¡ rd vkus dh rdyhI
+
kQ mBkbZ gh gS rks iwfN,µD;k iwNuk pkgrs gSa!*
^iwNuk ;g Fkk fd fOkQLe&fOkQLe dh jksVh idkus dk bYe vkius dgk¡ ls
gkfly fd;k\*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu us vk¡[kksa osQ oaQps ge ij isQj fn,A fiQj rjsjdj cksysµ^D;k
eryc\ iwfN, lkgcµukuckbZ bYe ysus dgha vkSj tk,xk\ D;k uxhuklk”k osQ
ikl\ D;k vkbZuklk”k osQ ikl\ D;k ehuklk”k osQ ikl\ ;k jI
+
kwQxj] j¡xjs”k ;k
rsyh&racksyh ls lh[kus tk,xk\ D;k I
+
kQjek fn;k lkgcµ;g rks gekjk [kkunkuh
is'kk BgjkA gk¡] bYe dh ckr iwfN, rks tks oqQN Hkh lh[kk] vius okfyn mLrkn
ls ghA eryc ;g fd ge ?kj ls u fudys fd dksbZ is'kk vf[r;kj djssaxsA tks
© NCERT
not to be republished
24/vkjksg
cki&nknk dk gquj Fkk ogh muls ik;k vkSj okfyn ejgwe osQ mB tkus ij vk
cSBs mUgha osQ Bh;s ij!*
^vkiosQ okfyn---\*
fe;k¡ ulh#íhu dh vk¡[ksa yegk&Hkj dks fdlh Hkêòh esa xqe gks xb±A yxk xgjh
lksp esa gSaµfiQj flj fgyk;kµ^D;k vk¡[kksa osQ vkxs psgjk f”kank gks x;k! gk¡ gekjs
okfyn lkfgc e'kgwj Fks fe;k¡ cjOkQr 'kkgh ukuckbZ x<+S;kokys osQ uke ls vkSj
muosQ okfyn ;kuh fd gekjs nknk lkfgc Fks vkyk ukuckbZ fe;k¡ dYyuA*
^vkidks bu nksuksa esa ls fdlhµfdlh dh Hkh dksbZ ulhgr ;kn gks!*
^ulhgr dkgs dh fe;k¡! dke djus ls vkrk gS] ulhgrksa ls ughaA gk¡!*
^ctk I
+
kQjek;k gS] ij ;g rks crkb, gh crkb, fd tc vki (geus Hkêòh dh
vksj b'kkjk fd;k) bl dke ij yxs rks okfyn lkfgc us lh[k osQ rkSj ij oqQN
rks dgk gksxkA*
ulh#íhu lkfgc us tYnh&tYnh nks&rhu d'k [khaps] fiQj xyk lkI
+
kQ fd;k
vkSj cM+s vank”k ls cksysµ^vxj vkidks oqQN dgyokuk gh gS rks crk, fn, nsrs
gSaA vki tkuks tc cPpk mLrkn osQ ;gk¡ i<+us cSBrk gS rks mLrkn dgrk gSµ
dg] ^vfyI
+
kQ*
cPpk dgrk gS] ^vfyI
+
kQ*
dg] ^cs*
cPpk dgrk gS] ^cs*
dg] ^the*
cPpk dgrk gS] ^the*
bl chp mLrkn ”kksj dk ,d gkFk flj ij èkjrk gS vkSj 'kkfxnZ pqipki ijoku
djrk gS! le>s lkfgc] ,d rks i<+kbZ ,slh vkSj nwljh---A ckr chp esa NksM+ lkeus
ls xq”kjrs ehj lkfgc dks vkok”k ns Mkyhµ^dgks HkkbZ ehj lkfgc! lqcg u vkuk
gqvk] ij D;ksa\*
© NCERT
not to be republished
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