NCERT Textbook - कुँवर नारायण Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - कुँवर नारायण Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


d d d d d¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pØO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcaèk dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njok”kk @
tSls xnZ ls <¡dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <¡dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k¡ vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk,¡ Hkh fy[kha gSa] ¯drq dfork dh foèkk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcaèk
dkO; dk LFkku izcaèkRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork,¡ ysus yxha rc oqQ¡oj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcaèk dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
¶dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd èkqaèk osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA¸ Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofoèkrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhèkh ?kks"k.kk,¡ vkSj I
+
kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
3
Page 2


d d d d d¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pØO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcaèk dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njok”kk @
tSls xnZ ls <¡dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <¡dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k¡ vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk,¡ Hkh fy[kha gSa] ¯drq dfork dh foèkk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcaèk
dkO; dk LFkku izcaèkRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork,¡ ysus yxha rc oqQ¡oj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcaèk dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
¶dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd èkqaèk osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA¸ Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofoèkrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhèkh ?kks"k.kk,¡ vkSj I
+
kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
3
vkjksg
16
oq¡Qoj th iwjh rjg ukxj laosnuk osQ dfo gSaA fooj.k muosQ ;gk¡ ugha osQ cjkcj gS]
ij oS;fDrd vkSj lkekftd mQgkiksg dk ruko iwjh O;atdrk esa lkeus vkrk gSA ,d iafDr
esa dgas rks budh rVLFk ohrjkx n`f"V uksp&[klksV] fgalk&izfrfgalk ls lges gq, ,d
laosnu'khy eu osQ vkyksM+uksa osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA
;gk¡ ij oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k oQh nks dfork,¡ yh xbZ gaSA igyh dfork gSµ dfork osQ
cgkus tks bu fnuksa  laxzg ls yh xbZ gSA vkt dk le; dfork osQ otwn dks ysdj
vk'kafdr gSA 'kd gS fd ;kaf=kdrk osQ ncko ls dfork dk vfLro ugha jgsxkA ,sls esa ;g
dforkµdfork dh vikj laHkkoukvksa dks VVksyus dk ,d volj nsrh gSA dfork osQ
cgkus ;g ,d ;k=kk gS tks fpfM+;k] iwQy ls ysdj cPPks rd dh gSA ,d vksj izo`Qfr gS
nwljh vksj Hkfo"; dh vksj dne c<+krk cPpkA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd fpfM+;k
dh mM+ku dh lhek gS] iwQy osQ f[kyus osQ lkFk mldh ifj.kfr fuf'pr gS] ysfdu cPps
osQ lius vlhe gSSA cPpksa osQ [ksy esa fdlh izdkj dh lhek dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrkA
dfork Hkh 'kCnksa dk [ksy gS vkSj 'kCnksa osQ bl [ksy esa tM+] psru] vrhr] orZeku vkSj
Hkfo"; lHkh midj.k ek=k gSaA blhfy, tgk¡ dgha jpukRed mQtkZ gksxh ogk¡ lhekvksa osQ
ca/u [kqn&c&[kqn VwV tkrs gSaA oks pkgsa ?kj dh lhek gks] Hkk"kk dh lhek gks ;k fiQj le;
dh gh D;ksa u gksA
nwljh dfork gS ckr lh/h Fkh ij tks dksbZ nwljk ugha laxzg esa ladfyr gSA dfork
esa dF; vkSj ekè;e osQ }a} mosQjrs gq, Hkk"kk dh lgtrk dh ckr dh xbZ gSA gj ckr osQ
fy, oqQN [kkl 'kCn fu;r gksrs gSa Bhd oSls gh tSls gj isap osQ fy, ,d fuf'pr [kk¡pk
gksrk gSA vc rd ftu 'kCnksa dks ge ,d&nwljs osQ i;kZ; osQ :i esa tkurs jgs gSa mu lc
osQ Hkh vius fo'ks"k vFkZ gksrs gSaA vPNh ckr ;k vPNh dfork dk cuuk lgh ckr dk lgh
'kCn ls tqM+uk gksrk gS vkSj tc ,slk gksrk gS rks fdlh ncko ;k vfrfjDr esgur dh ”k:jr
ugha gksrh og lgwfy;r osQ lkFk gks tkrk gSA
Page 3


d d d d d¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pØO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcaèk dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njok”kk @
tSls xnZ ls <¡dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <¡dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k¡ vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk,¡ Hkh fy[kha gSa] ¯drq dfork dh foèkk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcaèk
dkO; dk LFkku izcaèkRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork,¡ ysus yxha rc oqQ¡oj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcaèk dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
¶dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd èkqaèk osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA¸ Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofoèkrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhèkh ?kks"k.kk,¡ vkSj I
+
kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
3
vkjksg
16
oq¡Qoj th iwjh rjg ukxj laosnuk osQ dfo gSaA fooj.k muosQ ;gk¡ ugha osQ cjkcj gS]
ij oS;fDrd vkSj lkekftd mQgkiksg dk ruko iwjh O;atdrk esa lkeus vkrk gSA ,d iafDr
esa dgas rks budh rVLFk ohrjkx n`f"V uksp&[klksV] fgalk&izfrfgalk ls lges gq, ,d
laosnu'khy eu osQ vkyksM+uksa osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA
;gk¡ ij oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k oQh nks dfork,¡ yh xbZ gaSA igyh dfork gSµ dfork osQ
cgkus tks bu fnuksa  laxzg ls yh xbZ gSA vkt dk le; dfork osQ otwn dks ysdj
vk'kafdr gSA 'kd gS fd ;kaf=kdrk osQ ncko ls dfork dk vfLro ugha jgsxkA ,sls esa ;g
dforkµdfork dh vikj laHkkoukvksa dks VVksyus dk ,d volj nsrh gSA dfork osQ
cgkus ;g ,d ;k=kk gS tks fpfM+;k] iwQy ls ysdj cPPks rd dh gSA ,d vksj izo`Qfr gS
nwljh vksj Hkfo"; dh vksj dne c<+krk cPpkA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd fpfM+;k
dh mM+ku dh lhek gS] iwQy osQ f[kyus osQ lkFk mldh ifj.kfr fuf'pr gS] ysfdu cPps
osQ lius vlhe gSSA cPpksa osQ [ksy esa fdlh izdkj dh lhek dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrkA
dfork Hkh 'kCnksa dk [ksy gS vkSj 'kCnksa osQ bl [ksy esa tM+] psru] vrhr] orZeku vkSj
Hkfo"; lHkh midj.k ek=k gSaA blhfy, tgk¡ dgha jpukRed mQtkZ gksxh ogk¡ lhekvksa osQ
ca/u [kqn&c&[kqn VwV tkrs gSaA oks pkgsa ?kj dh lhek gks] Hkk"kk dh lhek gks ;k fiQj le;
dh gh D;ksa u gksA
nwljh dfork gS ckr lh/h Fkh ij tks dksbZ nwljk ugha laxzg esa ladfyr gSA dfork
esa dF; vkSj ekè;e osQ }a} mosQjrs gq, Hkk"kk dh lgtrk dh ckr dh xbZ gSA gj ckr osQ
fy, oqQN [kkl 'kCn fu;r gksrs gSa Bhd oSls gh tSls gj isap osQ fy, ,d fuf'pr [kk¡pk
gksrk gSA vc rd ftu 'kCnksa dks ge ,d&nwljs osQ i;kZ; osQ :i esa tkurs jgs gSa mu lc
osQ Hkh vius fo'ks"k vFkZ gksrs gSaA vPNh ckr ;k vPNh dfork dk cuuk lgh ckr dk lgh
'kCn ls tqM+uk gksrk gS vkSj tc ,slk gksrk gS rks fdlh ncko ;k vfrfjDr esgur dh ”k:jr
ugha gksrh og lgwfy;r osQ lkFk gks tkrk gSA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij
17
dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus
dfork ,d mM+ku gS fpfM+;k osQ cgkus
dfork dh mM+ku Hkyk fpfM+;k D;k tkus
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
dfork osQ ia[k yxk mM+us osQ ekus
fpfM+;k D;k tkus\
dfork ,d f[kyuk gS iwQyksa osQ cgkus
dfork dk f[kyuk Hkyk iwQy D;k tkus!
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus
iwQy D;k tkus\
dfork ,d [ksy gS cPpksa osQ cgkus
ckgj Hkhrj
;g ?kj] og ?kj
lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus
cPpk gh tkusA
Page 4


d d d d d¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pØO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcaèk dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njok”kk @
tSls xnZ ls <¡dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <¡dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k¡ vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk,¡ Hkh fy[kha gSa] ¯drq dfork dh foèkk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcaèk
dkO; dk LFkku izcaèkRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork,¡ ysus yxha rc oqQ¡oj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcaèk dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
¶dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd èkqaèk osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA¸ Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofoèkrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhèkh ?kks"k.kk,¡ vkSj I
+
kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
3
vkjksg
16
oq¡Qoj th iwjh rjg ukxj laosnuk osQ dfo gSaA fooj.k muosQ ;gk¡ ugha osQ cjkcj gS]
ij oS;fDrd vkSj lkekftd mQgkiksg dk ruko iwjh O;atdrk esa lkeus vkrk gSA ,d iafDr
esa dgas rks budh rVLFk ohrjkx n`f"V uksp&[klksV] fgalk&izfrfgalk ls lges gq, ,d
laosnu'khy eu osQ vkyksM+uksa osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA
;gk¡ ij oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k oQh nks dfork,¡ yh xbZ gaSA igyh dfork gSµ dfork osQ
cgkus tks bu fnuksa  laxzg ls yh xbZ gSA vkt dk le; dfork osQ otwn dks ysdj
vk'kafdr gSA 'kd gS fd ;kaf=kdrk osQ ncko ls dfork dk vfLro ugha jgsxkA ,sls esa ;g
dforkµdfork dh vikj laHkkoukvksa dks VVksyus dk ,d volj nsrh gSA dfork osQ
cgkus ;g ,d ;k=kk gS tks fpfM+;k] iwQy ls ysdj cPPks rd dh gSA ,d vksj izo`Qfr gS
nwljh vksj Hkfo"; dh vksj dne c<+krk cPpkA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd fpfM+;k
dh mM+ku dh lhek gS] iwQy osQ f[kyus osQ lkFk mldh ifj.kfr fuf'pr gS] ysfdu cPps
osQ lius vlhe gSSA cPpksa osQ [ksy esa fdlh izdkj dh lhek dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrkA
dfork Hkh 'kCnksa dk [ksy gS vkSj 'kCnksa osQ bl [ksy esa tM+] psru] vrhr] orZeku vkSj
Hkfo"; lHkh midj.k ek=k gSaA blhfy, tgk¡ dgha jpukRed mQtkZ gksxh ogk¡ lhekvksa osQ
ca/u [kqn&c&[kqn VwV tkrs gSaA oks pkgsa ?kj dh lhek gks] Hkk"kk dh lhek gks ;k fiQj le;
dh gh D;ksa u gksA
nwljh dfork gS ckr lh/h Fkh ij tks dksbZ nwljk ugha laxzg esa ladfyr gSA dfork
esa dF; vkSj ekè;e osQ }a} mosQjrs gq, Hkk"kk dh lgtrk dh ckr dh xbZ gSA gj ckr osQ
fy, oqQN [kkl 'kCn fu;r gksrs gSa Bhd oSls gh tSls gj isap osQ fy, ,d fuf'pr [kk¡pk
gksrk gSA vc rd ftu 'kCnksa dks ge ,d&nwljs osQ i;kZ; osQ :i esa tkurs jgs gSa mu lc
osQ Hkh vius fo'ks"k vFkZ gksrs gSaA vPNh ckr ;k vPNh dfork dk cuuk lgh ckr dk lgh
'kCn ls tqM+uk gksrk gS vkSj tc ,slk gksrk gS rks fdlh ncko ;k vfrfjDr esgur dh ”k:jr
ugha gksrh og lgwfy;r osQ lkFk gks tkrk gSA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij
17
dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus
dfork ,d mM+ku gS fpfM+;k osQ cgkus
dfork dh mM+ku Hkyk fpfM+;k D;k tkus
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
dfork osQ ia[k yxk mM+us osQ ekus
fpfM+;k D;k tkus\
dfork ,d f[kyuk gS iwQyksa osQ cgkus
dfork dk f[kyuk Hkyk iwQy D;k tkus!
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus
iwQy D;k tkus\
dfork ,d [ksy gS cPpksa osQ cgkus
ckgj Hkhrj
;g ?kj] og ?kj
lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus
cPpk gh tkusA
vkjksg
18
ckr
ckr lh/h Fkh ij
ckr lh/h Fkh ij ,d ckj
Hkk"kk osQ pDdj esa
”kjk Vs<+h i¡Ql xbZA
mls ikus dh dksf'k'k esa
Hkk"kk dks myVk iyVk
rksM+k ejksM+k
?kqek;k fiQjk;k
fd ckr ;k rks cus
;k fiQj Hkk"kk ls ckgj vk,µ
ysfdu blls Hkk"kk osQ lkFk lkFk
ckr vkSj Hkh isphnk gksrh pyh xbZA
lkjh eqf'dy dks /S;Z ls le>s fcuk
eSa isap dks [kksyus osQ ctk,
mls csrjg dlrk pyk tk jgk Fkk
D;ksa fd bl djrc ij eq>s
lkI
+
kQ lqukbZ ns jgh Fkh
rek'kchuksa dh 'kkck'kh vkSj okg okgA
vkf[kjdkj ogh gqvk ftldk eq>s Mj Fkk
”kksj ”kcjnLrh ls
ckr dh pwM+h ej xbZ
vkSj og Hkk"kk esa csdkj ?kweus yxh!
gkj dj eSaus mls dhy dh rjg
mlh txg Bksad fn;kA
Page 5


d d d d d¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k ¡qoj ukjk;.k
tUe % 19 flracj] lu~ 1927 (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % pØO;wg (1956)] ifjos'k%ge rqe] vius
lkeus] dksbZ nwljk ugha] bu fnuksa (dkO; laxzg)_ vkRet;h
(izcaèk dkO;)_ vkdkjksa osQ vkl&ikl (dgkuh laxzg)_ vkt
vkSj vkt ls igys (leh{kk)_ esjs lk{kkRdkj (lkekU;)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % lkfgR; vdknseh iqjLdkj] oqQekju vk'kku
iqjLdkj] O;kl lEeku] izsepan iqjLdkj] yksfg;k lEeku]
dchj lEeku] KkuihB iqjLdkj
u tkus dc ls can @ ,d fnu bl rjg [kqyk ?kj dk njok”kk @
tSls xnZ ls <¡dh @ ,d iqjkuh fdrkc
xnZ ls <¡dh gj iqjkuh fdrkc [kksyus dh ckr dgus okys oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k us lu~ 1950
osQ vkl&ikl dkO;&ys[ku dh 'kqjQvkr dhA mUgksaus dfork osQ vykok fparuijd ys[k]
dgkfu;k¡ vkSj flusek rFkk vU; dykvksa ij leh{kk,¡ Hkh fy[kha gSa] ¯drq dfork dh foèkk
dks muosQ l`tu&deZ esa ges'kk izkFkfedrk izkIr jghA u;h dfork osQ nkSj esa] tc izcaèk
dkO; dk LFkku izcaèkRo dh nkosnkj yach dfork,¡ ysus yxha rc oqQ¡oj ukjk;.k us
vkRet;h tSlk izcaèk dkO; jpdj Hkjiwj izfr"Bk izkIr dhA vkykspd ekurs gSa fd mudh
¶dfork esa O;FkZ dk my>ko] v[kckjh lrghiu vkSj oSpkfjd èkqaèk osQ ctk; la;e]
ifj"dkj vkSj lkI
+
kQ&lqFkjkiu gSA¸ Hkk"kk vkSj fo"k; dh fofoèkrk mudh dforkvksa osQ fo'ks"k
xq.k ekus tkrs gSaA muesa ;FkkFkZ dk [kqjnjkiu Hkh feyrk gS vkSj mldk lgt lkSan;Z HkhA
lhèkh ?kks"k.kk,¡ vkSj I
+
kSQlys mudh dforkvksa esa ugha feyrs D;ksafd thou dks eqdEey rkSj
ij le>us okyk ,d [kqykiu muosQ dfo&LoHkko dh ewy fo'ks"krk gSA blhfy, la'k;]
laHkze iz'ukoqQyrk mudh dfork osQ cht 'kCn gSaA
3
vkjksg
16
oq¡Qoj th iwjh rjg ukxj laosnuk osQ dfo gSaA fooj.k muosQ ;gk¡ ugha osQ cjkcj gS]
ij oS;fDrd vkSj lkekftd mQgkiksg dk ruko iwjh O;atdrk esa lkeus vkrk gSA ,d iafDr
esa dgas rks budh rVLFk ohrjkx n`f"V uksp&[klksV] fgalk&izfrfgalk ls lges gq, ,d
laosnu'khy eu osQ vkyksM+uksa osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA
;gk¡ ij oq¡Qoj ukjk;.k oQh nks dfork,¡ yh xbZ gaSA igyh dfork gSµ dfork osQ
cgkus tks bu fnuksa  laxzg ls yh xbZ gSA vkt dk le; dfork osQ otwn dks ysdj
vk'kafdr gSA 'kd gS fd ;kaf=kdrk osQ ncko ls dfork dk vfLro ugha jgsxkA ,sls esa ;g
dforkµdfork dh vikj laHkkoukvksa dks VVksyus dk ,d volj nsrh gSA dfork osQ
cgkus ;g ,d ;k=kk gS tks fpfM+;k] iwQy ls ysdj cPPks rd dh gSA ,d vksj izo`Qfr gS
nwljh vksj Hkfo"; dh vksj dne c<+krk cPpkA dgus dh vko';drk ugha fd fpfM+;k
dh mM+ku dh lhek gS] iwQy osQ f[kyus osQ lkFk mldh ifj.kfr fuf'pr gS] ysfdu cPps
osQ lius vlhe gSSA cPpksa osQ [ksy esa fdlh izdkj dh lhek dk dksbZ LFkku ugha gksrkA
dfork Hkh 'kCnksa dk [ksy gS vkSj 'kCnksa osQ bl [ksy esa tM+] psru] vrhr] orZeku vkSj
Hkfo"; lHkh midj.k ek=k gSaA blhfy, tgk¡ dgha jpukRed mQtkZ gksxh ogk¡ lhekvksa osQ
ca/u [kqn&c&[kqn VwV tkrs gSaA oks pkgsa ?kj dh lhek gks] Hkk"kk dh lhek gks ;k fiQj le;
dh gh D;ksa u gksA
nwljh dfork gS ckr lh/h Fkh ij tks dksbZ nwljk ugha laxzg esa ladfyr gSA dfork
esa dF; vkSj ekè;e osQ }a} mosQjrs gq, Hkk"kk dh lgtrk dh ckr dh xbZ gSA gj ckr osQ
fy, oqQN [kkl 'kCn fu;r gksrs gSa Bhd oSls gh tSls gj isap osQ fy, ,d fuf'pr [kk¡pk
gksrk gSA vc rd ftu 'kCnksa dks ge ,d&nwljs osQ i;kZ; osQ :i esa tkurs jgs gSa mu lc
osQ Hkh vius fo'ks"k vFkZ gksrs gSaA vPNh ckr ;k vPNh dfork dk cuuk lgh ckr dk lgh
'kCn ls tqM+uk gksrk gS vkSj tc ,slk gksrk gS rks fdlh ncko ;k vfrfjDr esgur dh ”k:jr
ugha gksrh og lgwfy;r osQ lkFk gks tkrk gSA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij
17
dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus dfork ds cgkus
dfork ,d mM+ku gS fpfM+;k osQ cgkus
dfork dh mM+ku Hkyk fpfM+;k D;k tkus
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
dfork osQ ia[k yxk mM+us osQ ekus
fpfM+;k D;k tkus\
dfork ,d f[kyuk gS iwQyksa osQ cgkus
dfork dk f[kyuk Hkyk iwQy D;k tkus!
ckgj Hkhrj
bl ?kj] ml ?kj
fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus
iwQy D;k tkus\
dfork ,d [ksy gS cPpksa osQ cgkus
ckgj Hkhrj
;g ?kj] og ?kj
lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus
cPpk gh tkusA
vkjksg
18
ckr
ckr lh/h Fkh ij
ckr lh/h Fkh ij ,d ckj
Hkk"kk osQ pDdj esa
”kjk Vs<+h i¡Ql xbZA
mls ikus dh dksf'k'k esa
Hkk"kk dks myVk iyVk
rksM+k ejksM+k
?kqek;k fiQjk;k
fd ckr ;k rks cus
;k fiQj Hkk"kk ls ckgj vk,µ
ysfdu blls Hkk"kk osQ lkFk lkFk
ckr vkSj Hkh isphnk gksrh pyh xbZA
lkjh eqf'dy dks /S;Z ls le>s fcuk
eSa isap dks [kksyus osQ ctk,
mls csrjg dlrk pyk tk jgk Fkk
D;ksa fd bl djrc ij eq>s
lkI
+
kQ lqukbZ ns jgh Fkh
rek'kchuksa dh 'kkck'kh vkSj okg okgA
vkf[kjdkj ogh gqvk ftldk eq>s Mj Fkk
”kksj ”kcjnLrh ls
ckr dh pwM+h ej xbZ
vkSj og Hkk"kk esa csdkj ?kweus yxh!
gkj dj eSaus mls dhy dh rjg
mlh txg Bksad fn;kA
dfork ds cgkus @ ckr lh/kh Fkh ij
19
mQij ls BhdBkd
ij vanj ls
u rks mlesa dlko Fkk
u rkdr!
ckr us] tks ,d 'kjkjrh cPPks dh rjg
eq>ls [ksy jgh Fkh]
eq>s ilhuk iksaNrs ns[k dj iwNkµ
¶D;k rqeus Hkk"kk dks
lgwfy;r ls cjruk dHkh ugha lh[kk\¸
vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl
 dfork osQ lkFk
1- bl dfork osQ cgkus crk,¡ fd ^lc ?kj ,d dj nsus osQ ekus* D;k gS\
2- ^mM+us* vkSj ^f[kyus* dk dfork ls D;k laca/ curk gS\
3- dfork vkSj cPps dks lekukarj  j[kus osQ D;k dkj.k gks ldrs gSa\
4- dfork osQ lanHkZ esa ^fcuk eqj>k, egdus osQ ekus* D;k gksrs gSa\
5- ^Hkk"kk dks lgwfy;r* ls cjrus ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\
6- ckr vkSj Hkk"kk ijLij tqM+s gksrs gSa] ¯drq dHkh&dHkh Hkk"kk osQ pDdj esa ^lh/h ckr Hkh Vs<+h
gks tkrh gS* oSQls\
7- ckr (dF;) osQ fy, uhps nh xbZ fo'ks"krkvksa dk mfpr ¯ccksa@eqgkojksa ls feyku djsaA
  ¯cc@eqgkojk fo'ks"krk
(d) ckr dh pwM+h ej tkuk dF; vkSj Hkk"kk dk lgh lkeatL; cuuk
([k) ckr dh isap [kksyuk ckr dk idM+ esa u vkuk
(x) ckr dk 'kjkjrh cPps dh rjg [ksyuk ckr dk izHkkoghu gks tkuk
(?k) isap dks dhy dh rjg Bksad nsuk ckr esa dlkoV dk u gksuk
(Ä) ckr dk cu tkuk ckr dks lgt vkSj Li"V djuk
ckr
Hkk"kk
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

ppt

,

Semester Notes

,

Viva Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

MCQs

,

Free

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

NCERT Textbook - कुँवर नारायण Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

practice quizzes

,

Summary

,

past year papers

,

pdf

,

NCERT Textbook - कुँवर नारायण Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Exam

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook - कुँवर नारायण Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Sample Paper

,

Objective type Questions

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

mock tests for examination

;