NCERT Textbook - महादेवी वर्मा Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - महादेवी वर्मा Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM
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x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM
f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk
cPpksa dks Lok/hu cukvks
cPpksa esa Lok/hurk osQ Hkko iSnk djus
osQ fy, ;g ”k:jr gS fd ftruh
tYnh gks losQ] mUgsa oqQN dke djus
dk volj fn;k tk,A --- bldk eryc
;g gS fd ckgjh ncko dh txg geesa
vkRe&la;e dk mn; gksA lPpk Lokèkhu
vkneh ogh gS] ftldk thou vkREkk
osQ  'kklu ls la;fer gks tkrk gS]
ftls fdlh ckgjh ncko dh ”k:jr
ugha iM+rhA
µizsepan (gal] 1930)
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x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM
f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk
cPpksa dks Lok/hu cukvks
cPpksa esa Lok/hurk osQ Hkko iSnk djus
osQ fy, ;g ”k:jr gS fd ftruh
tYnh gks losQ] mUgsa oqQN dke djus
dk volj fn;k tk,A --- bldk eryc
;g gS fd ckgjh ncko dh txg geesa
vkRe&la;e dk mn; gksA lPpk Lokèkhu
vkneh ogh gS] ftldk thou vkREkk
osQ  'kklu ls la;fer gks tkrk gS]
ftls fdlh ckgjh ncko dh ”k:jr
ugha iM+rhA
µizsepan (gal] 1930)
egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ
tUe % lu~ 1907] I
+
kQ:[kkckn (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % nhif'k[kk] ;kek (dkO;&laxzg)_  Ük`a[kyk
dh dfM+;k¡] vkink] ladfYirk] Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr osQ Loj
(fucaèk&laxzg)_ vrhr osQ pyfp=k] Le`fr dh js[kk,¡] iFk
osQ lkFkh] esjk ifjokj (laLej.k@js[kkfp=k)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % KkuihB iqjLdkj (^;kek* laxzg osQ fy,
1983 bZ- esa)] mÙkj izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku dk Hkkjr Hkkjrh
iqjLdkj] in~eHkw"k.k (1956 bZ-)
fuèku % lu~ 1987] bykgkckn
lalkj osQ ekuo&leqnk; esa ogh O;fDr LFkku vkSj lEeku ik ldrk gS] ogh
thfor dgk tk ldrk gS ftlosQ ân; vkSj efLr"d us leqfpr fodkl ik;k gks vkSj
tks vius O;fDrRo }kjk euq"; lekt ls jkxkRed osQ vfrfjDr ckSf¼d lacaèk Hkh
LFkkfir dj ldus esa leFkZ gksA
lkfgR; lsoh vkSj lekt lsoh nksuksa :iksa esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk jgh gSA egkRek
xkaèkh dh fn[kkbZ jkg ij viuk thou lefiZr dj mUgksaus f'k{kk vkSj lekt&dY;k.k osQ
{ks=k esa fujarj dk;Z fd;kA ukjh&lekt esas f'k{kk&izlkj osQ mís'; ls mUgksaus iz;kx efgyk
fo|kihB dh LFkkiuk dhA lkfgR; txr esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ
jpukdkj osQ :i esa jgh gSA vxj dfork osQ {ks=k esa os Nk;kokn osQ pkj LraHkksa esa ls ,d
ekuh tkrh gSa (vU; rhu gSaµiar] izlkn vkSj fujkyk)] rks vius fucaèkksa vkSj laLej.kkRed
js[kkfp=kksa osQ dkj.k ,d vizfre x|dkj osQ :i esa mudh ppkZ gksrh jgh gSA dfork vkSj
x| bu nksuksa {ks=kksa esa mudh izfrHkk vyx&vyx LoHkko ysdj lfØ; gqbZ fn[krh gSA
dforkvksa esa os viuh vkarfjd osnuk vkSj ihM+k dks O;Dr djrh gqbZ bl yksd ls ijs fdlh
vkSj lÙkk dh vksj vfHkeq[k fn[kykbZ iM+rh gSa] rks vius x| esa mudk xgjk lkekftd
ljksdkj LFkku ikrk gSA mudh  Üka`[kyk dh dfM+;k¡ (1942 bZ-) ml le; dh vf}rh; jpuk
Z
11
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x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM
f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk
cPpksa dks Lok/hu cukvks
cPpksa esa Lok/hurk osQ Hkko iSnk djus
osQ fy, ;g ”k:jr gS fd ftruh
tYnh gks losQ] mUgsa oqQN dke djus
dk volj fn;k tk,A --- bldk eryc
;g gS fd ckgjh ncko dh txg geesa
vkRe&la;e dk mn; gksA lPpk Lokèkhu
vkneh ogh gS] ftldk thou vkREkk
osQ  'kklu ls la;fer gks tkrk gS]
ftls fdlh ckgjh ncko dh ”k:jr
ugha iM+rhA
µizsepan (gal] 1930)
egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ
tUe % lu~ 1907] I
+
kQ:[kkckn (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % nhif'k[kk] ;kek (dkO;&laxzg)_  Ük`a[kyk
dh dfM+;k¡] vkink] ladfYirk] Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr osQ Loj
(fucaèk&laxzg)_ vrhr osQ pyfp=k] Le`fr dh js[kk,¡] iFk
osQ lkFkh] esjk ifjokj (laLej.k@js[kkfp=k)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % KkuihB iqjLdkj (^;kek* laxzg osQ fy,
1983 bZ- esa)] mÙkj izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku dk Hkkjr Hkkjrh
iqjLdkj] in~eHkw"k.k (1956 bZ-)
fuèku % lu~ 1987] bykgkckn
lalkj osQ ekuo&leqnk; esa ogh O;fDr LFkku vkSj lEeku ik ldrk gS] ogh
thfor dgk tk ldrk gS ftlosQ ân; vkSj efLr"d us leqfpr fodkl ik;k gks vkSj
tks vius O;fDrRo }kjk euq"; lekt ls jkxkRed osQ vfrfjDr ckSf¼d lacaèk Hkh
LFkkfir dj ldus esa leFkZ gksA
lkfgR; lsoh vkSj lekt lsoh nksuksa :iksa esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk jgh gSA egkRek
xkaèkh dh fn[kkbZ jkg ij viuk thou lefiZr dj mUgksaus f'k{kk vkSj lekt&dY;k.k osQ
{ks=k esa fujarj dk;Z fd;kA ukjh&lekt esas f'k{kk&izlkj osQ mís'; ls mUgksaus iz;kx efgyk
fo|kihB dh LFkkiuk dhA lkfgR; txr esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ
jpukdkj osQ :i esa jgh gSA vxj dfork osQ {ks=k esa os Nk;kokn osQ pkj LraHkksa esa ls ,d
ekuh tkrh gSa (vU; rhu gSaµiar] izlkn vkSj fujkyk)] rks vius fucaèkksa vkSj laLej.kkRed
js[kkfp=kksa osQ dkj.k ,d vizfre x|dkj osQ :i esa mudh ppkZ gksrh jgh gSA dfork vkSj
x| bu nksuksa {ks=kksa esa mudh izfrHkk vyx&vyx LoHkko ysdj lfØ; gqbZ fn[krh gSA
dforkvksa esa os viuh vkarfjd osnuk vkSj ihM+k dks O;Dr djrh gqbZ bl yksd ls ijs fdlh
vkSj lÙkk dh vksj vfHkeq[k fn[kykbZ iM+rh gSa] rks vius x| esa mudk xgjk lkekftd
ljksdkj LFkku ikrk gSA mudh  Üka`[kyk dh dfM+;k¡ (1942 bZ-) ml le; dh vf}rh; jpuk
Z
11
gS] tks ¯gnh esa L=kh&foe'kZ dh HkO; izLrkouk gSA muosQ laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k vius vkl
ikl osQ ,sls pfj=kksa vkSj izlaxksa dks ysdj fy[ks x, gSa] ftudh lkèkkj.krk gekjk è;ku ugha
[khap ikrh ysfdu egknsoh th dh eeZHksnh vkSj djQ.kke;h n`f"V mu pfj=kksa dh lkèkkj.krk
esa vlkèkkj.k rÙoksa dk laèkku djrh gSA bl rjg lekt osQ 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r rcosQ dks mUgksaus
viuh x|&jpukvksa esa uk;dRo iznku fd;k gSA muosQ bl iz;kl us ¯gnh osQ lkfgfR;d
lekt ij ,slk xgjk vlj Mkyk fd laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k dh foèkk osQ fy, 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r
vke tu dks fo"k;&oLrq osQ :i esa ekU;rk fey xbZ gSA
HkfDru egknsoh th dk izfl¼ laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k gS tks Le`fr dh js[kk,¡ esa
ladfyr gSA blesa egknsoh th us viuh lsfodk HkfDru osQ vrhr vkSj orZeku  dk ifjp;
nsrs gq, mlosQ O;fDrRo dk cgqr fnypLi [kkdk [khapk gSA egknsoh osQ ?kj esa dke 'kq:
djus ls igys mlus oSQls ,d la?k"kZ'khy] LokfHkekuh vkSj deZB thou ft;k] oSQls
fir`lÙkkRed&ekU;rkvksa vkSj Ny&Nn~e Hkjs lekt esa vius vkSj viuh csfV;ksa osQ gd dh
yM+kbZ yM+rh jgh vkSj mlesa gkj dj oSQls f”kanxh dh jkg iwjh rjg cny ysus osQ fu.kZ;
rd igq¡phA bldk vR;ar laosnu'khy fp=k.k bl ikB esa gqvk gSA blosQ lkFk] HkfDru
egknsoh th osQ thou esa vkdj Nk tkus okyh ,d ,slh ifjfLFkfr osQ :i esa fn[kykbZ iM+rh
gS] ftlosQ dkj.k ysf[kdk osQ O;fDrRo osQ dbZ vuNq, @ izPNUu vk;ke mn~?kkfVr gksrs
pyrs gSaA blh dkj.k vius O;fDrRo dk ”k:jh va'k ekudj os HkfDru dks [kksuk ugha
pkgrhaA lexzr% bl ikB dks ifjfLFkfro'k vD[kM+ cuh] ij egknsoh osQ izfr vueksy
vkReh;rk ls Hkjh HkfDru osQ cgkus L=kh&vfLerk dh la?k"kZiw.kZ vkok”k osQ :i esa Hkh i<+k
tkuk pkfg,A
70
vkjksg
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x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM x| [kaM
f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk f'k{kk vkSj Lora=rk
cPpksa dks Lok/hu cukvks
cPpksa esa Lok/hurk osQ Hkko iSnk djus
osQ fy, ;g ”k:jr gS fd ftruh
tYnh gks losQ] mUgsa oqQN dke djus
dk volj fn;k tk,A --- bldk eryc
;g gS fd ckgjh ncko dh txg geesa
vkRe&la;e dk mn; gksA lPpk Lokèkhu
vkneh ogh gS] ftldk thou vkREkk
osQ  'kklu ls la;fer gks tkrk gS]
ftls fdlh ckgjh ncko dh ”k:jr
ugha iM+rhA
µizsepan (gal] 1930)
egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ egknsoh oekZ
tUe % lu~ 1907] I
+
kQ:[kkckn (mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % nhif'k[kk] ;kek (dkO;&laxzg)_  Ük`a[kyk
dh dfM+;k¡] vkink] ladfYirk] Hkkjrh; laLo`Qfr osQ Loj
(fucaèk&laxzg)_ vrhr osQ pyfp=k] Le`fr dh js[kk,¡] iFk
osQ lkFkh] esjk ifjokj (laLej.k@js[kkfp=k)
izeq[k iqjLdkj % KkuihB iqjLdkj (^;kek* laxzg osQ fy,
1983 bZ- esa)] mÙkj izns'k ¯gnh laLFkku dk Hkkjr Hkkjrh
iqjLdkj] in~eHkw"k.k (1956 bZ-)
fuèku % lu~ 1987] bykgkckn
lalkj osQ ekuo&leqnk; esa ogh O;fDr LFkku vkSj lEeku ik ldrk gS] ogh
thfor dgk tk ldrk gS ftlosQ ân; vkSj efLr"d us leqfpr fodkl ik;k gks vkSj
tks vius O;fDrRo }kjk euq"; lekt ls jkxkRed osQ vfrfjDr ckSf¼d lacaèk Hkh
LFkkfir dj ldus esa leFkZ gksA
lkfgR; lsoh vkSj lekt lsoh nksuksa :iksa esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk jgh gSA egkRek
xkaèkh dh fn[kkbZ jkg ij viuk thou lefiZr dj mUgksaus f'k{kk vkSj lekt&dY;k.k osQ
{ks=k esa fujarj dk;Z fd;kA ukjh&lekt esas f'k{kk&izlkj osQ mís'; ls mUgksaus iz;kx efgyk
fo|kihB dh LFkkiuk dhA lkfgR; txr esa egknsoh oekZ dh izfr"Bk cgqeq[kh izfrHkk osQ
jpukdkj osQ :i esa jgh gSA vxj dfork osQ {ks=k esa os Nk;kokn osQ pkj LraHkksa esa ls ,d
ekuh tkrh gSa (vU; rhu gSaµiar] izlkn vkSj fujkyk)] rks vius fucaèkksa vkSj laLej.kkRed
js[kkfp=kksa osQ dkj.k ,d vizfre x|dkj osQ :i esa mudh ppkZ gksrh jgh gSA dfork vkSj
x| bu nksuksa {ks=kksa esa mudh izfrHkk vyx&vyx LoHkko ysdj lfØ; gqbZ fn[krh gSA
dforkvksa esa os viuh vkarfjd osnuk vkSj ihM+k dks O;Dr djrh gqbZ bl yksd ls ijs fdlh
vkSj lÙkk dh vksj vfHkeq[k fn[kykbZ iM+rh gSa] rks vius x| esa mudk xgjk lkekftd
ljksdkj LFkku ikrk gSA mudh  Üka`[kyk dh dfM+;k¡ (1942 bZ-) ml le; dh vf}rh; jpuk
Z
11
gS] tks ¯gnh esa L=kh&foe'kZ dh HkO; izLrkouk gSA muosQ laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k vius vkl
ikl osQ ,sls pfj=kksa vkSj izlaxksa dks ysdj fy[ks x, gSa] ftudh lkèkkj.krk gekjk è;ku ugha
[khap ikrh ysfdu egknsoh th dh eeZHksnh vkSj djQ.kke;h n`f"V mu pfj=kksa dh lkèkkj.krk
esa vlkèkkj.k rÙoksa dk laèkku djrh gSA bl rjg lekt osQ 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r rcosQ dks mUgksaus
viuh x|&jpukvksa esa uk;dRo iznku fd;k gSA muosQ bl iz;kl us ¯gnh osQ lkfgfR;d
lekt ij ,slk xgjk vlj Mkyk fd laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k dh foèkk osQ fy, 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r
vke tu dks fo"k;&oLrq osQ :i esa ekU;rk fey xbZ gSA
HkfDru egknsoh th dk izfl¼ laLej.kkRed js[kkfp=k gS tks Le`fr dh js[kk,¡ esa
ladfyr gSA blesa egknsoh th us viuh lsfodk HkfDru osQ vrhr vkSj orZeku  dk ifjp;
nsrs gq, mlosQ O;fDrRo dk cgqr fnypLi [kkdk [khapk gSA egknsoh osQ ?kj esa dke 'kq:
djus ls igys mlus oSQls ,d la?k"kZ'khy] LokfHkekuh vkSj deZB thou ft;k] oSQls
fir`lÙkkRed&ekU;rkvksa vkSj Ny&Nn~e Hkjs lekt esa vius vkSj viuh csfV;ksa osQ gd dh
yM+kbZ yM+rh jgh vkSj mlesa gkj dj oSQls f”kanxh dh jkg iwjh rjg cny ysus osQ fu.kZ;
rd igq¡phA bldk vR;ar laosnu'khy fp=k.k bl ikB esa gqvk gSA blosQ lkFk] HkfDru
egknsoh th osQ thou esa vkdj Nk tkus okyh ,d ,slh ifjfLFkfr osQ :i esa fn[kykbZ iM+rh
gS] ftlosQ dkj.k ysf[kdk osQ O;fDrRo osQ dbZ vuNq, @ izPNUu vk;ke mn~?kkfVr gksrs
pyrs gSaA blh dkj.k vius O;fDrRo dk ”k:jh va'k ekudj os HkfDru dks [kksuk ugha
pkgrhaA lexzr% bl ikB dks ifjfLFkfro'k vD[kM+ cuh] ij egknsoh osQ izfr vueksy
vkReh;rk ls Hkjh HkfDru osQ cgkus L=kh&vfLerk dh la?k"kZiw.kZ vkok”k osQ :i esa Hkh i<+k
tkuk pkfg,A
70
vkjksg
HkfDru HkfDru HkfDru HkfDru HkfDru
NksVs dn vkSj nqcys 'kjhjokyh HkfDru vius irys vksBksa osQ
dksuksa esa n`<+ ladYi vkSj NksVh vk¡[kksa esa ,d fofp=k le>nkjh
ysdj ftl fnu igys&igys esjs ikl vk mifLFkr gqbZ Fkh rc
ls vkt rd ,d ;qx dk le; chr pqdk gSA ij tc dksbZ
ftKklq mlls bl lacaèk esa iz'u dj cSBrk gS] rc og iydksa
dks vkèkh iqrfy;ksa rd fxjkdj vkSj fparu dh eqnzk esa Bqah
dks oqQN mQij mBkdj fo'okl Hkjs oaQB ls mÙkj nsrh gSµ^rqe
ipS dk dk crkbZµ;gS ipkl cfjl ls lax jfgr gSA* bl fglkc ls eSa ipgÙkj dh Bgjrh
gw¡ vkSj og lkS o"kZ dh vk;q Hkh ikj dj tkrh gS] bldk HkfDru dks irk ughaA irk gks
Hkh] rks laHkor% og esjs lkFk chrs gq, le; esa jÙkh Hkj Hkh de u djuk pkgsxhA eq>s
rks fo'okl gksrk tk jgk gS fd oqQN o"kZ vkSj chr tkus ij og esjs lkFk jgus osQ le;
dks [khap dj lkS o"kZ rd igq¡pk nsxh] pkgs mlosQ fglkc ls eq>s Ms<+ lkS o"kZ dh vlaHko
vk;q dk Hkkj D;ksa u <ksuk iM+sA
lsod&èkeZ esa guqeku th ls Li¼kZ djus okyh HkfDru fdlh vatuk dh iq=kh u gksdj
,d vukeèkU;k xksikfydk dh dU;k gSµuke gS yNfeu vFkkZr y{ehA ij tSls esjs uke
dh fo'kkyrk esjs fy, nqoZg gS] oSls gh y{eh dh le`f¼ HkfDru osQ diky dh oqQafpr
js[kkvksa esa ugha c¡èk ldhA oSls rks thou esa izk;% lHkh dks vius&vius uke dk fojksèkkHkkl
ysdj thuk iM+rk gS_ ij HkfDru cgqr le>nkj gS] D;ksafd og viuk le`f¼&lwpd uke
fdlh dks crkrh ughaA osQoy tc ukSdjh dh [kkst esa vkbZ Fkh] rc bZekunkjh dk ifjp;
nsus osQ fy, mlus 'ks"k bfro`Ùk osQ lkFk ;g Hkh crk fn;k_ ij bl izkFkZuk osQ lkFk fd eSa
dHkh uke dk mi;ksx u d:¡ A miuke j[kus dh izfrHkk gksrh] rks eSa lcls igys mldk
iz;ksx vius mQij djrh] bl rF; dks og nsgkfru D;k tkus] blh ls tc eSaus oaQBh ekyk
ns[kdj mldk u;k ukedj.k fd;k rc og HkfDru&tSls dfoRoghu uke dks ikdj Hkh
Xkn~xn gks mBhA
HkfDru osQ thou dk bfro`Ùk fcuk tkus gq, mlosQ LoHkko dks iw.kZr% D;k
va'kr% le>uk Hkh dfBu gksxkA og ,sfrgkfld >w¡lh esa xk¡o&izfl¼ ,d lwjek dh
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