NCERT Textbook - Manu Bhandari Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Manu Bhandari Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


jtuh/79
yksdfiz;rk dHkh Hkh jpuk dk ekud ugha cu ldrhA vlyh ekud rks
gksrk gS jpukdkj dk nkf;Rocks/] mlosQ ljksdkj] mldh thou&n`f"VA
(,d dgkuh ;g Hkh)
eUuw HkaMkjh
tUe% lu~~ 1931] Hkkuiqjk (eè;çns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
rhu fuxkgksa dh ,d rLohj] ;gh lp gS]
f=k'kaoqQ] vk¡[kksa ns[kk >wB (dgkuh&laxzg)_
vkidk caVh] egkHkkst] Lokeh] ,d bap eqLdku
(jktsanz ;kno osQ lkFk) (miU;kl)
iVdFkk,¡% jtuh] fueZyk] Lokeh] niZ.k
lEeku% fganh vdkneh fnYyh dk f'k[kj lEeku]
fcgkj ljdkj] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ifj"kn~ dksydkrk]
jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh vkSj mÙkj izns'k fganh laLFkku }kjk iqjLÑr
eUuw HkaMkjh fganh dgkuh esa ml le; lfØ; gqb± tc ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu vius
mBku ij FkkA ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu (NBk n'kd) esa tks u;k eksM+ vk;k mlesa eUuw
th dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA mudh dgkfu;ksa esa dgha ikfjokfjd thou] dgha
ukjh&thou vkSj dgha lekt osQ fofHkUu oxks± osQ thou dh folaxfr;k¡ fo'ks"k
vkReh; vank”k esa vfHkO;Dr gqbZ gSaA mUgksaus vkØks'k] O;aX; vkSj laosnuk dks
euksoSKkfud jpukRed vk/kj fn;k gSµ og pkgs dgkuh gks] miU;kl gks ;k fiQj
iVdFkk gh D;ksa u gksA
Page 2


jtuh/79
yksdfiz;rk dHkh Hkh jpuk dk ekud ugha cu ldrhA vlyh ekud rks
gksrk gS jpukdkj dk nkf;Rocks/] mlosQ ljksdkj] mldh thou&n`f"VA
(,d dgkuh ;g Hkh)
eUuw HkaMkjh
tUe% lu~~ 1931] Hkkuiqjk (eè;çns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
rhu fuxkgksa dh ,d rLohj] ;gh lp gS]
f=k'kaoqQ] vk¡[kksa ns[kk >wB (dgkuh&laxzg)_
vkidk caVh] egkHkkst] Lokeh] ,d bap eqLdku
(jktsanz ;kno osQ lkFk) (miU;kl)
iVdFkk,¡% jtuh] fueZyk] Lokeh] niZ.k
lEeku% fganh vdkneh fnYyh dk f'k[kj lEeku]
fcgkj ljdkj] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ifj"kn~ dksydkrk]
jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh vkSj mÙkj izns'k fganh laLFkku }kjk iqjLÑr
eUuw HkaMkjh fganh dgkuh esa ml le; lfØ; gqb± tc ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu vius
mBku ij FkkA ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu (NBk n'kd) esa tks u;k eksM+ vk;k mlesa eUuw
th dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA mudh dgkfu;ksa esa dgha ikfjokfjd thou] dgha
ukjh&thou vkSj dgha lekt osQ fofHkUu oxks± osQ thou dh folaxfr;k¡ fo'ks"k
vkReh; vank”k esa vfHkO;Dr gqbZ gSaA mUgksaus vkØks'k] O;aX; vkSj laosnuk dks
euksoSKkfud jpukRed vk/kj fn;k gSµ og pkgs dgkuh gks] miU;kl gks ;k fiQj
iVdFkk gh D;ksa u gksA
80/vkjksg
;gk¡ vki eUuw th }kjk fyf[kr ,d iVdFkk i<+us tk jgs gSaA iVdFkk] ;kuh
iV ;k LØhu osQ fy, fy[kh xbZ og dFkk jtr iV (fI
+
kQYe dk LØhu) osQ fy,
Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj Vsyhfo”ku osQ fy, HkhA ewy ckr ;g gS fd ftl rjg eap
ij [ksyus osQ fy, ukVd fy[ks tkrs gSa] mlh rjg oSQejs ls fI
+
kQYek, tkus osQ fy,
iVdFkk fy[kh tkrh gSA
dksbZ ys[kd fdlh Hkh nwljh fo/k esa ys[ku djosQ mrus yksxksa rd viuh ckr
ugha igq¡pk ldrk] ftruk dh iVdFkk ys[ku }kjk_ D;ksafd iVdFkk 'kwV gksus osQ
ckn /kjkokfgd ;k fI
+
kQYeksa osQ :i esa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa n'kZdksa rd igq¡p tkrh gSA bl
yksdfiz;rk osQ pyrs gh iVdFkk ys[ku dh vksj ys[kdksa dk Hkh i;kZIr #>ku gqvk
gS vkSj i=k&if=kdkvksa rFkk iqLrdksa esa Hkh iVdFkk,¡ Nius yxh gSaA izLrqr ikB esa
jtuh /kjkokfgd dh ,d dM+h nh tk jgh gSA
jtuh fiNyh lnh osQ uosa n'kd dk ,d cgqpfpZr Vh-oh- /kjkokfgd jgk gSA
;g og le; Fkk tc geyksx vkSj cqfu;kn tSls lksi vksisjk nwjn'kZu dk Hkfo";
x<+ jgs FksA cklq pVthZ osQ funsZ'ku esa cus bl /kjkokfgd dh gj dM+h vius esa
Lora=k vkSj eqdEey gksrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa vkil esa xw¡Fkusokyh lw=k jtuh FkhA gj
dM+h esa ;g tq>k: vkSj balkI
+
kQ&ilan L=kh&ik=k fdlh u fdlh lkekftd&
jktuhfrd leL;k ls tw>rh u”kj vkrh FkhA
izLrqr va'k Hkh O;olk; curh f'k{kk dh leL;k dh vksj gekjk è;ku
[khaprk gSA
Page 3


jtuh/79
yksdfiz;rk dHkh Hkh jpuk dk ekud ugha cu ldrhA vlyh ekud rks
gksrk gS jpukdkj dk nkf;Rocks/] mlosQ ljksdkj] mldh thou&n`f"VA
(,d dgkuh ;g Hkh)
eUuw HkaMkjh
tUe% lu~~ 1931] Hkkuiqjk (eè;çns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
rhu fuxkgksa dh ,d rLohj] ;gh lp gS]
f=k'kaoqQ] vk¡[kksa ns[kk >wB (dgkuh&laxzg)_
vkidk caVh] egkHkkst] Lokeh] ,d bap eqLdku
(jktsanz ;kno osQ lkFk) (miU;kl)
iVdFkk,¡% jtuh] fueZyk] Lokeh] niZ.k
lEeku% fganh vdkneh fnYyh dk f'k[kj lEeku]
fcgkj ljdkj] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ifj"kn~ dksydkrk]
jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh vkSj mÙkj izns'k fganh laLFkku }kjk iqjLÑr
eUuw HkaMkjh fganh dgkuh esa ml le; lfØ; gqb± tc ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu vius
mBku ij FkkA ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu (NBk n'kd) esa tks u;k eksM+ vk;k mlesa eUuw
th dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA mudh dgkfu;ksa esa dgha ikfjokfjd thou] dgha
ukjh&thou vkSj dgha lekt osQ fofHkUu oxks± osQ thou dh folaxfr;k¡ fo'ks"k
vkReh; vank”k esa vfHkO;Dr gqbZ gSaA mUgksaus vkØks'k] O;aX; vkSj laosnuk dks
euksoSKkfud jpukRed vk/kj fn;k gSµ og pkgs dgkuh gks] miU;kl gks ;k fiQj
iVdFkk gh D;ksa u gksA
80/vkjksg
;gk¡ vki eUuw th }kjk fyf[kr ,d iVdFkk i<+us tk jgs gSaA iVdFkk] ;kuh
iV ;k LØhu osQ fy, fy[kh xbZ og dFkk jtr iV (fI
+
kQYe dk LØhu) osQ fy,
Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj Vsyhfo”ku osQ fy, HkhA ewy ckr ;g gS fd ftl rjg eap
ij [ksyus osQ fy, ukVd fy[ks tkrs gSa] mlh rjg oSQejs ls fI
+
kQYek, tkus osQ fy,
iVdFkk fy[kh tkrh gSA
dksbZ ys[kd fdlh Hkh nwljh fo/k esa ys[ku djosQ mrus yksxksa rd viuh ckr
ugha igq¡pk ldrk] ftruk dh iVdFkk ys[ku }kjk_ D;ksafd iVdFkk 'kwV gksus osQ
ckn /kjkokfgd ;k fI
+
kQYeksa osQ :i esa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa n'kZdksa rd igq¡p tkrh gSA bl
yksdfiz;rk osQ pyrs gh iVdFkk ys[ku dh vksj ys[kdksa dk Hkh i;kZIr #>ku gqvk
gS vkSj i=k&if=kdkvksa rFkk iqLrdksa esa Hkh iVdFkk,¡ Nius yxh gSaA izLrqr ikB esa
jtuh /kjkokfgd dh ,d dM+h nh tk jgh gSA
jtuh fiNyh lnh osQ uosa n'kd dk ,d cgqpfpZr Vh-oh- /kjkokfgd jgk gSA
;g og le; Fkk tc geyksx vkSj cqfu;kn tSls lksi vksisjk nwjn'kZu dk Hkfo";
x<+ jgs FksA cklq pVthZ osQ funsZ'ku esa cus bl /kjkokfgd dh gj dM+h vius esa
Lora=k vkSj eqdEey gksrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa vkil esa xw¡Fkusokyh lw=k jtuh FkhA gj
dM+h esa ;g tq>k: vkSj balkI
+
kQ&ilan L=kh&ik=k fdlh u fdlh lkekftd&
jktuhfrd leL;k ls tw>rh u”kj vkrh FkhA
izLrqr va'k Hkh O;olk; curh f'k{kk dh leL;k dh vksj gekjk è;ku
[khaprk gSA
jtuh/81
jtuh
(eè;oxhZ; ifjokj osQ Ý
+
ySV dk ,d dejkA ,d efgyk jlksbZ esa O;Lr
gSA ?kaVh ctrh gSA ckbZ njok”kk [kksyrh gSA jtuh dk izos'kA)
jtuh % yhyk csu dgk¡ gks---ck”kkj ugha pyuk D;k\
yhyk % (jlksbZ esa ls gkFk iksaNrh gqbZ fudyrh gS) pyuk rks Fkk ij bl le;
rks vfer vk jgk gksxk viuk fj”kYV ysdjA vkt mldk fj”kYV
fudy jgk gS uA (psgjs ij [kq'kh dk Hkko)
jtuh % vjs okg! rc rks eSa feBkbZ [kkdj gh tkšxhA vfer rks i<+us esa
bruk vPNk gS fd I
+
kQLVZ vk,xk vkSj ugha rks lsoaQM rks dgha x;k
ughaA rqedks feBkbZ Hkh cf<+;k f[kykuh iM+sxh---lwth osQ gyos ls
dke ugha pyus okyk] eSa vHkh ls crk nsrh gw¡A
yhyk % (g¡ldj) ugha&ugha] eSa rqEgsa vPNh feBkbZ gh f[kykÅ¡xh---eSaus igys
ls gh e¡xokdj j[kh gSµ osQlfj;k jleykbZA vfer dks cgqr ilan
gS uA
jtuh % ns[kk ¿¿! eq>s vius ?kj esa gh osQlj dh lqxaèk vk xbZ FkhA ck”kkj
dk rks eSa cgkuk djosQ pyh vkbZ ojuk rqe rks eq>s dkV gh nsrhaA
yhyk % oSQlh ckr djrh gks\ eSa ,d ckj dkV Hkh nw¡] ysfdu vfer! vius
eq¡g esa Mkyus ls igys jleykbZ ysdj rqEgkjs Ý
+
ySV esa nkSM+rkA eSa
dksbZ Hkh ph”k ?kj esa cukÅ¡ ;k ckgj ls ykÅ¡] vfer tc rd
rqEgkjs Hkksx ugha yxk ysrk] ge yksx [kk FkksM+s gh ldrs gSaA jtuh
vkaVh rks ghjks gSa mldhA (nksuksa f[kyf[kykdj g¡lrh gSa)
Page 4


jtuh/79
yksdfiz;rk dHkh Hkh jpuk dk ekud ugha cu ldrhA vlyh ekud rks
gksrk gS jpukdkj dk nkf;Rocks/] mlosQ ljksdkj] mldh thou&n`f"VA
(,d dgkuh ;g Hkh)
eUuw HkaMkjh
tUe% lu~~ 1931] Hkkuiqjk (eè;çns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
rhu fuxkgksa dh ,d rLohj] ;gh lp gS]
f=k'kaoqQ] vk¡[kksa ns[kk >wB (dgkuh&laxzg)_
vkidk caVh] egkHkkst] Lokeh] ,d bap eqLdku
(jktsanz ;kno osQ lkFk) (miU;kl)
iVdFkk,¡% jtuh] fueZyk] Lokeh] niZ.k
lEeku% fganh vdkneh fnYyh dk f'k[kj lEeku]
fcgkj ljdkj] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ifj"kn~ dksydkrk]
jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh vkSj mÙkj izns'k fganh laLFkku }kjk iqjLÑr
eUuw HkaMkjh fganh dgkuh esa ml le; lfØ; gqb± tc ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu vius
mBku ij FkkA ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu (NBk n'kd) esa tks u;k eksM+ vk;k mlesa eUuw
th dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA mudh dgkfu;ksa esa dgha ikfjokfjd thou] dgha
ukjh&thou vkSj dgha lekt osQ fofHkUu oxks± osQ thou dh folaxfr;k¡ fo'ks"k
vkReh; vank”k esa vfHkO;Dr gqbZ gSaA mUgksaus vkØks'k] O;aX; vkSj laosnuk dks
euksoSKkfud jpukRed vk/kj fn;k gSµ og pkgs dgkuh gks] miU;kl gks ;k fiQj
iVdFkk gh D;ksa u gksA
80/vkjksg
;gk¡ vki eUuw th }kjk fyf[kr ,d iVdFkk i<+us tk jgs gSaA iVdFkk] ;kuh
iV ;k LØhu osQ fy, fy[kh xbZ og dFkk jtr iV (fI
+
kQYe dk LØhu) osQ fy,
Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj Vsyhfo”ku osQ fy, HkhA ewy ckr ;g gS fd ftl rjg eap
ij [ksyus osQ fy, ukVd fy[ks tkrs gSa] mlh rjg oSQejs ls fI
+
kQYek, tkus osQ fy,
iVdFkk fy[kh tkrh gSA
dksbZ ys[kd fdlh Hkh nwljh fo/k esa ys[ku djosQ mrus yksxksa rd viuh ckr
ugha igq¡pk ldrk] ftruk dh iVdFkk ys[ku }kjk_ D;ksafd iVdFkk 'kwV gksus osQ
ckn /kjkokfgd ;k fI
+
kQYeksa osQ :i esa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa n'kZdksa rd igq¡p tkrh gSA bl
yksdfiz;rk osQ pyrs gh iVdFkk ys[ku dh vksj ys[kdksa dk Hkh i;kZIr #>ku gqvk
gS vkSj i=k&if=kdkvksa rFkk iqLrdksa esa Hkh iVdFkk,¡ Nius yxh gSaA izLrqr ikB esa
jtuh /kjkokfgd dh ,d dM+h nh tk jgh gSA
jtuh fiNyh lnh osQ uosa n'kd dk ,d cgqpfpZr Vh-oh- /kjkokfgd jgk gSA
;g og le; Fkk tc geyksx vkSj cqfu;kn tSls lksi vksisjk nwjn'kZu dk Hkfo";
x<+ jgs FksA cklq pVthZ osQ funsZ'ku esa cus bl /kjkokfgd dh gj dM+h vius esa
Lora=k vkSj eqdEey gksrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa vkil esa xw¡Fkusokyh lw=k jtuh FkhA gj
dM+h esa ;g tq>k: vkSj balkI
+
kQ&ilan L=kh&ik=k fdlh u fdlh lkekftd&
jktuhfrd leL;k ls tw>rh u”kj vkrh FkhA
izLrqr va'k Hkh O;olk; curh f'k{kk dh leL;k dh vksj gekjk è;ku
[khaprk gSA
jtuh/81
jtuh
(eè;oxhZ; ifjokj osQ Ý
+
ySV dk ,d dejkA ,d efgyk jlksbZ esa O;Lr
gSA ?kaVh ctrh gSA ckbZ njok”kk [kksyrh gSA jtuh dk izos'kA)
jtuh % yhyk csu dgk¡ gks---ck”kkj ugha pyuk D;k\
yhyk % (jlksbZ esa ls gkFk iksaNrh gqbZ fudyrh gS) pyuk rks Fkk ij bl le;
rks vfer vk jgk gksxk viuk fj”kYV ysdjA vkt mldk fj”kYV
fudy jgk gS uA (psgjs ij [kq'kh dk Hkko)
jtuh % vjs okg! rc rks eSa feBkbZ [kkdj gh tkšxhA vfer rks i<+us esa
bruk vPNk gS fd I
+
kQLVZ vk,xk vkSj ugha rks lsoaQM rks dgha x;k
ughaA rqedks feBkbZ Hkh cf<+;k f[kykuh iM+sxh---lwth osQ gyos ls
dke ugha pyus okyk] eSa vHkh ls crk nsrh gw¡A
yhyk % (g¡ldj) ugha&ugha] eSa rqEgsa vPNh feBkbZ gh f[kykÅ¡xh---eSaus igys
ls gh e¡xokdj j[kh gSµ osQlfj;k jleykbZA vfer dks cgqr ilan
gS uA
jtuh % ns[kk ¿¿! eq>s vius ?kj esa gh osQlj dh lqxaèk vk xbZ FkhA ck”kkj
dk rks eSa cgkuk djosQ pyh vkbZ ojuk rqe rks eq>s dkV gh nsrhaA
yhyk % oSQlh ckr djrh gks\ eSa ,d ckj dkV Hkh nw¡] ysfdu vfer! vius
eq¡g esa Mkyus ls igys jleykbZ ysdj rqEgkjs Ý
+
ySV esa nkSM+rkA eSa
dksbZ Hkh ph”k ?kj esa cukÅ¡ ;k ckgj ls ykÅ¡] vfer tc rd
rqEgkjs Hkksx ugha yxk ysrk] ge yksx [kk FkksM+s gh ldrs gSaA jtuh
vkaVh rks ghjks gSa mldhA (nksuksa f[kyf[kykdj g¡lrh gSa)
82/vkjksg
jtuh % cgqr esèkkoh cPpk gS vfer---rqe ns[kuk rks] vkxs tkdj D;k
curk gS!
yhyk % cl] l¿c rqEgkjk gh vk'khokZn gSA
(fiQj ?kaVh ctrh gSA yhyk ,d rjg ls nkSM+rs gq, njok”kk [kksyrh gSA
vfer dk izos'kA jks”k dh rjg Hkkjh cLrs dh txg ,d gYdk&lk
FkSyk gSA)
jtuh % (vfer dks ck¡gksa esa Hkjus osQ fy, nksuksa ck¡gsa iSQykrs gq, vkxs c<+rh gSA)
dkaxzspqys'kal vferA cèkkbZ nsus osQ fy, jtuh vkaVh igys ls ekStwn
gSaA (vfer dk psgjk mrjk gqvk gS] ij nksuksa esa ls vHkh rd mlij fdlh
dk è;ku ugha x;kA vfer vk¡lw Hkjh vk¡[kksa ls FkSys esa ls fjiksVZ fudkydj
ek¡ dh vksj IksaQdrs gq,A)
vfer % yks---yks---ns[kks] D;k gqvk gS esjs fj”kYV dkA eSaus fdruk dgk Fkk
fd eSFl esa Hkh esjh V~;w'ku yxok nhft,] ojuk esjk fj”kYV fcxM+
tk,xkA cl ogh gqvkA eSFl esa gh rks iwjs uacj vk ldrs gSa]
fj”kYV cu&fcxM+ ldrk gSA fjiksVZ jtuh ns[kus yxrh gSA (yhyk
mls viuh ck¡gksa esa Hkjdj)
yhyk % ij rw rks lkjs loky Bhd djosQ vk;k FkkA ;gk¡ vkdj ikik osQ
lkeus rwus fiQj ls fd;k Fkk viuk lkjk isijA lc rks Bhd FkkA rsjs
ikik us ugha dgk Fkk fd pkj&ik¡p uacj Hkys gh dkV ys lI
+
kQkbZ&oI
+
kQkbZ
osQ ij ukbaVh&I
+
kQkbo rks rsjs iDosQ gSaA
jtuh % (fjiksVZ ns[krs gq,) ij feys rks oqQy cgÙkj gh gSaA (fiQj nwljs fo"k;ksa
osQ uacj Hkh i<+us yxrh gS baxfy'k 86] fgLVªh 80] flfoDl 88] fganh 82]
Mªkbax 90---lcls de eSFl esa ghA)
vfer % (xqLls vkSj nq[k ls) de rks gksaxs ghA V~;w'ku ugha ysus ls feyrs gSa
dgha vPNs uacj\ lj rks ckj&ckj dgrs gh Fks fd V~;w'ku dj yks]
V~;w'ku dj yks ojuk fiQj ckn esa er jksukA (jks iM+rk gS)
Page 5


jtuh/79
yksdfiz;rk dHkh Hkh jpuk dk ekud ugha cu ldrhA vlyh ekud rks
gksrk gS jpukdkj dk nkf;Rocks/] mlosQ ljksdkj] mldh thou&n`f"VA
(,d dgkuh ;g Hkh)
eUuw HkaMkjh
tUe% lu~~ 1931] Hkkuiqjk (eè;çns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ,d IysV lSykc] eSa gkj xbZ]
rhu fuxkgksa dh ,d rLohj] ;gh lp gS]
f=k'kaoqQ] vk¡[kksa ns[kk >wB (dgkuh&laxzg)_
vkidk caVh] egkHkkst] Lokeh] ,d bap eqLdku
(jktsanz ;kno osQ lkFk) (miU;kl)
iVdFkk,¡% jtuh] fueZyk] Lokeh] niZ.k
lEeku% fganh vdkneh fnYyh dk f'k[kj lEeku]
fcgkj ljdkj] Hkkjrh; Hkk"kk ifj"kn~ dksydkrk]
jktLFkku laxhr ukVd vdkneh vkSj mÙkj izns'k fganh laLFkku }kjk iqjLÑr
eUuw HkaMkjh fganh dgkuh esa ml le; lfØ; gqb± tc ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu vius
mBku ij FkkA ubZ dgkuh vkanksyu (NBk n'kd) esa tks u;k eksM+ vk;k mlesa eUuw
th dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA mudh dgkfu;ksa esa dgha ikfjokfjd thou] dgha
ukjh&thou vkSj dgha lekt osQ fofHkUu oxks± osQ thou dh folaxfr;k¡ fo'ks"k
vkReh; vank”k esa vfHkO;Dr gqbZ gSaA mUgksaus vkØks'k] O;aX; vkSj laosnuk dks
euksoSKkfud jpukRed vk/kj fn;k gSµ og pkgs dgkuh gks] miU;kl gks ;k fiQj
iVdFkk gh D;ksa u gksA
80/vkjksg
;gk¡ vki eUuw th }kjk fyf[kr ,d iVdFkk i<+us tk jgs gSaA iVdFkk] ;kuh
iV ;k LØhu osQ fy, fy[kh xbZ og dFkk jtr iV (fI
+
kQYe dk LØhu) osQ fy,
Hkh gks ldrh gS vkSj Vsyhfo”ku osQ fy, HkhA ewy ckr ;g gS fd ftl rjg eap
ij [ksyus osQ fy, ukVd fy[ks tkrs gSa] mlh rjg oSQejs ls fI
+
kQYek, tkus osQ fy,
iVdFkk fy[kh tkrh gSA
dksbZ ys[kd fdlh Hkh nwljh fo/k esa ys[ku djosQ mrus yksxksa rd viuh ckr
ugha igq¡pk ldrk] ftruk dh iVdFkk ys[ku }kjk_ D;ksafd iVdFkk 'kwV gksus osQ
ckn /kjkokfgd ;k fI
+
kQYeksa osQ :i esa yk[kksa&djksM+ksa n'kZdksa rd igq¡p tkrh gSA bl
yksdfiz;rk osQ pyrs gh iVdFkk ys[ku dh vksj ys[kdksa dk Hkh i;kZIr #>ku gqvk
gS vkSj i=k&if=kdkvksa rFkk iqLrdksa esa Hkh iVdFkk,¡ Nius yxh gSaA izLrqr ikB esa
jtuh /kjkokfgd dh ,d dM+h nh tk jgh gSA
jtuh fiNyh lnh osQ uosa n'kd dk ,d cgqpfpZr Vh-oh- /kjkokfgd jgk gSA
;g og le; Fkk tc geyksx vkSj cqfu;kn tSls lksi vksisjk nwjn'kZu dk Hkfo";
x<+ jgs FksA cklq pVthZ osQ funsZ'ku esa cus bl /kjkokfgd dh gj dM+h vius esa
Lora=k vkSj eqdEey gksrh Fkh vkSj mUgsa vkil esa xw¡Fkusokyh lw=k jtuh FkhA gj
dM+h esa ;g tq>k: vkSj balkI
+
kQ&ilan L=kh&ik=k fdlh u fdlh lkekftd&
jktuhfrd leL;k ls tw>rh u”kj vkrh FkhA
izLrqr va'k Hkh O;olk; curh f'k{kk dh leL;k dh vksj gekjk è;ku
[khaprk gSA
jtuh/81
jtuh
(eè;oxhZ; ifjokj osQ Ý
+
ySV dk ,d dejkA ,d efgyk jlksbZ esa O;Lr
gSA ?kaVh ctrh gSA ckbZ njok”kk [kksyrh gSA jtuh dk izos'kA)
jtuh % yhyk csu dgk¡ gks---ck”kkj ugha pyuk D;k\
yhyk % (jlksbZ esa ls gkFk iksaNrh gqbZ fudyrh gS) pyuk rks Fkk ij bl le;
rks vfer vk jgk gksxk viuk fj”kYV ysdjA vkt mldk fj”kYV
fudy jgk gS uA (psgjs ij [kq'kh dk Hkko)
jtuh % vjs okg! rc rks eSa feBkbZ [kkdj gh tkšxhA vfer rks i<+us esa
bruk vPNk gS fd I
+
kQLVZ vk,xk vkSj ugha rks lsoaQM rks dgha x;k
ughaA rqedks feBkbZ Hkh cf<+;k f[kykuh iM+sxh---lwth osQ gyos ls
dke ugha pyus okyk] eSa vHkh ls crk nsrh gw¡A
yhyk % (g¡ldj) ugha&ugha] eSa rqEgsa vPNh feBkbZ gh f[kykÅ¡xh---eSaus igys
ls gh e¡xokdj j[kh gSµ osQlfj;k jleykbZA vfer dks cgqr ilan
gS uA
jtuh % ns[kk ¿¿! eq>s vius ?kj esa gh osQlj dh lqxaèk vk xbZ FkhA ck”kkj
dk rks eSa cgkuk djosQ pyh vkbZ ojuk rqe rks eq>s dkV gh nsrhaA
yhyk % oSQlh ckr djrh gks\ eSa ,d ckj dkV Hkh nw¡] ysfdu vfer! vius
eq¡g esa Mkyus ls igys jleykbZ ysdj rqEgkjs Ý
+
ySV esa nkSM+rkA eSa
dksbZ Hkh ph”k ?kj esa cukÅ¡ ;k ckgj ls ykÅ¡] vfer tc rd
rqEgkjs Hkksx ugha yxk ysrk] ge yksx [kk FkksM+s gh ldrs gSaA jtuh
vkaVh rks ghjks gSa mldhA (nksuksa f[kyf[kykdj g¡lrh gSa)
82/vkjksg
jtuh % cgqr esèkkoh cPpk gS vfer---rqe ns[kuk rks] vkxs tkdj D;k
curk gS!
yhyk % cl] l¿c rqEgkjk gh vk'khokZn gSA
(fiQj ?kaVh ctrh gSA yhyk ,d rjg ls nkSM+rs gq, njok”kk [kksyrh gSA
vfer dk izos'kA jks”k dh rjg Hkkjh cLrs dh txg ,d gYdk&lk
FkSyk gSA)
jtuh % (vfer dks ck¡gksa esa Hkjus osQ fy, nksuksa ck¡gsa iSQykrs gq, vkxs c<+rh gSA)
dkaxzspqys'kal vferA cèkkbZ nsus osQ fy, jtuh vkaVh igys ls ekStwn
gSaA (vfer dk psgjk mrjk gqvk gS] ij nksuksa esa ls vHkh rd mlij fdlh
dk è;ku ugha x;kA vfer vk¡lw Hkjh vk¡[kksa ls FkSys esa ls fjiksVZ fudkydj
ek¡ dh vksj IksaQdrs gq,A)
vfer % yks---yks---ns[kks] D;k gqvk gS esjs fj”kYV dkA eSaus fdruk dgk Fkk
fd eSFl esa Hkh esjh V~;w'ku yxok nhft,] ojuk esjk fj”kYV fcxM+
tk,xkA cl ogh gqvkA eSFl esa gh rks iwjs uacj vk ldrs gSa]
fj”kYV cu&fcxM+ ldrk gSA fjiksVZ jtuh ns[kus yxrh gSA (yhyk
mls viuh ck¡gksa esa Hkjdj)
yhyk % ij rw rks lkjs loky Bhd djosQ vk;k FkkA ;gk¡ vkdj ikik osQ
lkeus rwus fiQj ls fd;k Fkk viuk lkjk isijA lc rks Bhd FkkA rsjs
ikik us ugha dgk Fkk fd pkj&ik¡p uacj Hkys gh dkV ys lI
+
kQkbZ&oI
+
kQkbZ
osQ ij ukbaVh&I
+
kQkbo rks rsjs iDosQ gSaA
jtuh % (fjiksVZ ns[krs gq,) ij feys rks oqQy cgÙkj gh gSaA (fiQj nwljs fo"k;ksa
osQ uacj Hkh i<+us yxrh gS baxfy'k 86] fgLVªh 80] flfoDl 88] fganh 82]
Mªkbax 90---lcls de eSFl esa ghA)
vfer % (xqLls vkSj nq[k ls) de rks gksaxs ghA V~;w'ku ugha ysus ls feyrs gSa
dgha vPNs uacj\ lj rks ckj&ckj dgrs gh Fks fd V~;w'ku dj yks]
V~;w'ku dj yks ojuk fiQj ckn esa er jksukA (jks iM+rk gS)
jtuh/83
yhyk % (vijkèkh dh rjg lI
+
kQkbZ nsrs gq,) rq>s vaxzs”kh dks ysdj FkksM+h ijs'kkuh
Fkh lks vaxzs”kh esa djok nh Fkh V~;w'kuA vc nks&nks fo"k;ksa dh
V~;w'ku---fiQj yach&pkSM+h I
+
kQhlA csVs---(viuh vkfFkZd etcwjh dh ckr
og 'kCnksa ls ugha] psgjs ls O;Dr djrh gSA) ij ;g rks v¡èksj gh gqvk
fd lkjk isij Bhd gks] fiQj Hkh uacj dkV yksA
jtuh % (jtuh dh HkkSagksa esa ,dk,d cy iM+ tkrs gSaA og jksrs gq, vfer dks
[khapdj vius ikl lVk ysrh gS) jksvks erA (mlosQ vk¡lw iksaNrs gq,)
vfer jks,xk ugha---le>sA eSa tks iwNrh gw¡ mldk tokc nsukA clA
(oqQN nsj #ddj) rq>s vPNh rjg ;kn gS fd rwus iwjk isij Bhd
fd;k Fkk\ (vfer LohÑfr esa flj fgykrk gS) ikik osQ ikl nqckjk
isij djus ls igys nksLrksa ls ;k fdrkcksa ls mu lokyksa osQ tokc
rks ugha ns[k fy, Fks\
vfer % ughaA T;ksa&osQ&R;ksa vkdj dj fn, FksA gedks vkrs Fks oks lkjs lokyA
jtuh % eSFl osQ lj dkSu gSa\
vfer % feLVj ikBdA
jtuh % fdrus yM+osQ V~;w'ku ysrs gSa muls\
vfer % ckblA lky osQ 'kq: esa rks vkB ysrs Fks---fiQj igys VfeZuy osQ
ckn ls ianzg gks x, FksA gkI
+
kQ&bZ;jyh osQ ckn lkr yM+dksa us vkSj
ysuk 'kq: dj fn;kA eq>ls Hkh rHkh ls dg jgs FksA
yhyk % gkI
+
kQ&bZ;jyh esa rks blosQ ukbaVh&flDl uacj vk, Fks---blh us
crk;k Fkk fd Dykl esa lcls ”;knk gSaA
jtuh % mlosQ ckn Hkh dgrs Fks fd V~;w'ku yks\
vfer % gk¡! dkWih ykSVkrs gq, dgk Fkk fd rqeus fd;k rks vPNk gS ij ;g
rks gkI
+
kQ&bZ;jyh gS---cgqr vklku isij gksrk gS bldk rksA vc vxj
bZ;jyh esa Hkh iwjs uacj ysus gSa rks rqjar V~;w'ku ysuk 'kq: dj nksA
ojuk jg tkvksxsA lkr yM+dksa us rks 'kq: Hkh dj fn;k FkkA ij eSaus
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