NCERT Textbook - Modals Class 9 Notes | EduRev

English Grammar (Communicative) Interact In English- Class 9

Class 9 : NCERT Textbook - Modals Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK 49
A. Ability
1. What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its 
regular use? List your answer below. 
2. Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
a. You can use a ruler to dig holes.
b. You can use my ruler to dig holes.
c. You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ______________ .
In sentence (b) can is used to express ______________  and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express__________ .
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should  are called 
Modal verbs.
1 1
MODALS
4 4
Page 2


CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK 49
A. Ability
1. What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its 
regular use? List your answer below. 
2. Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
a. You can use a ruler to dig holes.
b. You can use my ruler to dig holes.
c. You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ______________ .
In sentence (b) can is used to express ______________  and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express__________ .
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should  are called 
Modal verbs.
1 1
MODALS
4 4
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
50
3. Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you are not able to do now because of 
the fast-paced life. 
4. Write a paragraph about a newly devised robot that can be of great help to 
home-makers.
e.g. I could play in the open ground but now I can't.
I could visit my aunt on weekends but…………..
Zoomo, the robot can make tea when guests arrive………………..
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Page 3


CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK 49
A. Ability
1. What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its 
regular use? List your answer below. 
2. Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
a. You can use a ruler to dig holes.
b. You can use my ruler to dig holes.
c. You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ______________ .
In sentence (b) can is used to express ______________  and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express__________ .
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should  are called 
Modal verbs.
1 1
MODALS
4 4
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
50
3. Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you are not able to do now because of 
the fast-paced life. 
4. Write a paragraph about a newly devised robot that can be of great help to 
home-makers.
e.g. I could play in the open ground but now I can't.
I could visit my aunt on weekends but…………..
Zoomo, the robot can make tea when guests arrive………………..
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
51
B. Necessity, Obligation and Permission 
5. The table below provides you with a list of modals that are used to express 
necessity and permission. 
6. Write the contracted forms. Practise saying these words.
Necessity/ obligation Permission
Positive Positive
    must          obeying can (less formal)
    have to      authority
    need to      may (more formal)
    ought to     right thing
    should        to do     
Negative Negative
  must not need not
  cannot do not have to
  ought not to 
Did you know?
* Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as 'not' 
immediately after the modal.
You must not leave now.
You cannot go home now.
e.g. ought not to - oughtn't to.
cannot ________ must not __________
need not _______ do not _____________
should not ______ did not ____________
Page 4


CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK 49
A. Ability
1. What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its 
regular use? List your answer below. 
2. Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
a. You can use a ruler to dig holes.
b. You can use my ruler to dig holes.
c. You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ______________ .
In sentence (b) can is used to express ______________  and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express__________ .
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should  are called 
Modal verbs.
1 1
MODALS
4 4
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
50
3. Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you are not able to do now because of 
the fast-paced life. 
4. Write a paragraph about a newly devised robot that can be of great help to 
home-makers.
e.g. I could play in the open ground but now I can't.
I could visit my aunt on weekends but…………..
Zoomo, the robot can make tea when guests arrive………………..
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
51
B. Necessity, Obligation and Permission 
5. The table below provides you with a list of modals that are used to express 
necessity and permission. 
6. Write the contracted forms. Practise saying these words.
Necessity/ obligation Permission
Positive Positive
    must          obeying can (less formal)
    have to      authority
    need to      may (more formal)
    ought to     right thing
    should        to do     
Negative Negative
  must not need not
  cannot do not have to
  ought not to 
Did you know?
* Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as 'not' 
immediately after the modal.
You must not leave now.
You cannot go home now.
e.g. ought not to - oughtn't to.
cannot ________ must not __________
need not _______ do not _____________
should not ______ did not ____________
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
52
7. The following note comes from an army booklet, "Advice to New Recruits." 
Complete the instructions by filling in the blanks with suitable modals.
8. Write what each symbol means using can, can't, must, mustn't. 
9. In some schools the student - council members are assigned duties at the 
beginning of every academic year.
Welcome to Ranor Barracks!
Follow the rules, accept the advice and you will find your life in the army interesting 
and fulfilling. 
You _____ have your hair cut very short in the first month. After that you ________ 
grow it longer but it ______ never touch your collar. Your uniform ______ be kept clean 
and tidy. Boots and buttons __________ be polished daily. You ______ use cell phones 
on the campus but you _______ switch them off during the training sessions. Before 
joining you _____ have a medical check-up. You ________ undergo medical 
examinations once a year during service. 
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
C  : Duties and Privileges
STOP
POLICE
Page 5


CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK 49
A. Ability
1. What are the ten different ways in which you can use a ruler other than its 
regular use? List your answer below. 
2. Do you see any difference in the following sentences?
e.g. You can use it to dig holes.
a. You can use a ruler to dig holes.
b. You can use my ruler to dig holes.
c. You can find a ruler in the study room.
Can is used to express permission, ability, and possibility in these sentences.
In sentence (a) can is used to express ______________ .
In sentence (b) can is used to express ______________  and,
in sentence (c) can is used to express__________ .
Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, ought to, shall, should  are called 
Modal verbs.
1 1
MODALS
4 4
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
50
3. Work in pairs. Tell your partner what you are not able to do now because of 
the fast-paced life. 
4. Write a paragraph about a newly devised robot that can be of great help to 
home-makers.
e.g. I could play in the open ground but now I can't.
I could visit my aunt on weekends but…………..
Zoomo, the robot can make tea when guests arrive………………..
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
51
B. Necessity, Obligation and Permission 
5. The table below provides you with a list of modals that are used to express 
necessity and permission. 
6. Write the contracted forms. Practise saying these words.
Necessity/ obligation Permission
Positive Positive
    must          obeying can (less formal)
    have to      authority
    need to      may (more formal)
    ought to     right thing
    should        to do     
Negative Negative
  must not need not
  cannot do not have to
  ought not to 
Did you know?
* Negatives are formed by putting a negative word such as 'not' 
immediately after the modal.
You must not leave now.
You cannot go home now.
e.g. ought not to - oughtn't to.
cannot ________ must not __________
need not _______ do not _____________
should not ______ did not ____________
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
52
7. The following note comes from an army booklet, "Advice to New Recruits." 
Complete the instructions by filling in the blanks with suitable modals.
8. Write what each symbol means using can, can't, must, mustn't. 
9. In some schools the student - council members are assigned duties at the 
beginning of every academic year.
Welcome to Ranor Barracks!
Follow the rules, accept the advice and you will find your life in the army interesting 
and fulfilling. 
You _____ have your hair cut very short in the first month. After that you ________ 
grow it longer but it ______ never touch your collar. Your uniform ______ be kept clean 
and tidy. Boots and buttons __________ be polished daily. You ______ use cell phones 
on the campus but you _______ switch them off during the training sessions. Before 
joining you _____ have a medical check-up. You ________ undergo medical 
examinations once a year during service. 
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
C  : Duties and Privileges
STOP
POLICE
CBSE
INTERACT IN ENGLISH WORK BOOK
4 4
53
Write a job description to be given to the newly elected Environment 
Monitor of your school. 
You may do this individually. Later your class as a whole can come out with one 
duty list to be displayed on the soft-board. You may use the words given in the 
box below. 
can, may, can't, mustn't, must, should, have to.
e.g. You must ensure that the campus is clean.
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Did you know?
should and ought to have similar meanings. They show obligation or duty. 
However there is a slight difference in meaning. 
ought to has an objective meaning whereas should is more subjective. 
We ought to / should save water. 
We ought to save money but we are unable to. (In this sentence should will not 
be appropriate.).
9.1 Duties and privileges of an Environment Monitor.
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