NCERT Textbook - Nirmala Putul Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Nirmala Putul Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Created by: Anant Ahuja
 Page 1


vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/179
cVksj i`Foh dh iwjh ÅtkZ@mBsxk /hjs&/hjs ”kehu ls@”kehu ij fxjk
vkneh@vkSj vius yM+[kM+krs dneksa ls ukirs nwfj;k¡ @igq¡p tk,xk
ogk¡@tgk¡ ml tSls reke vknfe;ksa ij cgl@py jgh gksxhA
(uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs gSa 'kCn)
fueZyk iqrqy
tUe% lu~ 1972] nqedk (>kj[kaM)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs 'kCn]
vius ?kj dh ryk'k esa
fueZyk iqrqy dk tUe ,d vkfnoklh ifjokj esa
gqvkA budk vkjafHkd thou cgqr la?k"kZe;
jgkA ?kj esa f'k{kk dk ekgkSy gksus (firk vkSj
pkpk f'k{kd Fks) osQ ckotwn jksVh dh leL;k
ls tw>us osQ dkj.k fu;fer vè;;u ckfèkr
gksrk jgkA
ulZ cuus ij vkfFkZd d"Vksa ls eqfDr fey tk,xh ;g fopkj dj mUgksaus ufl±x
esa fMIyksek fd;k vkSj dkI
+
kQh le; ckn bXuw ls Lukrd dh fMxzh izkIr dhA
laFkkyh lekt vkSj mlosQ jkx&cksèk ls xgjk tqM+ko igys ls Fkk] ufl±x dh f'k{kk
osQ le; ckgj dh nqfu;k ls Hkh ifjp; gqvkA nksuksa lektksa dh fozQ;k&izfrfozQ;k
ls og cksèk fodflr gqvk ftlls og vius ifjos'k dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks
le>us esa liQy gks loQhaA
mUgksaus vkfnoklh lekt dh folaxfr;ksa dks rYyhurk ls mosQjk gSµdM+h
esgur osQ ckotwn [kjkc n'kk] oqQjhfr;ksa osQ dkj.k fcxM+rh ih<+h] FkksM+s ykHk osQ
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/179
cVksj i`Foh dh iwjh ÅtkZ@mBsxk /hjs&/hjs ”kehu ls@”kehu ij fxjk
vkneh@vkSj vius yM+[kM+krs dneksa ls ukirs nwfj;k¡ @igq¡p tk,xk
ogk¡@tgk¡ ml tSls reke vknfe;ksa ij cgl@py jgh gksxhA
(uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs gSa 'kCn)
fueZyk iqrqy
tUe% lu~ 1972] nqedk (>kj[kaM)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs 'kCn]
vius ?kj dh ryk'k esa
fueZyk iqrqy dk tUe ,d vkfnoklh ifjokj esa
gqvkA budk vkjafHkd thou cgqr la?k"kZe;
jgkA ?kj esa f'k{kk dk ekgkSy gksus (firk vkSj
pkpk f'k{kd Fks) osQ ckotwn jksVh dh leL;k
ls tw>us osQ dkj.k fu;fer vè;;u ckfèkr
gksrk jgkA
ulZ cuus ij vkfFkZd d"Vksa ls eqfDr fey tk,xh ;g fopkj dj mUgksaus ufl±x
esa fMIyksek fd;k vkSj dkI
+
kQh le; ckn bXuw ls Lukrd dh fMxzh izkIr dhA
laFkkyh lekt vkSj mlosQ jkx&cksèk ls xgjk tqM+ko igys ls Fkk] ufl±x dh f'k{kk
osQ le; ckgj dh nqfu;k ls Hkh ifjp; gqvkA nksuksa lektksa dh fozQ;k&izfrfozQ;k
ls og cksèk fodflr gqvk ftlls og vius ifjos'k dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks
le>us esa liQy gks loQhaA
mUgksaus vkfnoklh lekt dh folaxfr;ksa dks rYyhurk ls mosQjk gSµdM+h
esgur osQ ckotwn [kjkc n'kk] oqQjhfr;ksa osQ dkj.k fcxM+rh ih<+h] FkksM+s ykHk osQ
© NCERT
not to be republished
180/vkjksg
fy, cM+s le>kSrs] iq#"k opZLo] LokFkZ osQ fy, i;kZoj.k dh gkfu] f'kf{kr lekt
dk fnDoqQvksa vkSj O;olkf;;ksa osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cuuk vkfn os fLFkfr;k¡ gSa
tks iqrqy dh dforkvksa osQ osaQnz esa gSaA
os vkfnoklh thou osQ oqQN vuNq, igyqvksa ls] dykRedRkk osQ lkFk gekjk
ifjp; djkrh gSa vkSj laFkkyh lekt osQ ldkjkRed vkSj udkjkRed nksuksa igyqvksa
dks csckdh ls lkeus j[krh gaSA laFkkyh lekt esa tgk¡ ,d vksj lknxh] Hkksykiu]
izÑfr ls tqM+ko vkSj dBksj ifjJe djus dh {kerk tSls ldkjkRed rRo gSa] ogha
nwljh vksj mlesa vf'k{kk] oqQjhfr;k¡ vkSj 'kjkc dh vksj c<+rk >qdko Hkh gSA
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡ dfork esa nksuksa i{kksa dk ;FkkFkZ fp=k.k gqvk gSA c`gÙkj
lanHkZ esa ;g dfork lekt esa mu ph”kksa dks cpkus dh ckr djrh gS ftudk gksuk
LoLFk lkekftd&izkÑfrd ifjos'k osQ fy, ”k:jh gSA izÑfr osQ fouk'k vkSj
foLFkkiu osQ dkj.k vkt vkfnoklh lekt ladV esa gS] tks dfork dk ewy Loj
gSA laFkkyh Hkk"kk ls fganh :ikarj v'kksd flag us fd;k gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/179
cVksj i`Foh dh iwjh ÅtkZ@mBsxk /hjs&/hjs ”kehu ls@”kehu ij fxjk
vkneh@vkSj vius yM+[kM+krs dneksa ls ukirs nwfj;k¡ @igq¡p tk,xk
ogk¡@tgk¡ ml tSls reke vknfe;ksa ij cgl@py jgh gksxhA
(uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs gSa 'kCn)
fueZyk iqrqy
tUe% lu~ 1972] nqedk (>kj[kaM)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs 'kCn]
vius ?kj dh ryk'k esa
fueZyk iqrqy dk tUe ,d vkfnoklh ifjokj esa
gqvkA budk vkjafHkd thou cgqr la?k"kZe;
jgkA ?kj esa f'k{kk dk ekgkSy gksus (firk vkSj
pkpk f'k{kd Fks) osQ ckotwn jksVh dh leL;k
ls tw>us osQ dkj.k fu;fer vè;;u ckfèkr
gksrk jgkA
ulZ cuus ij vkfFkZd d"Vksa ls eqfDr fey tk,xh ;g fopkj dj mUgksaus ufl±x
esa fMIyksek fd;k vkSj dkI
+
kQh le; ckn bXuw ls Lukrd dh fMxzh izkIr dhA
laFkkyh lekt vkSj mlosQ jkx&cksèk ls xgjk tqM+ko igys ls Fkk] ufl±x dh f'k{kk
osQ le; ckgj dh nqfu;k ls Hkh ifjp; gqvkA nksuksa lektksa dh fozQ;k&izfrfozQ;k
ls og cksèk fodflr gqvk ftlls og vius ifjos'k dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks
le>us esa liQy gks loQhaA
mUgksaus vkfnoklh lekt dh folaxfr;ksa dks rYyhurk ls mosQjk gSµdM+h
esgur osQ ckotwn [kjkc n'kk] oqQjhfr;ksa osQ dkj.k fcxM+rh ih<+h] FkksM+s ykHk osQ
© NCERT
not to be republished
180/vkjksg
fy, cM+s le>kSrs] iq#"k opZLo] LokFkZ osQ fy, i;kZoj.k dh gkfu] f'kf{kr lekt
dk fnDoqQvksa vkSj O;olkf;;ksa osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cuuk vkfn os fLFkfr;k¡ gSa
tks iqrqy dh dforkvksa osQ osaQnz esa gSaA
os vkfnoklh thou osQ oqQN vuNq, igyqvksa ls] dykRedRkk osQ lkFk gekjk
ifjp; djkrh gSa vkSj laFkkyh lekt osQ ldkjkRed vkSj udkjkRed nksuksa igyqvksa
dks csckdh ls lkeus j[krh gaSA laFkkyh lekt esa tgk¡ ,d vksj lknxh] Hkksykiu]
izÑfr ls tqM+ko vkSj dBksj ifjJe djus dh {kerk tSls ldkjkRed rRo gSa] ogha
nwljh vksj mlesa vf'k{kk] oqQjhfr;k¡ vkSj 'kjkc dh vksj c<+rk >qdko Hkh gSA
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡ dfork esa nksuksa i{kksa dk ;FkkFkZ fp=k.k gqvk gSA c`gÙkj
lanHkZ esa ;g dfork lekt esa mu ph”kksa dks cpkus dh ckr djrh gS ftudk gksuk
LoLFk lkekftd&izkÑfrd ifjos'k osQ fy, ”k:jh gSA izÑfr osQ fouk'k vkSj
foLFkkiu osQ dkj.k vkt vkfnoklh lekt ladV esa gS] tks dfork dk ewy Loj
gSA laFkkyh Hkk"kk ls fganh :ikarj v'kksd flag us fd;k gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/181
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡
viuh cfLr;ksa dks
uaxh gksus ls
'kgj dh vkcks&gok ls cpk,¡ mls
cpk,¡ Mwcus ls
iwjh dh iwjh cLrh dks
gfM+;k esa
vius psgjs ij
lUFkky ijxuk dh ekVh dk jax
Hkk"kk esa >kj[kaMhiu
BaMh gksrh fnup;kZ esa
thou dh xekZgV
eu dk gjkiu
Hkksykiu fny dk
vD[kM+iu] tq>k:iu Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/179
cVksj i`Foh dh iwjh ÅtkZ@mBsxk /hjs&/hjs ”kehu ls@”kehu ij fxjk
vkneh@vkSj vius yM+[kM+krs dneksa ls ukirs nwfj;k¡ @igq¡p tk,xk
ogk¡@tgk¡ ml tSls reke vknfe;ksa ij cgl@py jgh gksxhA
(uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs gSa 'kCn)
fueZyk iqrqy
tUe% lu~ 1972] nqedk (>kj[kaM)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs 'kCn]
vius ?kj dh ryk'k esa
fueZyk iqrqy dk tUe ,d vkfnoklh ifjokj esa
gqvkA budk vkjafHkd thou cgqr la?k"kZe;
jgkA ?kj esa f'k{kk dk ekgkSy gksus (firk vkSj
pkpk f'k{kd Fks) osQ ckotwn jksVh dh leL;k
ls tw>us osQ dkj.k fu;fer vè;;u ckfèkr
gksrk jgkA
ulZ cuus ij vkfFkZd d"Vksa ls eqfDr fey tk,xh ;g fopkj dj mUgksaus ufl±x
esa fMIyksek fd;k vkSj dkI
+
kQh le; ckn bXuw ls Lukrd dh fMxzh izkIr dhA
laFkkyh lekt vkSj mlosQ jkx&cksèk ls xgjk tqM+ko igys ls Fkk] ufl±x dh f'k{kk
osQ le; ckgj dh nqfu;k ls Hkh ifjp; gqvkA nksuksa lektksa dh fozQ;k&izfrfozQ;k
ls og cksèk fodflr gqvk ftlls og vius ifjos'k dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks
le>us esa liQy gks loQhaA
mUgksaus vkfnoklh lekt dh folaxfr;ksa dks rYyhurk ls mosQjk gSµdM+h
esgur osQ ckotwn [kjkc n'kk] oqQjhfr;ksa osQ dkj.k fcxM+rh ih<+h] FkksM+s ykHk osQ
© NCERT
not to be republished
180/vkjksg
fy, cM+s le>kSrs] iq#"k opZLo] LokFkZ osQ fy, i;kZoj.k dh gkfu] f'kf{kr lekt
dk fnDoqQvksa vkSj O;olkf;;ksa osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cuuk vkfn os fLFkfr;k¡ gSa
tks iqrqy dh dforkvksa osQ osaQnz esa gSaA
os vkfnoklh thou osQ oqQN vuNq, igyqvksa ls] dykRedRkk osQ lkFk gekjk
ifjp; djkrh gSa vkSj laFkkyh lekt osQ ldkjkRed vkSj udkjkRed nksuksa igyqvksa
dks csckdh ls lkeus j[krh gaSA laFkkyh lekt esa tgk¡ ,d vksj lknxh] Hkksykiu]
izÑfr ls tqM+ko vkSj dBksj ifjJe djus dh {kerk tSls ldkjkRed rRo gSa] ogha
nwljh vksj mlesa vf'k{kk] oqQjhfr;k¡ vkSj 'kjkc dh vksj c<+rk >qdko Hkh gSA
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡ dfork esa nksuksa i{kksa dk ;FkkFkZ fp=k.k gqvk gSA c`gÙkj
lanHkZ esa ;g dfork lekt esa mu ph”kksa dks cpkus dh ckr djrh gS ftudk gksuk
LoLFk lkekftd&izkÑfrd ifjos'k osQ fy, ”k:jh gSA izÑfr osQ fouk'k vkSj
foLFkkiu osQ dkj.k vkt vkfnoklh lekt ladV esa gS] tks dfork dk ewy Loj
gSA laFkkyh Hkk"kk ls fganh :ikarj v'kksd flag us fd;k gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/181
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡
viuh cfLr;ksa dks
uaxh gksus ls
'kgj dh vkcks&gok ls cpk,¡ mls
cpk,¡ Mwcus ls
iwjh dh iwjh cLrh dks
gfM+;k esa
vius psgjs ij
lUFkky ijxuk dh ekVh dk jax
Hkk"kk esa >kj[kaMhiu
BaMh gksrh fnup;kZ esa
thou dh xekZgV
eu dk gjkiu
Hkksykiu fny dk
vD[kM+iu] tq>k:iu Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
182/vkjksg
Hkhrj dh vkx
èkuq"k dh Mksjh
rhj dk uqdhykiu
oqQYgkM+h dh èkkj
taxy dh rk”kk gok
ufn;ksa dh fueZyrk
igkM+ksa dk ekSu
xhrksa dh èkqu
fe^h dk lksaèkkiu
iQlyksa dh ygygkgV
ukpus osQ fy, [kqyk vk¡xu
xkus osQ fy, xhr
g¡lus osQ fy, FkksM+h&lh f[kyf[kykgV
jksus osQ fy, eq_h Hkj ,dkUr
cPpksa osQ fy, eSnku
i'kqvksa osQ fy, gjh&gjh ?kkl
cw<+ksa osQ fy, igkM+ksa dh 'kkfUr
vkSj bl vfo'okl&Hkjs nkSj esa
FkksM+k&lk fo'okl
FkksM+h&lh mEehn
FkksM+s&ls lius
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/179
cVksj i`Foh dh iwjh ÅtkZ@mBsxk /hjs&/hjs ”kehu ls@”kehu ij fxjk
vkneh@vkSj vius yM+[kM+krs dneksa ls ukirs nwfj;k¡ @igq¡p tk,xk
ogk¡@tgk¡ ml tSls reke vknfe;ksa ij cgl@py jgh gksxhA
(uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs gSa 'kCn)
fueZyk iqrqy
tUe% lu~ 1972] nqedk (>kj[kaM)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% uxkM+s dh rjg ctrs 'kCn]
vius ?kj dh ryk'k esa
fueZyk iqrqy dk tUe ,d vkfnoklh ifjokj esa
gqvkA budk vkjafHkd thou cgqr la?k"kZe;
jgkA ?kj esa f'k{kk dk ekgkSy gksus (firk vkSj
pkpk f'k{kd Fks) osQ ckotwn jksVh dh leL;k
ls tw>us osQ dkj.k fu;fer vè;;u ckfèkr
gksrk jgkA
ulZ cuus ij vkfFkZd d"Vksa ls eqfDr fey tk,xh ;g fopkj dj mUgksaus ufl±x
esa fMIyksek fd;k vkSj dkI
+
kQh le; ckn bXuw ls Lukrd dh fMxzh izkIr dhA
laFkkyh lekt vkSj mlosQ jkx&cksèk ls xgjk tqM+ko igys ls Fkk] ufl±x dh f'k{kk
osQ le; ckgj dh nqfu;k ls Hkh ifjp; gqvkA nksuksa lektksa dh fozQ;k&izfrfozQ;k
ls og cksèk fodflr gqvk ftlls og vius ifjos'k dh okLrfod fLFkfr dks
le>us esa liQy gks loQhaA
mUgksaus vkfnoklh lekt dh folaxfr;ksa dks rYyhurk ls mosQjk gSµdM+h
esgur osQ ckotwn [kjkc n'kk] oqQjhfr;ksa osQ dkj.k fcxM+rh ih<+h] FkksM+s ykHk osQ
© NCERT
not to be republished
180/vkjksg
fy, cM+s le>kSrs] iq#"k opZLo] LokFkZ osQ fy, i;kZoj.k dh gkfu] f'kf{kr lekt
dk fnDoqQvksa vkSj O;olkf;;ksa osQ gkFkksa dh dBiqryh cuuk vkfn os fLFkfr;k¡ gSa
tks iqrqy dh dforkvksa osQ osaQnz esa gSaA
os vkfnoklh thou osQ oqQN vuNq, igyqvksa ls] dykRedRkk osQ lkFk gekjk
ifjp; djkrh gSa vkSj laFkkyh lekt osQ ldkjkRed vkSj udkjkRed nksuksa igyqvksa
dks csckdh ls lkeus j[krh gaSA laFkkyh lekt esa tgk¡ ,d vksj lknxh] Hkksykiu]
izÑfr ls tqM+ko vkSj dBksj ifjJe djus dh {kerk tSls ldkjkRed rRo gSa] ogha
nwljh vksj mlesa vf'k{kk] oqQjhfr;k¡ vkSj 'kjkc dh vksj c<+rk >qdko Hkh gSA
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡ dfork esa nksuksa i{kksa dk ;FkkFkZ fp=k.k gqvk gSA c`gÙkj
lanHkZ esa ;g dfork lekt esa mu ph”kksa dks cpkus dh ckr djrh gS ftudk gksuk
LoLFk lkekftd&izkÑfrd ifjos'k osQ fy, ”k:jh gSA izÑfr osQ fouk'k vkSj
foLFkkiu osQ dkj.k vkt vkfnoklh lekt ladV esa gS] tks dfork dk ewy Loj
gSA laFkkyh Hkk"kk ls fganh :ikarj v'kksd flag us fd;k gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/181
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡
viuh cfLr;ksa dks
uaxh gksus ls
'kgj dh vkcks&gok ls cpk,¡ mls
cpk,¡ Mwcus ls
iwjh dh iwjh cLrh dks
gfM+;k esa
vius psgjs ij
lUFkky ijxuk dh ekVh dk jax
Hkk"kk esa >kj[kaMhiu
BaMh gksrh fnup;kZ esa
thou dh xekZgV
eu dk gjkiu
Hkksykiu fny dk
vD[kM+iu] tq>k:iu Hkh
© NCERT
not to be republished
182/vkjksg
Hkhrj dh vkx
èkuq"k dh Mksjh
rhj dk uqdhykiu
oqQYgkM+h dh èkkj
taxy dh rk”kk gok
ufn;ksa dh fueZyrk
igkM+ksa dk ekSu
xhrksa dh èkqu
fe^h dk lksaèkkiu
iQlyksa dh ygygkgV
ukpus osQ fy, [kqyk vk¡xu
xkus osQ fy, xhr
g¡lus osQ fy, FkksM+h&lh f[kyf[kykgV
jksus osQ fy, eq_h Hkj ,dkUr
cPpksa osQ fy, eSnku
i'kqvksa osQ fy, gjh&gjh ?kkl
cw<+ksa osQ fy, igkM+ksa dh 'kkfUr
vkSj bl vfo'okl&Hkjs nkSj esa
FkksM+k&lk fo'okl
FkksM+h&lh mEehn
FkksM+s&ls lius
© NCERT
not to be republished
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡/183
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡
fd bl nkSj esa Hkh cpkus dks
cgqr oqQN cpk gS]
vc Hkh gekjs ikl !
vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- ekVh dk jax iz;ksx djrs gq, fdl ckr dh vksj laosQr fd;k x;k gS\
2- Hkk"kk esa >kj[kaMhiu ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\
3- fny osQ Hkksysiu osQ lkFk&lkFk vD[kM+iu vkSj tq>k:iu dks Hkh cpkus dh vko';drk
ij D;ksa cy fn;k x;k gS\
4- izLrqr dfork vkfnoklh lekt dh fdu cqjkb;ksa dh vksj laosQr djrh gS\
5- bl nkSj esa Hkh cpkus dks cgqr oqQN cpk gSµ ls D;k vk'k; gS\
6- fuEufyf[kr iafDr;ksa osQ dkO; lkSan;Z dks mn~?kkfVr dhft,&
(d) BaMh gksrh fnup;kZ esa
thou dh xekZgV
([k) FkksM+k&lk fo'okl
FkksM+h&lh mEehn
FkksM+s&ls lius
vkvks] feydj cpk,¡A
7- cfLr;ksa dks 'kgj dh fdl vkcks&gok ls cpkus dh vko';drk gS\
dfork osQ vkl&ikl
1- vki vius 'kgj ;k cLrh dh fdu ph”kksa dks cpkuk pkgsaxs\
2- vkfnoklh lekt dh orZeku fLFkfr ij fVIi.kh djsaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
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