NCERT Textbook - Peace Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12)

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Peace Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Chapter 9
Peace
Overview
The screaming media reports on wars, terrorist attacks and riots constantly remind us
that we live in turbulent times. While actual peace remains elusive, the word itself
seems to have become quite popular. It springs readily to the lips of politicians,
journalists, industrialists, educators and army chiefs. It is also cited as a cherished
value in a wide variety of documents including textbooks, constitutions, charters and
treaties. As the idea of peace is readily invoked and the desirability of pursuing peace
is rarely questioned we may think that the meaning of this concept needs no further
clarification. However, this is not the case. As we will see later, the seeming consensus
around the idea of peace is a relatively recent phenomenon. Over the years, the meaning
and value of peace has been assessed fairly differently.
The advocates of peace face many questions:
o What exactly is peace? And, why is it so fragile in today’s world?
o What can be done to establish peace?
o Can we use violence to establish peace?
o What are the main reasons for the growing violence in our society?
These are questions that we will examine in greater detail in this chapter.
2020-21
Page 2


Chapter 9
Peace
Overview
The screaming media reports on wars, terrorist attacks and riots constantly remind us
that we live in turbulent times. While actual peace remains elusive, the word itself
seems to have become quite popular. It springs readily to the lips of politicians,
journalists, industrialists, educators and army chiefs. It is also cited as a cherished
value in a wide variety of documents including textbooks, constitutions, charters and
treaties. As the idea of peace is readily invoked and the desirability of pursuing peace
is rarely questioned we may think that the meaning of this concept needs no further
clarification. However, this is not the case. As we will see later, the seeming consensus
around the idea of peace is a relatively recent phenomenon. Over the years, the meaning
and value of peace has been assessed fairly differently.
The advocates of peace face many questions:
o What exactly is peace? And, why is it so fragile in today’s world?
o What can be done to establish peace?
o Can we use violence to establish peace?
o What are the main reasons for the growing violence in our society?
These are questions that we will examine in greater detail in this chapter.
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
130
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’ and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has become a
buzzword. But we must remember that this seeming consensus on
the desirability of peace is relatively recent. Many important thinkers
of the past wrote about peace in negative terms.
The nineteenth century German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war.
Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that
only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation.
Several other thinkers have similarly condemned peace
and commended strife as a vehicle of individual heroism
and social vitality. The Italian social theorist, Vilfredo
Pareto (1848–1923), argued that people who were able
and willing to use force to achieve their goals constituted
the governing elites in most societies. He described them
as ‘lions’.
This is not to suggest that the cause of peace had no champions.
In fact, it occupied a central place in the original teachings of almost
all religions. The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of
peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains. Mahatma Gandhi
would figure prominently among them. However, the contemporary
preoccupation with peace can be traced to the atrocities of the twentieth
century, which resulted in the death of millions of human beings. You
may have read about some of these events in your history textbooks:
the rise of Fascism, Nazism and the World Wars. Closer home in India
and Pakistan we have experienced the horrors of Partition.
Many of the aforesaid calamities involved the use of advanced
technology to wreak havoc on an unprecedented scale. Thus,
Germany ‘carpet-bombed’ London during the Second World War
and the British responded by sending 1000-bomber raids to attack
German cities. The war ended with the USA dropping atom bombs
on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At least 1,20,000
people died immediately from the two attacks and many more died
later due to the effects of nuclear radiation. Nearly 95 per cent of
the casualties were civilians.
Friedrich Nietzsche
2020-21
Page 3


Chapter 9
Peace
Overview
The screaming media reports on wars, terrorist attacks and riots constantly remind us
that we live in turbulent times. While actual peace remains elusive, the word itself
seems to have become quite popular. It springs readily to the lips of politicians,
journalists, industrialists, educators and army chiefs. It is also cited as a cherished
value in a wide variety of documents including textbooks, constitutions, charters and
treaties. As the idea of peace is readily invoked and the desirability of pursuing peace
is rarely questioned we may think that the meaning of this concept needs no further
clarification. However, this is not the case. As we will see later, the seeming consensus
around the idea of peace is a relatively recent phenomenon. Over the years, the meaning
and value of peace has been assessed fairly differently.
The advocates of peace face many questions:
o What exactly is peace? And, why is it so fragile in today’s world?
o What can be done to establish peace?
o Can we use violence to establish peace?
o What are the main reasons for the growing violence in our society?
These are questions that we will examine in greater detail in this chapter.
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
130
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’ and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has become a
buzzword. But we must remember that this seeming consensus on
the desirability of peace is relatively recent. Many important thinkers
of the past wrote about peace in negative terms.
The nineteenth century German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war.
Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that
only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation.
Several other thinkers have similarly condemned peace
and commended strife as a vehicle of individual heroism
and social vitality. The Italian social theorist, Vilfredo
Pareto (1848–1923), argued that people who were able
and willing to use force to achieve their goals constituted
the governing elites in most societies. He described them
as ‘lions’.
This is not to suggest that the cause of peace had no champions.
In fact, it occupied a central place in the original teachings of almost
all religions. The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of
peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains. Mahatma Gandhi
would figure prominently among them. However, the contemporary
preoccupation with peace can be traced to the atrocities of the twentieth
century, which resulted in the death of millions of human beings. You
may have read about some of these events in your history textbooks:
the rise of Fascism, Nazism and the World Wars. Closer home in India
and Pakistan we have experienced the horrors of Partition.
Many of the aforesaid calamities involved the use of advanced
technology to wreak havoc on an unprecedented scale. Thus,
Germany ‘carpet-bombed’ London during the Second World War
and the British responded by sending 1000-bomber raids to attack
German cities. The war ended with the USA dropping atom bombs
on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At least 1,20,000
people died immediately from the two attacks and many more died
later due to the effects of nuclear radiation. Nearly 95 per cent of
the casualties were civilians.
Friedrich Nietzsche
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
131
The post-war decades were marked
by intense rivalry between two
superpowers–the capitalist USA and the
communist USSR—for world supremacy.
Since nuclear weapons had become the
new currency of power, both countries
began to make and stockpile them on a
large scale. The Cuban Missile Crisis of
October 1962 was a particularly dark
episode in this unfolding military
competition. It began when American spy
planes discovered Soviet nuclear missiles
in neighbouring Cuba. The USA responded by organising a naval
blockade of Cuba and threatening military action against the USSR,
if the missiles were not removed. This eyeball-to-eyeball
confrontation ended when the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles.
During the two weeks it lasted, the crisis had brought humanity
perilously close to the brink of total destruction.
So, if people praise peace today, that is
not merely because they believe it to be a
good idea. Humanity has learnt to value
peace after paying a huge price for its
absence. The spectre of tragic conflict
continues to haunt us. Today life is more
insecure than ever before as people
everywhere face a growing threat from
terrorism. Peace continues to be valuable,
partly because dangers to it are ever present.
9.2 THE MEANING OF PEACE
Peace is often defined as the absence of war.
The definition is simple but misleading. This
is because war is usually equated with
armed conflict between countries. However,
what happened in Rwanda or Bosnia was
not a war of this kind. Yet, it represented a
Read the novel
The flowers of
Hiroshima written
by Edita Morris.
Note how the
use of the atomic
bomb continued
to traumatise the
people for long.
LET’S DO IT
Do
131
Must be from a backward nation.
He talked about employment,
education, health, shelter and not a
word about the nuclear bomb!
R. K. Laxman in the Times of India
2020-21
Page 4


Chapter 9
Peace
Overview
The screaming media reports on wars, terrorist attacks and riots constantly remind us
that we live in turbulent times. While actual peace remains elusive, the word itself
seems to have become quite popular. It springs readily to the lips of politicians,
journalists, industrialists, educators and army chiefs. It is also cited as a cherished
value in a wide variety of documents including textbooks, constitutions, charters and
treaties. As the idea of peace is readily invoked and the desirability of pursuing peace
is rarely questioned we may think that the meaning of this concept needs no further
clarification. However, this is not the case. As we will see later, the seeming consensus
around the idea of peace is a relatively recent phenomenon. Over the years, the meaning
and value of peace has been assessed fairly differently.
The advocates of peace face many questions:
o What exactly is peace? And, why is it so fragile in today’s world?
o What can be done to establish peace?
o Can we use violence to establish peace?
o What are the main reasons for the growing violence in our society?
These are questions that we will examine in greater detail in this chapter.
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
130
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’ and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has become a
buzzword. But we must remember that this seeming consensus on
the desirability of peace is relatively recent. Many important thinkers
of the past wrote about peace in negative terms.
The nineteenth century German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war.
Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that
only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation.
Several other thinkers have similarly condemned peace
and commended strife as a vehicle of individual heroism
and social vitality. The Italian social theorist, Vilfredo
Pareto (1848–1923), argued that people who were able
and willing to use force to achieve their goals constituted
the governing elites in most societies. He described them
as ‘lions’.
This is not to suggest that the cause of peace had no champions.
In fact, it occupied a central place in the original teachings of almost
all religions. The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of
peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains. Mahatma Gandhi
would figure prominently among them. However, the contemporary
preoccupation with peace can be traced to the atrocities of the twentieth
century, which resulted in the death of millions of human beings. You
may have read about some of these events in your history textbooks:
the rise of Fascism, Nazism and the World Wars. Closer home in India
and Pakistan we have experienced the horrors of Partition.
Many of the aforesaid calamities involved the use of advanced
technology to wreak havoc on an unprecedented scale. Thus,
Germany ‘carpet-bombed’ London during the Second World War
and the British responded by sending 1000-bomber raids to attack
German cities. The war ended with the USA dropping atom bombs
on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At least 1,20,000
people died immediately from the two attacks and many more died
later due to the effects of nuclear radiation. Nearly 95 per cent of
the casualties were civilians.
Friedrich Nietzsche
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
131
The post-war decades were marked
by intense rivalry between two
superpowers–the capitalist USA and the
communist USSR—for world supremacy.
Since nuclear weapons had become the
new currency of power, both countries
began to make and stockpile them on a
large scale. The Cuban Missile Crisis of
October 1962 was a particularly dark
episode in this unfolding military
competition. It began when American spy
planes discovered Soviet nuclear missiles
in neighbouring Cuba. The USA responded by organising a naval
blockade of Cuba and threatening military action against the USSR,
if the missiles were not removed. This eyeball-to-eyeball
confrontation ended when the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles.
During the two weeks it lasted, the crisis had brought humanity
perilously close to the brink of total destruction.
So, if people praise peace today, that is
not merely because they believe it to be a
good idea. Humanity has learnt to value
peace after paying a huge price for its
absence. The spectre of tragic conflict
continues to haunt us. Today life is more
insecure than ever before as people
everywhere face a growing threat from
terrorism. Peace continues to be valuable,
partly because dangers to it are ever present.
9.2 THE MEANING OF PEACE
Peace is often defined as the absence of war.
The definition is simple but misleading. This
is because war is usually equated with
armed conflict between countries. However,
what happened in Rwanda or Bosnia was
not a war of this kind. Yet, it represented a
Read the novel
The flowers of
Hiroshima written
by Edita Morris.
Note how the
use of the atomic
bomb continued
to traumatise the
people for long.
LET’S DO IT
Do
131
Must be from a backward nation.
He talked about employment,
education, health, shelter and not a
word about the nuclear bomb!
R. K. Laxman in the Times of India
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
132
violation or cessation of peace. While every war leads to absence of
peace, every absence of peace need not take the form of war.
The second step in defining peace would be to see it as absence
of violent conflict of all kinds including war, riot, massacre,
assassination, or simply physical attack. This definition is clearly
better than the earlier one. Yet, it does not take us very far. Violence
is often rooted in the very structure of society.  Social institutions
and practices that reinforce entrenched inequalities of caste, class
and gender, can also cause injury in subtle and invisible ways. If
any challenge is made to these hierarchies by oppressed classes it
may also breed conflict and violence. ‘Structural violence’ of this
kind may produce large-scale evil consequences. Let us look at a
few concrete instances of such violence arising from caste hierarchy,
class disparity, patriarchy, colonialism, and racism/communalism.
Forms of Structural Violence
The traditional caste system treated certain groups of people as
asprishya or untouchable. Till it was outlawed by the Constitution
of independent India, the practice of untouchability subjected them
to social exclusion and deprivation of the worst sort. The country is
still struggling to erase the scars and relics of this ugly custom.
While a social order based on class appears to be more flexible, it
too generates a great deal of inequality and oppression. In the
developing countries a majority of the labouring classes are confined
to the informal sector where the wages and conditions of work are
abysmal. A sizeable underclass exists even in the developed countries.
 Patriarchy entails a form of social organisation that results in
the systematic subordination of, and discrimination against, women.
Its manifestations include selective abortion of female foetuses, denial
of adequate nourishment and education to the girl-child, child-
marriage, wife battering, dowry-related crimes, sexual harassment
at the workplace, rape, and honour killing. The low child sex ratio
(0-6 years) — 919 females per 1000 males — in India, as per the
2011 Census, is a poignant index of the ravages of patriarchy.
Colonialism in the sense of prolonged and direct subjection of a
people to alien rule is now a rare phenomenon. But the ongoing
Palestinian struggle against Israeli domination shows that it has not
2020-21
Page 5


Chapter 9
Peace
Overview
The screaming media reports on wars, terrorist attacks and riots constantly remind us
that we live in turbulent times. While actual peace remains elusive, the word itself
seems to have become quite popular. It springs readily to the lips of politicians,
journalists, industrialists, educators and army chiefs. It is also cited as a cherished
value in a wide variety of documents including textbooks, constitutions, charters and
treaties. As the idea of peace is readily invoked and the desirability of pursuing peace
is rarely questioned we may think that the meaning of this concept needs no further
clarification. However, this is not the case. As we will see later, the seeming consensus
around the idea of peace is a relatively recent phenomenon. Over the years, the meaning
and value of peace has been assessed fairly differently.
The advocates of peace face many questions:
o What exactly is peace? And, why is it so fragile in today’s world?
o What can be done to establish peace?
o Can we use violence to establish peace?
o What are the main reasons for the growing violence in our society?
These are questions that we will examine in greater detail in this chapter.
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
130
9.1 INTRODUCTION
Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’ and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has become a
buzzword. But we must remember that this seeming consensus on
the desirability of peace is relatively recent. Many important thinkers
of the past wrote about peace in negative terms.
The nineteenth century German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war.
Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that
only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation.
Several other thinkers have similarly condemned peace
and commended strife as a vehicle of individual heroism
and social vitality. The Italian social theorist, Vilfredo
Pareto (1848–1923), argued that people who were able
and willing to use force to achieve their goals constituted
the governing elites in most societies. He described them
as ‘lions’.
This is not to suggest that the cause of peace had no champions.
In fact, it occupied a central place in the original teachings of almost
all religions. The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of
peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains. Mahatma Gandhi
would figure prominently among them. However, the contemporary
preoccupation with peace can be traced to the atrocities of the twentieth
century, which resulted in the death of millions of human beings. You
may have read about some of these events in your history textbooks:
the rise of Fascism, Nazism and the World Wars. Closer home in India
and Pakistan we have experienced the horrors of Partition.
Many of the aforesaid calamities involved the use of advanced
technology to wreak havoc on an unprecedented scale. Thus,
Germany ‘carpet-bombed’ London during the Second World War
and the British responded by sending 1000-bomber raids to attack
German cities. The war ended with the USA dropping atom bombs
on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At least 1,20,000
people died immediately from the two attacks and many more died
later due to the effects of nuclear radiation. Nearly 95 per cent of
the casualties were civilians.
Friedrich Nietzsche
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
131
The post-war decades were marked
by intense rivalry between two
superpowers–the capitalist USA and the
communist USSR—for world supremacy.
Since nuclear weapons had become the
new currency of power, both countries
began to make and stockpile them on a
large scale. The Cuban Missile Crisis of
October 1962 was a particularly dark
episode in this unfolding military
competition. It began when American spy
planes discovered Soviet nuclear missiles
in neighbouring Cuba. The USA responded by organising a naval
blockade of Cuba and threatening military action against the USSR,
if the missiles were not removed. This eyeball-to-eyeball
confrontation ended when the Soviet Union withdrew the missiles.
During the two weeks it lasted, the crisis had brought humanity
perilously close to the brink of total destruction.
So, if people praise peace today, that is
not merely because they believe it to be a
good idea. Humanity has learnt to value
peace after paying a huge price for its
absence. The spectre of tragic conflict
continues to haunt us. Today life is more
insecure than ever before as people
everywhere face a growing threat from
terrorism. Peace continues to be valuable,
partly because dangers to it are ever present.
9.2 THE MEANING OF PEACE
Peace is often defined as the absence of war.
The definition is simple but misleading. This
is because war is usually equated with
armed conflict between countries. However,
what happened in Rwanda or Bosnia was
not a war of this kind. Yet, it represented a
Read the novel
The flowers of
Hiroshima written
by Edita Morris.
Note how the
use of the atomic
bomb continued
to traumatise the
people for long.
LET’S DO IT
Do
131
Must be from a backward nation.
He talked about employment,
education, health, shelter and not a
word about the nuclear bomb!
R. K. Laxman in the Times of India
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
132
violation or cessation of peace. While every war leads to absence of
peace, every absence of peace need not take the form of war.
The second step in defining peace would be to see it as absence
of violent conflict of all kinds including war, riot, massacre,
assassination, or simply physical attack. This definition is clearly
better than the earlier one. Yet, it does not take us very far. Violence
is often rooted in the very structure of society.  Social institutions
and practices that reinforce entrenched inequalities of caste, class
and gender, can also cause injury in subtle and invisible ways. If
any challenge is made to these hierarchies by oppressed classes it
may also breed conflict and violence. ‘Structural violence’ of this
kind may produce large-scale evil consequences. Let us look at a
few concrete instances of such violence arising from caste hierarchy,
class disparity, patriarchy, colonialism, and racism/communalism.
Forms of Structural Violence
The traditional caste system treated certain groups of people as
asprishya or untouchable. Till it was outlawed by the Constitution
of independent India, the practice of untouchability subjected them
to social exclusion and deprivation of the worst sort. The country is
still struggling to erase the scars and relics of this ugly custom.
While a social order based on class appears to be more flexible, it
too generates a great deal of inequality and oppression. In the
developing countries a majority of the labouring classes are confined
to the informal sector where the wages and conditions of work are
abysmal. A sizeable underclass exists even in the developed countries.
 Patriarchy entails a form of social organisation that results in
the systematic subordination of, and discrimination against, women.
Its manifestations include selective abortion of female foetuses, denial
of adequate nourishment and education to the girl-child, child-
marriage, wife battering, dowry-related crimes, sexual harassment
at the workplace, rape, and honour killing. The low child sex ratio
(0-6 years) — 919 females per 1000 males — in India, as per the
2011 Census, is a poignant index of the ravages of patriarchy.
Colonialism in the sense of prolonged and direct subjection of a
people to alien rule is now a rare phenomenon. But the ongoing
Palestinian struggle against Israeli domination shows that it has not
2020-21
Peace
Peace
Political Theory
133
   LET’S THINK
Which of the following views do you agree with and why?
o “All wrong-doing arises because of mind. If mind
is transformed can wrong-doing remain?”
– Gautam Buddha
o “I object to violence because when it appears to do
good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is
permanent”
– Mahatma Gandhi
o “Ye shall be those whose eyes ever seek for an
enemy…ye shall love peace as a means to new wars—
and the short peace more than the long. You I advise
not to work, but to victory. Let your work be a fight,
let your peace be a victory”
– Friedrich Nietzsche
disappeared completely. Besides, the former colonies of European
imperialist countries are yet to recover completely from the forms of
manifold exploitation they suffered during the colonial era.
Racism and communalism involve the stigmatisation and
oppression of an entire racial group or community. Though the
notion that humanity can be divided into distinct races is
scientifically spurious, it has been used to justify insidious practices
such as Negro slavery in the United States of America (until 1865),
the slaughter of Jews in Hitler’s Germany, and apartheid—a policy
followed until 1992 by the White-controlled government in South
Africa, which treated the majority Black people of the country as
second-class citizens. Racial discrimination still continues covertly
in the West and is now often directed against immigrants from
countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.  Communalism may be
seen as the South Asian counterpart of racism where the victims
tend to be minority religious groups.
The psychological and tangible harm suffered by the victims of
violence often creates grievances that persist over generations.
Sometimes they may give rise to fresh bouts of conflict when provoked
by some incident or even remark. We have examples of long-term
2020-21
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Sample Paper

,

ppt

,

video lectures

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

NCERT Textbook - Peace Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Extra Questions

,

Viva Questions

,

mock tests for examination

,

study material

,

NCERT Textbook - Peace Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

NCERT Textbook - Peace Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Exam

,

Summary

,

Free

,

Important questions

,

Semester Notes

,

Objective type Questions

,

pdf

,

practice quizzes

;