NCERT Textbook - Poem Avtar Singh Pash Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Poem Avtar Singh Pash Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lcls [krjukd/173
Hkkjr@esjs lEeku dk lcls egku 'kCn@tgk¡ dgha Hkh
iz;ksx fd;k tk,@ckdh lHkh 'kCn vFkZghu gks tkrs gSaA
 (chp dk jkLrk ugha gksrk)
ik'k
ewy uke% vorkj flag la/w
tUe% lu~ 1950] ryoaMh lyse xk¡o] f”kyk
tkyaèkj (iatkc)
izeq[k jpuk,¡%  ykSg dFkk] mM+nsa cktka exj]
lkMS lfe;k fcp] yM+saxs lkFkh (iatkch)_ chp
dk jkLrk ugha gksrk] ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS
(fganh vuqokn)
e`R;q% lu~ 1988
ik'k ledkyhu iatkch lkfgR; osQ egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA eè;oxhZ; fdlku
ifjokj esa tUes ik'k dh f'k{kk vfu;fer <ax ls Lukrd rd gqbZA ik'k tu
vkanksyuksa ls tqMs+ jgs vkSj fonzksgh dfork dk u;k lkSan;Z foèkku fodflr dj mls
rh[kk fdarq l`tukRed rsoj fn;kA ik'k dh dfork,¡ fopkj vkSj Hkko osQ lqanj
la;kstu ls cuh xgjh jktuhfrd dfork,¡ gSa ftuesa yksd laLÑfr vkSj ijaijk dk
xgjk cksèk feyrk gSA ik'k tulkekU; dh ?kVukvksa ij ^vkmVlkbMj* dh rjg
izfrfozQ;k O;Dr ugha djrs cfYd budh dforkvksa esa og O;Fkk] fujk'kk vkSj
xqLlk u”kj vkrk gS tks xgjh lai`Drrk osQ cxSj laHko gh ugha gSA
Page 2


lcls [krjukd/173
Hkkjr@esjs lEeku dk lcls egku 'kCn@tgk¡ dgha Hkh
iz;ksx fd;k tk,@ckdh lHkh 'kCn vFkZghu gks tkrs gSaA
 (chp dk jkLrk ugha gksrk)
ik'k
ewy uke% vorkj flag la/w
tUe% lu~ 1950] ryoaMh lyse xk¡o] f”kyk
tkyaèkj (iatkc)
izeq[k jpuk,¡%  ykSg dFkk] mM+nsa cktka exj]
lkMS lfe;k fcp] yM+saxs lkFkh (iatkch)_ chp
dk jkLrk ugha gksrk] ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS
(fganh vuqokn)
e`R;q% lu~ 1988
ik'k ledkyhu iatkch lkfgR; osQ egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA eè;oxhZ; fdlku
ifjokj esa tUes ik'k dh f'k{kk vfu;fer <ax ls Lukrd rd gqbZA ik'k tu
vkanksyuksa ls tqMs+ jgs vkSj fonzksgh dfork dk u;k lkSan;Z foèkku fodflr dj mls
rh[kk fdarq l`tukRed rsoj fn;kA ik'k dh dfork,¡ fopkj vkSj Hkko osQ lqanj
la;kstu ls cuh xgjh jktuhfrd dfork,¡ gSa ftuesa yksd laLÑfr vkSj ijaijk dk
xgjk cksèk feyrk gSA ik'k tulkekU; dh ?kVukvksa ij ^vkmVlkbMj* dh rjg
izfrfozQ;k O;Dr ugha djrs cfYd budh dforkvksa esa og O;Fkk] fujk'kk vkSj
xqLlk u”kj vkrk gS tks xgjh lai`Drrk osQ cxSj laHko gh ugha gSA
174/vkjksg
ik'k us tupsruk iQSykus osQ fy, vusd lkfgfR;d&lakLÑfrd dk;ZozQeksa dk
vk;kstu fd;k vkSj flvkM+] gseT;ksfr] gkWd] ,aVh&47 vkfn if=kdkvksa dk laiknu
fd;kA oqQN le; rd vesfjdk esa jgsA
;g dfork fnuksfnu vfèkdkfèkd u`'kal vkSj ozwQj gksrh tk jgh nqfu;k dh
fonzwirkvksa osQ fp=k.k osQ lkFk ml [kkSI
+
kQukd fLFkfr dh vksj b'kkjk djrh gS] tgk¡
izfrowQyrkvksa ls tw>us osQ ladYi {kh.k iM+rs tk jgs gSaA iFkjk;h vk¡[kksa&lh
rVLFkrk ls dfo dh vlgefr gSA dfo bl izfrowQyrk dh rjI
+
kQ fo'ks"k laosQr
djrk gS tgk¡ vkRek osQ loky csekuh gks tkrs gSaA tM+ fLFkfr;ksa dks cnyus dh
I;kl osQ ej tkus vkSj csgrj Hkfo"; osQ liuksa osQ xqe gks tkus dks dfo lcls
[krjukd fLFkfr ekurk gSA
Page 3


lcls [krjukd/173
Hkkjr@esjs lEeku dk lcls egku 'kCn@tgk¡ dgha Hkh
iz;ksx fd;k tk,@ckdh lHkh 'kCn vFkZghu gks tkrs gSaA
 (chp dk jkLrk ugha gksrk)
ik'k
ewy uke% vorkj flag la/w
tUe% lu~ 1950] ryoaMh lyse xk¡o] f”kyk
tkyaèkj (iatkc)
izeq[k jpuk,¡%  ykSg dFkk] mM+nsa cktka exj]
lkMS lfe;k fcp] yM+saxs lkFkh (iatkch)_ chp
dk jkLrk ugha gksrk] ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS
(fganh vuqokn)
e`R;q% lu~ 1988
ik'k ledkyhu iatkch lkfgR; osQ egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA eè;oxhZ; fdlku
ifjokj esa tUes ik'k dh f'k{kk vfu;fer <ax ls Lukrd rd gqbZA ik'k tu
vkanksyuksa ls tqMs+ jgs vkSj fonzksgh dfork dk u;k lkSan;Z foèkku fodflr dj mls
rh[kk fdarq l`tukRed rsoj fn;kA ik'k dh dfork,¡ fopkj vkSj Hkko osQ lqanj
la;kstu ls cuh xgjh jktuhfrd dfork,¡ gSa ftuesa yksd laLÑfr vkSj ijaijk dk
xgjk cksèk feyrk gSA ik'k tulkekU; dh ?kVukvksa ij ^vkmVlkbMj* dh rjg
izfrfozQ;k O;Dr ugha djrs cfYd budh dforkvksa esa og O;Fkk] fujk'kk vkSj
xqLlk u”kj vkrk gS tks xgjh lai`Drrk osQ cxSj laHko gh ugha gSA
174/vkjksg
ik'k us tupsruk iQSykus osQ fy, vusd lkfgfR;d&lakLÑfrd dk;ZozQeksa dk
vk;kstu fd;k vkSj flvkM+] gseT;ksfr] gkWd] ,aVh&47 vkfn if=kdkvksa dk laiknu
fd;kA oqQN le; rd vesfjdk esa jgsA
;g dfork fnuksfnu vfèkdkfèkd u`'kal vkSj ozwQj gksrh tk jgh nqfu;k dh
fonzwirkvksa osQ fp=k.k osQ lkFk ml [kkSI
+
kQukd fLFkfr dh vksj b'kkjk djrh gS] tgk¡
izfrowQyrkvksa ls tw>us osQ ladYi {kh.k iM+rs tk jgs gSaA iFkjk;h vk¡[kksa&lh
rVLFkrk ls dfo dh vlgefr gSA dfo bl izfrowQyrk dh rjI
+
kQ fo'ks"k laosQr
djrk gS tgk¡ vkRek osQ loky csekuh gks tkrs gSaA tM+ fLFkfr;ksa dks cnyus dh
I;kl osQ ej tkus vkSj csgrj Hkfo"; osQ liuksa osQ xqe gks tkus dks dfo lcls
[krjukd fLFkfr ekurk gSA
lcls [krjukd/175
lcls [krjukd
esgur dh ywV lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
iqfyl dh ekj lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
xíkjh&yksHk dh eq_h lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
cSBs&fcBk, idM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
lgeh&lh pqi esa tdM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
ij lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
diV osQ 'kksj esa
lgh gksrs gq, Hkh nc tkukµcqjk rks gS
fdlh tqxuw dh ykS esa i<+ukµcqjk rks gS
eqf_;k¡ Hkhapdj cl oDr fudky ysukµcqjk rks gS
lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
lcls [krjukd gksrk gS
eqnkZ 'kkafr ls Hkj tkuk
u gksuk rM+i dk lc lgu dj tkuk
?kj ls fudyuk dke ij
Page 4


lcls [krjukd/173
Hkkjr@esjs lEeku dk lcls egku 'kCn@tgk¡ dgha Hkh
iz;ksx fd;k tk,@ckdh lHkh 'kCn vFkZghu gks tkrs gSaA
 (chp dk jkLrk ugha gksrk)
ik'k
ewy uke% vorkj flag la/w
tUe% lu~ 1950] ryoaMh lyse xk¡o] f”kyk
tkyaèkj (iatkc)
izeq[k jpuk,¡%  ykSg dFkk] mM+nsa cktka exj]
lkMS lfe;k fcp] yM+saxs lkFkh (iatkch)_ chp
dk jkLrk ugha gksrk] ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS
(fganh vuqokn)
e`R;q% lu~ 1988
ik'k ledkyhu iatkch lkfgR; osQ egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA eè;oxhZ; fdlku
ifjokj esa tUes ik'k dh f'k{kk vfu;fer <ax ls Lukrd rd gqbZA ik'k tu
vkanksyuksa ls tqMs+ jgs vkSj fonzksgh dfork dk u;k lkSan;Z foèkku fodflr dj mls
rh[kk fdarq l`tukRed rsoj fn;kA ik'k dh dfork,¡ fopkj vkSj Hkko osQ lqanj
la;kstu ls cuh xgjh jktuhfrd dfork,¡ gSa ftuesa yksd laLÑfr vkSj ijaijk dk
xgjk cksèk feyrk gSA ik'k tulkekU; dh ?kVukvksa ij ^vkmVlkbMj* dh rjg
izfrfozQ;k O;Dr ugha djrs cfYd budh dforkvksa esa og O;Fkk] fujk'kk vkSj
xqLlk u”kj vkrk gS tks xgjh lai`Drrk osQ cxSj laHko gh ugha gSA
174/vkjksg
ik'k us tupsruk iQSykus osQ fy, vusd lkfgfR;d&lakLÑfrd dk;ZozQeksa dk
vk;kstu fd;k vkSj flvkM+] gseT;ksfr] gkWd] ,aVh&47 vkfn if=kdkvksa dk laiknu
fd;kA oqQN le; rd vesfjdk esa jgsA
;g dfork fnuksfnu vfèkdkfèkd u`'kal vkSj ozwQj gksrh tk jgh nqfu;k dh
fonzwirkvksa osQ fp=k.k osQ lkFk ml [kkSI
+
kQukd fLFkfr dh vksj b'kkjk djrh gS] tgk¡
izfrowQyrkvksa ls tw>us osQ ladYi {kh.k iM+rs tk jgs gSaA iFkjk;h vk¡[kksa&lh
rVLFkrk ls dfo dh vlgefr gSA dfo bl izfrowQyrk dh rjI
+
kQ fo'ks"k laosQr
djrk gS tgk¡ vkRek osQ loky csekuh gks tkrs gSaA tM+ fLFkfr;ksa dks cnyus dh
I;kl osQ ej tkus vkSj csgrj Hkfo"; osQ liuksa osQ xqe gks tkus dks dfo lcls
[krjukd fLFkfr ekurk gSA
lcls [krjukd/175
lcls [krjukd
esgur dh ywV lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
iqfyl dh ekj lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
xíkjh&yksHk dh eq_h lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
cSBs&fcBk, idM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
lgeh&lh pqi esa tdM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
ij lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
diV osQ 'kksj esa
lgh gksrs gq, Hkh nc tkukµcqjk rks gS
fdlh tqxuw dh ykS esa i<+ukµcqjk rks gS
eqf_;k¡ Hkhapdj cl oDr fudky ysukµcqjk rks gS
lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
lcls [krjukd gksrk gS
eqnkZ 'kkafr ls Hkj tkuk
u gksuk rM+i dk lc lgu dj tkuk
?kj ls fudyuk dke ij
176/vkjksg
vkSj dke ls ykSVdj ?kj vkuk
lcls [krjukd gksrk gS
gekjs liuksa dk ej tkuk
lcls [krjukd og ?kM+h gksrh gS
vkidh dykbZ ij pyrh gqbZ Hkh tks
vkidh fuxkg esa #dh gksrh gS
lcls [krjukd og vk¡[k gksrh gS
tks lc oqQN ns[krh gqbZ Hkh teh ciQZ gksrh gS
ftldh u”kj nqfu;k dks eqgCcr ls pweuk Hkwy tkrh gS
tks ph”kksa ls mBrh vaèksiu dh Hkki ij <qyd tkrh gS
tks jks”kejkZ osQ Øe dks ihrh gqbZ
,d y{;ghu nqgjko osQ myViQsj esa [kks tkrh gS
lcls [krjukd og pk¡n gksrk gS
tks gj gR;kdkaM osQ ckn
ohjku gq, vk¡xuksa esa p<+rk gS
ij vkidh vk¡[kksa dks fepks± dh rjg ugha xM+rk gS
lcls [krjukd og xhr gksrk gS
vkiosQ dkuksa rd igq¡pus osQ fy,
tks ejfl, i<+rk gS
vkrafdr yksxksa osQ njok”kksa ij
tks xaqMs dh rjg vdM+rk gS
Page 5


lcls [krjukd/173
Hkkjr@esjs lEeku dk lcls egku 'kCn@tgk¡ dgha Hkh
iz;ksx fd;k tk,@ckdh lHkh 'kCn vFkZghu gks tkrs gSaA
 (chp dk jkLrk ugha gksrk)
ik'k
ewy uke% vorkj flag la/w
tUe% lu~ 1950] ryoaMh lyse xk¡o] f”kyk
tkyaèkj (iatkc)
izeq[k jpuk,¡%  ykSg dFkk] mM+nsa cktka exj]
lkMS lfe;k fcp] yM+saxs lkFkh (iatkch)_ chp
dk jkLrk ugha gksrk] ygw gS fd rc Hkh xkrk gS
(fganh vuqokn)
e`R;q% lu~ 1988
ik'k ledkyhu iatkch lkfgR; osQ egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA eè;oxhZ; fdlku
ifjokj esa tUes ik'k dh f'k{kk vfu;fer <ax ls Lukrd rd gqbZA ik'k tu
vkanksyuksa ls tqMs+ jgs vkSj fonzksgh dfork dk u;k lkSan;Z foèkku fodflr dj mls
rh[kk fdarq l`tukRed rsoj fn;kA ik'k dh dfork,¡ fopkj vkSj Hkko osQ lqanj
la;kstu ls cuh xgjh jktuhfrd dfork,¡ gSa ftuesa yksd laLÑfr vkSj ijaijk dk
xgjk cksèk feyrk gSA ik'k tulkekU; dh ?kVukvksa ij ^vkmVlkbMj* dh rjg
izfrfozQ;k O;Dr ugha djrs cfYd budh dforkvksa esa og O;Fkk] fujk'kk vkSj
xqLlk u”kj vkrk gS tks xgjh lai`Drrk osQ cxSj laHko gh ugha gSA
174/vkjksg
ik'k us tupsruk iQSykus osQ fy, vusd lkfgfR;d&lakLÑfrd dk;ZozQeksa dk
vk;kstu fd;k vkSj flvkM+] gseT;ksfr] gkWd] ,aVh&47 vkfn if=kdkvksa dk laiknu
fd;kA oqQN le; rd vesfjdk esa jgsA
;g dfork fnuksfnu vfèkdkfèkd u`'kal vkSj ozwQj gksrh tk jgh nqfu;k dh
fonzwirkvksa osQ fp=k.k osQ lkFk ml [kkSI
+
kQukd fLFkfr dh vksj b'kkjk djrh gS] tgk¡
izfrowQyrkvksa ls tw>us osQ ladYi {kh.k iM+rs tk jgs gSaA iFkjk;h vk¡[kksa&lh
rVLFkrk ls dfo dh vlgefr gSA dfo bl izfrowQyrk dh rjI
+
kQ fo'ks"k laosQr
djrk gS tgk¡ vkRek osQ loky csekuh gks tkrs gSaA tM+ fLFkfr;ksa dks cnyus dh
I;kl osQ ej tkus vkSj csgrj Hkfo"; osQ liuksa osQ xqe gks tkus dks dfo lcls
[krjukd fLFkfr ekurk gSA
lcls [krjukd/175
lcls [krjukd
esgur dh ywV lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
iqfyl dh ekj lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
xíkjh&yksHk dh eq_h lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
cSBs&fcBk, idM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
lgeh&lh pqi esa tdM+s tkukµcqjk rks gS
ij lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
diV osQ 'kksj esa
lgh gksrs gq, Hkh nc tkukµcqjk rks gS
fdlh tqxuw dh ykS esa i<+ukµcqjk rks gS
eqf_;k¡ Hkhapdj cl oDr fudky ysukµcqjk rks gS
lcls [krjukd ugha gksrk
lcls [krjukd gksrk gS
eqnkZ 'kkafr ls Hkj tkuk
u gksuk rM+i dk lc lgu dj tkuk
?kj ls fudyuk dke ij
176/vkjksg
vkSj dke ls ykSVdj ?kj vkuk
lcls [krjukd gksrk gS
gekjs liuksa dk ej tkuk
lcls [krjukd og ?kM+h gksrh gS
vkidh dykbZ ij pyrh gqbZ Hkh tks
vkidh fuxkg esa #dh gksrh gS
lcls [krjukd og vk¡[k gksrh gS
tks lc oqQN ns[krh gqbZ Hkh teh ciQZ gksrh gS
ftldh u”kj nqfu;k dks eqgCcr ls pweuk Hkwy tkrh gS
tks ph”kksa ls mBrh vaèksiu dh Hkki ij <qyd tkrh gS
tks jks”kejkZ osQ Øe dks ihrh gqbZ
,d y{;ghu nqgjko osQ myViQsj esa [kks tkrh gS
lcls [krjukd og pk¡n gksrk gS
tks gj gR;kdkaM osQ ckn
ohjku gq, vk¡xuksa esa p<+rk gS
ij vkidh vk¡[kksa dks fepks± dh rjg ugha xM+rk gS
lcls [krjukd og xhr gksrk gS
vkiosQ dkuksa rd igq¡pus osQ fy,
tks ejfl, i<+rk gS
vkrafdr yksxksa osQ njok”kksa ij
tks xaqMs dh rjg vdM+rk gS
lcls [krjukd/177
lcls [krjukd og jkr gksrh gS
tks f”kank :g osQ vklekuksa ij <yrh gS
ftlesa flI
+
kQZ mYyw cksyrs vkSj gqvk¡ gqvk¡ djrs xhnM+
ges'kk osQ v¡èksjs can njok”kksa&pkSxkBksa ij fpid tkrs gSa
lcls [krjukd og fn'kk gksrh gS
ftlesa vkRek dk lwjt Mwc tk,
vkSj mldh eqnkZ èkwi dk dksbZ VqdM+k
vkiosQ ftLe osQ iwjc esa pqHk tk,
esgur dh ywV lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
iqfyl dh ekj lcls [krjukd ugha gksrh
xíkjh&yksHk dh eq_h lcls [krjukd ugha gksrhA
vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- dfo us fdl vk'k; ls esgur dh ywV] iqfyl dh ekj] xíkjh&yksHk dks lcls [krjukd
ugha ekukA
2- lcls [krjukd 'kCn osQ ckj&ckj nksgjk, tkus ls dfork esa D;k vlj iSnk gqvk\
3- dfo us dfork esa dbZ ckrksa dks cqjk gS u dgdj cqjk rks gS dgk gSA rks osQ iz;ksx ls dFku
dh Hkafxek esa D;k cnyko vk;k gS] Li"V dhft,A
4- eqnkZ 'kkafr ls Hkj tkuk vkSj gekjs liuksa dk ej tkuk& budks lcls [krjukd ekuk x;k
gSA vkidh n`f"V esa bu ckrksa esa ijLij D;k laxfr gS vkSj ;s D;ksa lcls [krjukd gS\
5- lcls [krjukd og ?kM+h gksrh gS@vkidh dykbZ ij pyrh gqbZ Hkh tks@vkidh fuxkg
esa #dh gksrh gSA bu iafDr;ksa esa ?kM+h 'kCn dh O;atuk ls voxr djkb,A
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