NCERT Textbook - Poem Dushyant Kumar Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Poem Dushyant Kumar Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


164/vkjksg
esjs lhus esa ugha rks rsjs lhus esa lgh
gks dgha Hkh vkx] ysfdu vkx tyuh pkfg,A
(lk;s esa /wi)
nq";ar oqQekj
tUe% lu~ 1933] jktiqj uoknk xk¡o (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lw;Z dk Lokxr] vkok”kksa osQ
?ksjs] lk;s esa /wi] tyrs gq, ou dk olar
(dkO;)_ ,d oaQB fo"kik;h (xhfr&ukV~;)_
NksVs&NksVs loky] vk¡xu esa ,d o`{k vkSj nksgjh
f”kanxh (miU;kl)
e`R;q% lu~ 1975
nq";ar oqQekj dk lkfgfR;d thou bykgkckn esa
vkjaHk gqvkA ogk¡ dh lkfgfR;d laLFkk ifjey
dh xksf"B;ksa esa os lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysrs jgs vkSj u, iÙks tSls egRoiw.kZ i=k osQ
lkFk Hkh tqM+s jgsA vkthfodk osQ fy, vkdk'kok.kh vkSj ckn esa eè;izns'k osQ
jktHkk"kk foHkkx esa dke fd;kA vYik;q esa gh mudk nsgkolku gks x;k] foaQrq bl
NksVs thou dh lkfgfR;d miyfC/;k¡ oqQN NksVh ugha gSaA x”ky dh fo/k dks fganh
esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; vosQys nq";ar dks gh tkrk gSA muosQ dbZ 'ksj lkfgfR;d
,oa jktuhfrd tekoM+ksa esa yksdksfDr;ksa dh rjg nqgjk, tkrs gSaA lkfgfR;d xq.koÙkk
ls le>kSrk u djrs gq, Hkh nq";ar us yksdfiz;rk osQ u, izfreku dk;e fd, gSaA
,d oaQB fo"kik;h&'kh"kZd xhfrukV~; fganh lkfgR; dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa
cgqiz'kaflr Ñfr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


164/vkjksg
esjs lhus esa ugha rks rsjs lhus esa lgh
gks dgha Hkh vkx] ysfdu vkx tyuh pkfg,A
(lk;s esa /wi)
nq";ar oqQekj
tUe% lu~ 1933] jktiqj uoknk xk¡o (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lw;Z dk Lokxr] vkok”kksa osQ
?ksjs] lk;s esa /wi] tyrs gq, ou dk olar
(dkO;)_ ,d oaQB fo"kik;h (xhfr&ukV~;)_
NksVs&NksVs loky] vk¡xu esa ,d o`{k vkSj nksgjh
f”kanxh (miU;kl)
e`R;q% lu~ 1975
nq";ar oqQekj dk lkfgfR;d thou bykgkckn esa
vkjaHk gqvkA ogk¡ dh lkfgfR;d laLFkk ifjey
dh xksf"B;ksa esa os lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysrs jgs vkSj u, iÙks tSls egRoiw.kZ i=k osQ
lkFk Hkh tqM+s jgsA vkthfodk osQ fy, vkdk'kok.kh vkSj ckn esa eè;izns'k osQ
jktHkk"kk foHkkx esa dke fd;kA vYik;q esa gh mudk nsgkolku gks x;k] foaQrq bl
NksVs thou dh lkfgfR;d miyfC/;k¡ oqQN NksVh ugha gSaA x”ky dh fo/k dks fganh
esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; vosQys nq";ar dks gh tkrk gSA muosQ dbZ 'ksj lkfgfR;d
,oa jktuhfrd tekoM+ksa esa yksdksfDr;ksa dh rjg nqgjk, tkrs gSaA lkfgfR;d xq.koÙkk
ls le>kSrk u djrs gq, Hkh nq";ar us yksdfiz;rk osQ u, izfreku dk;e fd, gSaA
,d oaQB fo"kik;h&'kh"kZd xhfrukV~; fganh lkfgR; dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa
cgqiz'kaflr Ñfr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/165
;gk¡ nq";ar dh tks x”ky nh xbZ gS] og muosQ x”ky laxzg lk;s esa /wi ls
yh xbZ gSSA x”kyksa esa 'kh"kZd nsus dk dksbZ pyu ugha gS] blhfy, ;gk¡ dksbZ 'kh"kZd
ugha fn;k tk jgk gSA
x”ky ,d ,slh fo/k gS] ftlesa lHkh 'ksj vius&vki esa eqdfEey vkSj
Lora=k gksrs gSaA mUgsa fdlh Øe&O;oLFkk osQ rgr i<+s tkus dh njdkj ugha jgrhA
blosQ ckotwn nks ph”ksa ,slh gSa] tks bu 'ksjksa dks vkil esa xw¡Fkdj ,d jpuk dh
'kDy nsrh gSaµ,d] :i osQ Lrj ij rqd dk fuokZg vkSj nks] varoZLrq osQ Lrj
ij fe”kkt dk fuokZgA tSlk fd vki ns[ksaxs] ;gk¡ igys 'ksj dh nksuksa iafDr;ksa dk
rqd feyrk gS vkSj mlosQ ckn lHkh 'ksjksa dh nwljh iafDr esa ml rqd dk fuokZg
gksrk gSA vke rkSj ij x”ky osQ 'ksjksa esa osQanzh; Hkko dk gksuk ”k:jh ugha gS ysfdu
;gk¡ iwjh x”ky ,d [kkl eu%fLFkfr esa fy[kh xbZ tku iM+rh gSA jktuhfr vkSj
lekt esa tks oqQN py jgk gS] mls [kkfjt djus vkSj fodYi dh ryk'k dks
ekU;rk nsus dk Hkko ,d rjg ls bl x”ky dk osQanzh; lw=k cu x;k gSA bl
izdkj nq";ar dh ;g x”ky fganh x”ky dk lqanj uewuk izLrqr djrh gSA
nq";ar oqQekj/165
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


164/vkjksg
esjs lhus esa ugha rks rsjs lhus esa lgh
gks dgha Hkh vkx] ysfdu vkx tyuh pkfg,A
(lk;s esa /wi)
nq";ar oqQekj
tUe% lu~ 1933] jktiqj uoknk xk¡o (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lw;Z dk Lokxr] vkok”kksa osQ
?ksjs] lk;s esa /wi] tyrs gq, ou dk olar
(dkO;)_ ,d oaQB fo"kik;h (xhfr&ukV~;)_
NksVs&NksVs loky] vk¡xu esa ,d o`{k vkSj nksgjh
f”kanxh (miU;kl)
e`R;q% lu~ 1975
nq";ar oqQekj dk lkfgfR;d thou bykgkckn esa
vkjaHk gqvkA ogk¡ dh lkfgfR;d laLFkk ifjey
dh xksf"B;ksa esa os lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysrs jgs vkSj u, iÙks tSls egRoiw.kZ i=k osQ
lkFk Hkh tqM+s jgsA vkthfodk osQ fy, vkdk'kok.kh vkSj ckn esa eè;izns'k osQ
jktHkk"kk foHkkx esa dke fd;kA vYik;q esa gh mudk nsgkolku gks x;k] foaQrq bl
NksVs thou dh lkfgfR;d miyfC/;k¡ oqQN NksVh ugha gSaA x”ky dh fo/k dks fganh
esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; vosQys nq";ar dks gh tkrk gSA muosQ dbZ 'ksj lkfgfR;d
,oa jktuhfrd tekoM+ksa esa yksdksfDr;ksa dh rjg nqgjk, tkrs gSaA lkfgfR;d xq.koÙkk
ls le>kSrk u djrs gq, Hkh nq";ar us yksdfiz;rk osQ u, izfreku dk;e fd, gSaA
,d oaQB fo"kik;h&'kh"kZd xhfrukV~; fganh lkfgR; dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa
cgqiz'kaflr Ñfr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/165
;gk¡ nq";ar dh tks x”ky nh xbZ gS] og muosQ x”ky laxzg lk;s esa /wi ls
yh xbZ gSSA x”kyksa esa 'kh"kZd nsus dk dksbZ pyu ugha gS] blhfy, ;gk¡ dksbZ 'kh"kZd
ugha fn;k tk jgk gSA
x”ky ,d ,slh fo/k gS] ftlesa lHkh 'ksj vius&vki esa eqdfEey vkSj
Lora=k gksrs gSaA mUgsa fdlh Øe&O;oLFkk osQ rgr i<+s tkus dh njdkj ugha jgrhA
blosQ ckotwn nks ph”ksa ,slh gSa] tks bu 'ksjksa dks vkil esa xw¡Fkdj ,d jpuk dh
'kDy nsrh gSaµ,d] :i osQ Lrj ij rqd dk fuokZg vkSj nks] varoZLrq osQ Lrj
ij fe”kkt dk fuokZgA tSlk fd vki ns[ksaxs] ;gk¡ igys 'ksj dh nksuksa iafDr;ksa dk
rqd feyrk gS vkSj mlosQ ckn lHkh 'ksjksa dh nwljh iafDr esa ml rqd dk fuokZg
gksrk gSA vke rkSj ij x”ky osQ 'ksjksa esa osQanzh; Hkko dk gksuk ”k:jh ugha gS ysfdu
;gk¡ iwjh x”ky ,d [kkl eu%fLFkfr esa fy[kh xbZ tku iM+rh gSA jktuhfr vkSj
lekt esa tks oqQN py jgk gS] mls [kkfjt djus vkSj fodYi dh ryk'k dks
ekU;rk nsus dk Hkko ,d rjg ls bl x”ky dk osQanzh; lw=k cu x;k gSA bl
izdkj nq";ar dh ;g x”ky fganh x”ky dk lqanj uewuk izLrqr djrh gSA
nq";ar oqQekj/165
© NCERT
not to be republished
166/vkjksg
x”ky
dgk¡ rks r; Fkk fpjkxk¡ gjsoQ ?kj osQ fy,]
dgk¡ fpjkx e;Llj ugha 'kgj osQ fy,A
;gk¡ nj[rksa osQ lk;s esa /wwi yxrh gS]
pyks ;gk¡ ls pysa vkSj mez Hkj osQ fy,A
u gks deh”k rks ik¡oksa ls isV <¡d ysaxs]
;s yksx fdrus equkflc gSa bl lI
+
kQj osQ fy,A
[kqnk ugha] u lgh] vkneh dk [okc lgh]
dksbZ glhu u”kkjk rks gS u”kj osQ fy,A
os eqrebu gSa fd iRFkj fi?ky ugha ldrk]
eSa csdjkj gw¡ vkok”k esa vlj osQ fy,A
rsjk fu”kke gS fly ns ”kqcku 'kk;j dh]
;s ,gfr;kr ”k:jh gS bl cgj osQ fy,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


164/vkjksg
esjs lhus esa ugha rks rsjs lhus esa lgh
gks dgha Hkh vkx] ysfdu vkx tyuh pkfg,A
(lk;s esa /wi)
nq";ar oqQekj
tUe% lu~ 1933] jktiqj uoknk xk¡o (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lw;Z dk Lokxr] vkok”kksa osQ
?ksjs] lk;s esa /wi] tyrs gq, ou dk olar
(dkO;)_ ,d oaQB fo"kik;h (xhfr&ukV~;)_
NksVs&NksVs loky] vk¡xu esa ,d o`{k vkSj nksgjh
f”kanxh (miU;kl)
e`R;q% lu~ 1975
nq";ar oqQekj dk lkfgfR;d thou bykgkckn esa
vkjaHk gqvkA ogk¡ dh lkfgfR;d laLFkk ifjey
dh xksf"B;ksa esa os lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysrs jgs vkSj u, iÙks tSls egRoiw.kZ i=k osQ
lkFk Hkh tqM+s jgsA vkthfodk osQ fy, vkdk'kok.kh vkSj ckn esa eè;izns'k osQ
jktHkk"kk foHkkx esa dke fd;kA vYik;q esa gh mudk nsgkolku gks x;k] foaQrq bl
NksVs thou dh lkfgfR;d miyfC/;k¡ oqQN NksVh ugha gSaA x”ky dh fo/k dks fganh
esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; vosQys nq";ar dks gh tkrk gSA muosQ dbZ 'ksj lkfgfR;d
,oa jktuhfrd tekoM+ksa esa yksdksfDr;ksa dh rjg nqgjk, tkrs gSaA lkfgfR;d xq.koÙkk
ls le>kSrk u djrs gq, Hkh nq";ar us yksdfiz;rk osQ u, izfreku dk;e fd, gSaA
,d oaQB fo"kik;h&'kh"kZd xhfrukV~; fganh lkfgR; dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa
cgqiz'kaflr Ñfr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/165
;gk¡ nq";ar dh tks x”ky nh xbZ gS] og muosQ x”ky laxzg lk;s esa /wi ls
yh xbZ gSSA x”kyksa esa 'kh"kZd nsus dk dksbZ pyu ugha gS] blhfy, ;gk¡ dksbZ 'kh"kZd
ugha fn;k tk jgk gSA
x”ky ,d ,slh fo/k gS] ftlesa lHkh 'ksj vius&vki esa eqdfEey vkSj
Lora=k gksrs gSaA mUgsa fdlh Øe&O;oLFkk osQ rgr i<+s tkus dh njdkj ugha jgrhA
blosQ ckotwn nks ph”ksa ,slh gSa] tks bu 'ksjksa dks vkil esa xw¡Fkdj ,d jpuk dh
'kDy nsrh gSaµ,d] :i osQ Lrj ij rqd dk fuokZg vkSj nks] varoZLrq osQ Lrj
ij fe”kkt dk fuokZgA tSlk fd vki ns[ksaxs] ;gk¡ igys 'ksj dh nksuksa iafDr;ksa dk
rqd feyrk gS vkSj mlosQ ckn lHkh 'ksjksa dh nwljh iafDr esa ml rqd dk fuokZg
gksrk gSA vke rkSj ij x”ky osQ 'ksjksa esa osQanzh; Hkko dk gksuk ”k:jh ugha gS ysfdu
;gk¡ iwjh x”ky ,d [kkl eu%fLFkfr esa fy[kh xbZ tku iM+rh gSA jktuhfr vkSj
lekt esa tks oqQN py jgk gS] mls [kkfjt djus vkSj fodYi dh ryk'k dks
ekU;rk nsus dk Hkko ,d rjg ls bl x”ky dk osQanzh; lw=k cu x;k gSA bl
izdkj nq";ar dh ;g x”ky fganh x”ky dk lqanj uewuk izLrqr djrh gSA
nq";ar oqQekj/165
© NCERT
not to be republished
166/vkjksg
x”ky
dgk¡ rks r; Fkk fpjkxk¡ gjsoQ ?kj osQ fy,]
dgk¡ fpjkx e;Llj ugha 'kgj osQ fy,A
;gk¡ nj[rksa osQ lk;s esa /wwi yxrh gS]
pyks ;gk¡ ls pysa vkSj mez Hkj osQ fy,A
u gks deh”k rks ik¡oksa ls isV <¡d ysaxs]
;s yksx fdrus equkflc gSa bl lI
+
kQj osQ fy,A
[kqnk ugha] u lgh] vkneh dk [okc lgh]
dksbZ glhu u”kkjk rks gS u”kj osQ fy,A
os eqrebu gSa fd iRFkj fi?ky ugha ldrk]
eSa csdjkj gw¡ vkok”k esa vlj osQ fy,A
rsjk fu”kke gS fly ns ”kqcku 'kk;j dh]
;s ,gfr;kr ”k:jh gS bl cgj osQ fy,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/167
ft,¡ rks vius cxhps esa xqyeksgj osQ rys]
ejsa rks xSj dh xfy;ksa esa xqyeksgj osQ fy,A
vH;kl
x”ky osQ lkFk
1- vkf[kjh 'ksj esa xqyeksgj dh ppkZ gqbZ gSA D;k mldk vk'k; ,d [kkl rjg osQ iQwynkj
o`{k ls gS ;k mlesa dksbZ lkaosQfrd vFkZ fufgr gS\ le>kdj fy[ksaA
2- igys 'ksj esa fpjkx 'kCn ,d ckj cgqopu esa vk;k gS vkSj nwljh ckj ,dopu esaA vFkZ
,oa dkO;&lkSan;Z dh n`f"V ls bldk D;k egRo gS\
3- x”ky osQ rhljs 'ksj dks xkSj ls i<a+sA ;gk¡ nq";ar dk b'kkjk fdl rjg osQ yksxksa dh vksj gS\
4- vk'k; Li"V djsa%
rsjk fu”kke gS fly ns ”kqcku 'kk;j dh]
;s ,gfr;kr ”k:jh gS bl cgj osQ fy,A
x”ky osQ vkl&ikl
1- nq";ar dh bl x”ky dk fe”kkt cnyko osQ i{k esa gSA bl dFku ij fopkj djsaA
2- gedks ekywe gS tUur dh gdhdr ysfdu
fny osQ [kq'k j[kus dks xkfyc ;s [k;ky vPNk gS
nq";ar dh x”ky dk pkSFkk 'ksj i<+sa vkSj crk,¡ fd xkfyc ds mi;qZDr 'ksj ls og fdl rjg
tqM+rk gS\
3- ^;gk¡ nj[rksa osQ lk;s esa èkwi yxrh gS* ;g okD; eqgkojs dh rjg vyx&vyx
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa vFkZ ns ldrk gS elyu] ;g ,slh vnkyrksa ij ykxw gksrk gS] tgk¡ balkiQ
ugha fey ikrkA oqQN ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh dYiuk djrs gq, fuEukafdr v/wjs okD;ksa dks
iwjk djsaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


164/vkjksg
esjs lhus esa ugha rks rsjs lhus esa lgh
gks dgha Hkh vkx] ysfdu vkx tyuh pkfg,A
(lk;s esa /wi)
nq";ar oqQekj
tUe% lu~ 1933] jktiqj uoknk xk¡o (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lw;Z dk Lokxr] vkok”kksa osQ
?ksjs] lk;s esa /wi] tyrs gq, ou dk olar
(dkO;)_ ,d oaQB fo"kik;h (xhfr&ukV~;)_
NksVs&NksVs loky] vk¡xu esa ,d o`{k vkSj nksgjh
f”kanxh (miU;kl)
e`R;q% lu~ 1975
nq";ar oqQekj dk lkfgfR;d thou bykgkckn esa
vkjaHk gqvkA ogk¡ dh lkfgfR;d laLFkk ifjey
dh xksf"B;ksa esa os lfØ; :i ls Hkkx ysrs jgs vkSj u, iÙks tSls egRoiw.kZ i=k osQ
lkFk Hkh tqM+s jgsA vkthfodk osQ fy, vkdk'kok.kh vkSj ckn esa eè;izns'k osQ
jktHkk"kk foHkkx esa dke fd;kA vYik;q esa gh mudk nsgkolku gks x;k] foaQrq bl
NksVs thou dh lkfgfR;d miyfC/;k¡ oqQN NksVh ugha gSaA x”ky dh fo/k dks fganh
esa izfrf"Br djus dk Js; vosQys nq";ar dks gh tkrk gSA muosQ dbZ 'ksj lkfgfR;d
,oa jktuhfrd tekoM+ksa esa yksdksfDr;ksa dh rjg nqgjk, tkrs gSaA lkfgfR;d xq.koÙkk
ls le>kSrk u djrs gq, Hkh nq";ar us yksdfiz;rk osQ u, izfreku dk;e fd, gSaA
,d oaQB fo"kik;h&'kh"kZd xhfrukV~; fganh lkfgR; dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ,oa
cgqiz'kaflr Ñfr gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/165
;gk¡ nq";ar dh tks x”ky nh xbZ gS] og muosQ x”ky laxzg lk;s esa /wi ls
yh xbZ gSSA x”kyksa esa 'kh"kZd nsus dk dksbZ pyu ugha gS] blhfy, ;gk¡ dksbZ 'kh"kZd
ugha fn;k tk jgk gSA
x”ky ,d ,slh fo/k gS] ftlesa lHkh 'ksj vius&vki esa eqdfEey vkSj
Lora=k gksrs gSaA mUgsa fdlh Øe&O;oLFkk osQ rgr i<+s tkus dh njdkj ugha jgrhA
blosQ ckotwn nks ph”ksa ,slh gSa] tks bu 'ksjksa dks vkil esa xw¡Fkdj ,d jpuk dh
'kDy nsrh gSaµ,d] :i osQ Lrj ij rqd dk fuokZg vkSj nks] varoZLrq osQ Lrj
ij fe”kkt dk fuokZgA tSlk fd vki ns[ksaxs] ;gk¡ igys 'ksj dh nksuksa iafDr;ksa dk
rqd feyrk gS vkSj mlosQ ckn lHkh 'ksjksa dh nwljh iafDr esa ml rqd dk fuokZg
gksrk gSA vke rkSj ij x”ky osQ 'ksjksa esa osQanzh; Hkko dk gksuk ”k:jh ugha gS ysfdu
;gk¡ iwjh x”ky ,d [kkl eu%fLFkfr esa fy[kh xbZ tku iM+rh gSA jktuhfr vkSj
lekt esa tks oqQN py jgk gS] mls [kkfjt djus vkSj fodYi dh ryk'k dks
ekU;rk nsus dk Hkko ,d rjg ls bl x”ky dk osQanzh; lw=k cu x;k gSA bl
izdkj nq";ar dh ;g x”ky fganh x”ky dk lqanj uewuk izLrqr djrh gSA
nq";ar oqQekj/165
© NCERT
not to be republished
166/vkjksg
x”ky
dgk¡ rks r; Fkk fpjkxk¡ gjsoQ ?kj osQ fy,]
dgk¡ fpjkx e;Llj ugha 'kgj osQ fy,A
;gk¡ nj[rksa osQ lk;s esa /wwi yxrh gS]
pyks ;gk¡ ls pysa vkSj mez Hkj osQ fy,A
u gks deh”k rks ik¡oksa ls isV <¡d ysaxs]
;s yksx fdrus equkflc gSa bl lI
+
kQj osQ fy,A
[kqnk ugha] u lgh] vkneh dk [okc lgh]
dksbZ glhu u”kkjk rks gS u”kj osQ fy,A
os eqrebu gSa fd iRFkj fi?ky ugha ldrk]
eSa csdjkj gw¡ vkok”k esa vlj osQ fy,A
rsjk fu”kke gS fly ns ”kqcku 'kk;j dh]
;s ,gfr;kr ”k:jh gS bl cgj osQ fy,A
© NCERT
not to be republished
lk;s esa /wi/167
ft,¡ rks vius cxhps esa xqyeksgj osQ rys]
ejsa rks xSj dh xfy;ksa esa xqyeksgj osQ fy,A
vH;kl
x”ky osQ lkFk
1- vkf[kjh 'ksj esa xqyeksgj dh ppkZ gqbZ gSA D;k mldk vk'k; ,d [kkl rjg osQ iQwynkj
o`{k ls gS ;k mlesa dksbZ lkaosQfrd vFkZ fufgr gS\ le>kdj fy[ksaA
2- igys 'ksj esa fpjkx 'kCn ,d ckj cgqopu esa vk;k gS vkSj nwljh ckj ,dopu esaA vFkZ
,oa dkO;&lkSan;Z dh n`f"V ls bldk D;k egRo gS\
3- x”ky osQ rhljs 'ksj dks xkSj ls i<a+sA ;gk¡ nq";ar dk b'kkjk fdl rjg osQ yksxksa dh vksj gS\
4- vk'k; Li"V djsa%
rsjk fu”kke gS fly ns ”kqcku 'kk;j dh]
;s ,gfr;kr ”k:jh gS bl cgj osQ fy,A
x”ky osQ vkl&ikl
1- nq";ar dh bl x”ky dk fe”kkt cnyko osQ i{k esa gSA bl dFku ij fopkj djsaA
2- gedks ekywe gS tUur dh gdhdr ysfdu
fny osQ [kq'k j[kus dks xkfyc ;s [k;ky vPNk gS
nq";ar dh x”ky dk pkSFkk 'ksj i<+sa vkSj crk,¡ fd xkfyc ds mi;qZDr 'ksj ls og fdl rjg
tqM+rk gS\
3- ^;gk¡ nj[rksa osQ lk;s esa èkwi yxrh gS* ;g okD; eqgkojs dh rjg vyx&vyx
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa vFkZ ns ldrk gS elyu] ;g ,slh vnkyrksa ij ykxw gksrk gS] tgk¡ balkiQ
ugha fey ikrkA oqQN ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dh dYiuk djrs gq, fuEukafdr v/wjs okD;ksa dks
iwjk djsaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
168/vkjksg
(d) ;g ,sls ukrs&fj'rksa ij ykxw gksrk gS] -------------
([k) ;g ,sls fo|ky;ksa ij ykxw gksrk gS] -------------
(x) ;g ,sls vLirkyksa ij ykxw gksrk gS] -------------
(?k) ;g ,slh iqfyl O;oLFkk ij ykxw gksrk gS] -------------
'kCn&Nfo
e;Llj & miyC/
nj[r & isM+
eqrebu & bRkehuku ls] vk'oLr
csdjkj & cspSu] vkrqj
fu”kke & jkt] 'kklu
,gfr;kr & lko/kuh
cgj & Nan
© NCERT
not to be republished
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