NCERT Textbook - Poem Meera Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Poem Meera Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


ehjk osQ in/135
?kkby dh xr ?kkby tk.kS] fg;M+ksa vxBk l¡tks;A
tkSgj dh xr tkSgjh tk.kS] D;k tk.;k ft.k [kks;A
      (ehjk¡ckbZ dh inkoyh] ij'kqjke prqosZnh)
ehjk
tUe % lu~~ 1498] oqQM+dh xk¡o (ekjokM+ fj;klr)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ehjk inkoyh] ujlhth&jks&ekgsjks
e`R;q % lu~~ 1546
ehjk lxq.k /kjk dh egRoiw.kZ HkDr dof;=kh
FkhaA Ñ".k dh mikfldk gksus osQ dkj.k mudh
dfork esa lxq.k HkfDr eq[; :i ls ekStwn gS
ysfdu fuxZq.k HkfDr dk izHkko Hkh feyrk gSA
lar dfo jSnkl muosQ xq# ekus tkrs gSaA cpiu
ls gh muosQ eu esa Ñ".k HkfDr dh Hkkouk
tUe ys pqdh FkhA blfy, os Ñ".k dks gh viuk vkjkè; vkSj ifr ekurh jghaA
vU; HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa dh rjg ehjk us Hkh ns'k esa nwj&nwj rd ;k=kk,¡
dhaA fpÙkkSM+ jkt?kjkus esa vusd d"V mBkus osQ ckn ehjk okil esM+rk vk xb±A
;gk¡ ls mUgksaus Ñ".k dh yhyk Hkwfe o`Unkou dh ;k=kk dhA thou osQ vafre fnuksa
esa os }kjdk pyh xb±A ekuk tkrk gS fd ogha j.kNksM+ nkl th dh eafnj dh ewfrZ
esa os lekfgr gks xb±A
mUgksaus yksdykt vkSj oqQy dh e;kZnk osQ uke ij yxk, x, lkekftd vkSj
oSpkfjd caèkuksa dk ges'kk fojksèk fd;kA inkZ izFkk dk Hkh ikyu ugha fd;k rFkk
eafnj esa lkoZtfud :i ls ukpus&xkus esa dHkh fgpd eglwl ugha dhA ehjk
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


ehjk osQ in/135
?kkby dh xr ?kkby tk.kS] fg;M+ksa vxBk l¡tks;A
tkSgj dh xr tkSgjh tk.kS] D;k tk.;k ft.k [kks;A
      (ehjk¡ckbZ dh inkoyh] ij'kqjke prqosZnh)
ehjk
tUe % lu~~ 1498] oqQM+dh xk¡o (ekjokM+ fj;klr)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ehjk inkoyh] ujlhth&jks&ekgsjks
e`R;q % lu~~ 1546
ehjk lxq.k /kjk dh egRoiw.kZ HkDr dof;=kh
FkhaA Ñ".k dh mikfldk gksus osQ dkj.k mudh
dfork esa lxq.k HkfDr eq[; :i ls ekStwn gS
ysfdu fuxZq.k HkfDr dk izHkko Hkh feyrk gSA
lar dfo jSnkl muosQ xq# ekus tkrs gSaA cpiu
ls gh muosQ eu esa Ñ".k HkfDr dh Hkkouk
tUe ys pqdh FkhA blfy, os Ñ".k dks gh viuk vkjkè; vkSj ifr ekurh jghaA
vU; HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa dh rjg ehjk us Hkh ns'k esa nwj&nwj rd ;k=kk,¡
dhaA fpÙkkSM+ jkt?kjkus esa vusd d"V mBkus osQ ckn ehjk okil esM+rk vk xb±A
;gk¡ ls mUgksaus Ñ".k dh yhyk Hkwfe o`Unkou dh ;k=kk dhA thou osQ vafre fnuksa
esa os }kjdk pyh xb±A ekuk tkrk gS fd ogha j.kNksM+ nkl th dh eafnj dh ewfrZ
esa os lekfgr gks xb±A
mUgksaus yksdykt vkSj oqQy dh e;kZnk osQ uke ij yxk, x, lkekftd vkSj
oSpkfjd caèkuksa dk ges'kk fojksèk fd;kA inkZ izFkk dk Hkh ikyu ugha fd;k rFkk
eafnj esa lkoZtfud :i ls ukpus&xkus esa dHkh fgpd eglwl ugha dhA ehjk
© NCERT
not to be republished
136/vkjksg
ekurh Fkha fd egkiq#"kksa osQ lkFk laokn (ftls lRlax dgk tkrk Fkk) ls Kku izkIr
gksrk gS vkSj Kku ls eqfDr feyrh gSA viuh bu ekU;rkvksa dks ysdj os
n`<+fu'p;h FkhaA fuank ;k canxh mudks vius iFk ls fopfyr ugha dj ikbZA ftl
ij fo'okl fd;k] ml ij vey fd;kA bl vFkZ esa ml ;qx esa tgk¡ :f<+;ksa
ls xzLr lekt dk ncnck Fkk] ogk¡ ehjk L=kh eqfDr dh vkok”k cudj mHkjhaA
ehjk dh dfork esa izse dh xaHkhj vfHkO;atuk gSA mlesa fojg dh osnuk gS vkSj
feyu dk mYykl HkhA ehjk dh dfork dk iz/ku xq.k lknxh vkSj ljyrk gSA
dyk dk vHkko gh mldh lcls cM+h dyk gSA mUgksaus eqDrd xs; inksa dh jpuk
dhA yksd laxhr vkSj 'kkL=kh; laxhr nksuksa {ks=kksa esa muosQ in vkt Hkh yksdfiz;
gSaA mudh Hkk"kk ewyr% jktLFkkuh gS rFkk dgha&dgha cztHkk"kk dk izHkko gSA Ñ".k
osQ izse dh nhokuh ehjk ij lwfI
+
kQ;ksa osQ izHkko dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ehjk dh
dfork osQ ewy esa nnZ gSA os ckj&ckj dgrh gSa fd dksbZ esjs nnZ dks igpkurk ugha]
u 'k=kq u fe=kA
;gk¡ izLrqr igys in esa ehjk us Ñ".k ls viuh vuU;rk O;Dr dh gS rFkk
O;FkZ osQ dk;ks± esa O;Lr yksxksa osQ izfr nq[k izdV fd;k gSA
nwljs in esa] iszse jl esa Mwch gqbZ ehjk lHkh jhfr&fjoktksa vkSj ca/uksa ls eqDr
gksus vkSj fxfj/j osQ Lusg osQ dkj.k vej gksus dh ckr dj jgh gSaA
nksuksa in ujksÙke nkl Lokeh }kjk ladfyr&laikfnr ehjk¡ eqDrkoyh ls fy,
x, gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


ehjk osQ in/135
?kkby dh xr ?kkby tk.kS] fg;M+ksa vxBk l¡tks;A
tkSgj dh xr tkSgjh tk.kS] D;k tk.;k ft.k [kks;A
      (ehjk¡ckbZ dh inkoyh] ij'kqjke prqosZnh)
ehjk
tUe % lu~~ 1498] oqQM+dh xk¡o (ekjokM+ fj;klr)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ehjk inkoyh] ujlhth&jks&ekgsjks
e`R;q % lu~~ 1546
ehjk lxq.k /kjk dh egRoiw.kZ HkDr dof;=kh
FkhaA Ñ".k dh mikfldk gksus osQ dkj.k mudh
dfork esa lxq.k HkfDr eq[; :i ls ekStwn gS
ysfdu fuxZq.k HkfDr dk izHkko Hkh feyrk gSA
lar dfo jSnkl muosQ xq# ekus tkrs gSaA cpiu
ls gh muosQ eu esa Ñ".k HkfDr dh Hkkouk
tUe ys pqdh FkhA blfy, os Ñ".k dks gh viuk vkjkè; vkSj ifr ekurh jghaA
vU; HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa dh rjg ehjk us Hkh ns'k esa nwj&nwj rd ;k=kk,¡
dhaA fpÙkkSM+ jkt?kjkus esa vusd d"V mBkus osQ ckn ehjk okil esM+rk vk xb±A
;gk¡ ls mUgksaus Ñ".k dh yhyk Hkwfe o`Unkou dh ;k=kk dhA thou osQ vafre fnuksa
esa os }kjdk pyh xb±A ekuk tkrk gS fd ogha j.kNksM+ nkl th dh eafnj dh ewfrZ
esa os lekfgr gks xb±A
mUgksaus yksdykt vkSj oqQy dh e;kZnk osQ uke ij yxk, x, lkekftd vkSj
oSpkfjd caèkuksa dk ges'kk fojksèk fd;kA inkZ izFkk dk Hkh ikyu ugha fd;k rFkk
eafnj esa lkoZtfud :i ls ukpus&xkus esa dHkh fgpd eglwl ugha dhA ehjk
© NCERT
not to be republished
136/vkjksg
ekurh Fkha fd egkiq#"kksa osQ lkFk laokn (ftls lRlax dgk tkrk Fkk) ls Kku izkIr
gksrk gS vkSj Kku ls eqfDr feyrh gSA viuh bu ekU;rkvksa dks ysdj os
n`<+fu'p;h FkhaA fuank ;k canxh mudks vius iFk ls fopfyr ugha dj ikbZA ftl
ij fo'okl fd;k] ml ij vey fd;kA bl vFkZ esa ml ;qx esa tgk¡ :f<+;ksa
ls xzLr lekt dk ncnck Fkk] ogk¡ ehjk L=kh eqfDr dh vkok”k cudj mHkjhaA
ehjk dh dfork esa izse dh xaHkhj vfHkO;atuk gSA mlesa fojg dh osnuk gS vkSj
feyu dk mYykl HkhA ehjk dh dfork dk iz/ku xq.k lknxh vkSj ljyrk gSA
dyk dk vHkko gh mldh lcls cM+h dyk gSA mUgksaus eqDrd xs; inksa dh jpuk
dhA yksd laxhr vkSj 'kkL=kh; laxhr nksuksa {ks=kksa esa muosQ in vkt Hkh yksdfiz;
gSaA mudh Hkk"kk ewyr% jktLFkkuh gS rFkk dgha&dgha cztHkk"kk dk izHkko gSA Ñ".k
osQ izse dh nhokuh ehjk ij lwfI
+
kQ;ksa osQ izHkko dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ehjk dh
dfork osQ ewy esa nnZ gSA os ckj&ckj dgrh gSa fd dksbZ esjs nnZ dks igpkurk ugha]
u 'k=kq u fe=kA
;gk¡ izLrqr igys in esa ehjk us Ñ".k ls viuh vuU;rk O;Dr dh gS rFkk
O;FkZ osQ dk;ks± esa O;Lr yksxksa osQ izfr nq[k izdV fd;k gSA
nwljs in esa] iszse jl esa Mwch gqbZ ehjk lHkh jhfr&fjoktksa vkSj ca/uksa ls eqDr
gksus vkSj fxfj/j osQ Lusg osQ dkj.k vej gksus dh ckr dj jgh gSaA
nksuksa in ujksÙke nkl Lokeh }kjk ladfyr&laikfnr ehjk¡ eqDrkoyh ls fy,
x, gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ehjk osQ in/137
in 1
esjs rks fxjèkj xksiky] nwljks u dksbZ
tk osQ flj eksj&eqoqQV] esjks ifr lksbZ
NkafM+ n;h oqQy dh dkfu] dgk dfjgS dksbZ\
laru f<x cSfB&cSfB] yksd&ykt [kks;h
valqou ty lhafp&lhafp] izse&csfy cks;h
vc r csfy iSQfy x;h] vk.kan&iQy gks;h
nwèk dh eFkfu;k¡ cM+s izse ls foyks;h
nfèk efFk ?k`r dkf<+ fy;ks] Mkfj n;h Nks;h
Hkxr nsf[k jkth gq;h] txr nsf[k jks;h
nkfl ehjka yky fxjèkj! rkjks vc eksgh
in 2
ix ?kqa?k: ckafèk ehjka ukph]
eSa rks esjs ukjk;.k lwa] vkifg gks xbZ lkph
yksx dgS] ehjka Hkb ckojh_ U;kr dgS oqQy&uklh
fol dk I;kyk jk.kk HksT;k] ihor ehjka gk¡lh
ehjak osQ izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] lgt feys vfouklh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


ehjk osQ in/135
?kkby dh xr ?kkby tk.kS] fg;M+ksa vxBk l¡tks;A
tkSgj dh xr tkSgjh tk.kS] D;k tk.;k ft.k [kks;A
      (ehjk¡ckbZ dh inkoyh] ij'kqjke prqosZnh)
ehjk
tUe % lu~~ 1498] oqQM+dh xk¡o (ekjokM+ fj;klr)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ehjk inkoyh] ujlhth&jks&ekgsjks
e`R;q % lu~~ 1546
ehjk lxq.k /kjk dh egRoiw.kZ HkDr dof;=kh
FkhaA Ñ".k dh mikfldk gksus osQ dkj.k mudh
dfork esa lxq.k HkfDr eq[; :i ls ekStwn gS
ysfdu fuxZq.k HkfDr dk izHkko Hkh feyrk gSA
lar dfo jSnkl muosQ xq# ekus tkrs gSaA cpiu
ls gh muosQ eu esa Ñ".k HkfDr dh Hkkouk
tUe ys pqdh FkhA blfy, os Ñ".k dks gh viuk vkjkè; vkSj ifr ekurh jghaA
vU; HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa dh rjg ehjk us Hkh ns'k esa nwj&nwj rd ;k=kk,¡
dhaA fpÙkkSM+ jkt?kjkus esa vusd d"V mBkus osQ ckn ehjk okil esM+rk vk xb±A
;gk¡ ls mUgksaus Ñ".k dh yhyk Hkwfe o`Unkou dh ;k=kk dhA thou osQ vafre fnuksa
esa os }kjdk pyh xb±A ekuk tkrk gS fd ogha j.kNksM+ nkl th dh eafnj dh ewfrZ
esa os lekfgr gks xb±A
mUgksaus yksdykt vkSj oqQy dh e;kZnk osQ uke ij yxk, x, lkekftd vkSj
oSpkfjd caèkuksa dk ges'kk fojksèk fd;kA inkZ izFkk dk Hkh ikyu ugha fd;k rFkk
eafnj esa lkoZtfud :i ls ukpus&xkus esa dHkh fgpd eglwl ugha dhA ehjk
© NCERT
not to be republished
136/vkjksg
ekurh Fkha fd egkiq#"kksa osQ lkFk laokn (ftls lRlax dgk tkrk Fkk) ls Kku izkIr
gksrk gS vkSj Kku ls eqfDr feyrh gSA viuh bu ekU;rkvksa dks ysdj os
n`<+fu'p;h FkhaA fuank ;k canxh mudks vius iFk ls fopfyr ugha dj ikbZA ftl
ij fo'okl fd;k] ml ij vey fd;kA bl vFkZ esa ml ;qx esa tgk¡ :f<+;ksa
ls xzLr lekt dk ncnck Fkk] ogk¡ ehjk L=kh eqfDr dh vkok”k cudj mHkjhaA
ehjk dh dfork esa izse dh xaHkhj vfHkO;atuk gSA mlesa fojg dh osnuk gS vkSj
feyu dk mYykl HkhA ehjk dh dfork dk iz/ku xq.k lknxh vkSj ljyrk gSA
dyk dk vHkko gh mldh lcls cM+h dyk gSA mUgksaus eqDrd xs; inksa dh jpuk
dhA yksd laxhr vkSj 'kkL=kh; laxhr nksuksa {ks=kksa esa muosQ in vkt Hkh yksdfiz;
gSaA mudh Hkk"kk ewyr% jktLFkkuh gS rFkk dgha&dgha cztHkk"kk dk izHkko gSA Ñ".k
osQ izse dh nhokuh ehjk ij lwfI
+
kQ;ksa osQ izHkko dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ehjk dh
dfork osQ ewy esa nnZ gSA os ckj&ckj dgrh gSa fd dksbZ esjs nnZ dks igpkurk ugha]
u 'k=kq u fe=kA
;gk¡ izLrqr igys in esa ehjk us Ñ".k ls viuh vuU;rk O;Dr dh gS rFkk
O;FkZ osQ dk;ks± esa O;Lr yksxksa osQ izfr nq[k izdV fd;k gSA
nwljs in esa] iszse jl esa Mwch gqbZ ehjk lHkh jhfr&fjoktksa vkSj ca/uksa ls eqDr
gksus vkSj fxfj/j osQ Lusg osQ dkj.k vej gksus dh ckr dj jgh gSaA
nksuksa in ujksÙke nkl Lokeh }kjk ladfyr&laikfnr ehjk¡ eqDrkoyh ls fy,
x, gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ehjk osQ in/137
in 1
esjs rks fxjèkj xksiky] nwljks u dksbZ
tk osQ flj eksj&eqoqQV] esjks ifr lksbZ
NkafM+ n;h oqQy dh dkfu] dgk dfjgS dksbZ\
laru f<x cSfB&cSfB] yksd&ykt [kks;h
valqou ty lhafp&lhafp] izse&csfy cks;h
vc r csfy iSQfy x;h] vk.kan&iQy gks;h
nwèk dh eFkfu;k¡ cM+s izse ls foyks;h
nfèk efFk ?k`r dkf<+ fy;ks] Mkfj n;h Nks;h
Hkxr nsf[k jkth gq;h] txr nsf[k jks;h
nkfl ehjka yky fxjèkj! rkjks vc eksgh
in 2
ix ?kqa?k: ckafèk ehjka ukph]
eSa rks esjs ukjk;.k lwa] vkifg gks xbZ lkph
yksx dgS] ehjka Hkb ckojh_ U;kr dgS oqQy&uklh
fol dk I;kyk jk.kk HksT;k] ihor ehjka gk¡lh
ehjak osQ izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] lgt feys vfouklh
© NCERT
not to be republished
138/vkjksg
vH;kl
in osQ lkFk
1- ehjk Ñ".k dh mikluk fdl :i esa djrh gaS\ og :i oSQlk gS\
2- Hkko o f'kYi lkSan;Z Li"V dhft, µ
(d) valqou ty lhafp&lhafp] izse&csfy cks;h
 vc r csfy iSQfy xbZ] vk.kan&iQy gks;h
([k) nwèk dh eFkfu;k¡ cM+s izse ls foyks;h
 nfèk efFk ?k`r dkf<+ fy;ks] Mkfj n;h Nks;h
3- yksx ehjk dks ckojh D;ksa dgrs gSa\
4- fol dk I;kyk jk.kk HksT;k] ihor ehjka gk¡lh µblesa D;k O;aX; fNik gS\
5- ehjk txr dks ns[kdj jksrh D;ksa gSa\
in osQ vkl&ikl
1- dYiuk djsa] izse izkfIr osQ fy, ehjk dks fdu&fdu dfBukb;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+k gksxkA
2- yksd ykt [kksus dk vfHkizk; D;k gS\
3- ehjk us ^lgt feys vfouklh* D;ksa dgk gS\
4- yksx dgS] ehjka Hkb ckojh] U;kr dgS oqQy&uklh µehjk osQ ckjs esa yksx (lekt) vkSj
U;kr (oqQVqac) dh ,slh èkkj.kk,¡ D;ksa gaS\
'kCn&Nfo
dkfu & e;kZnk
f<x & lkFk
csfy & izse dh csy
foyks;h & eFkh
Nks;h & NkN] lkjghu va'k
vkifg & vius gh vki] fcuk iz;kl
lkph & lPph
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


ehjk osQ in/135
?kkby dh xr ?kkby tk.kS] fg;M+ksa vxBk l¡tks;A
tkSgj dh xr tkSgjh tk.kS] D;k tk.;k ft.k [kks;A
      (ehjk¡ckbZ dh inkoyh] ij'kqjke prqosZnh)
ehjk
tUe % lu~~ 1498] oqQM+dh xk¡o (ekjokM+ fj;klr)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% ehjk inkoyh] ujlhth&jks&ekgsjks
e`R;q % lu~~ 1546
ehjk lxq.k /kjk dh egRoiw.kZ HkDr dof;=kh
FkhaA Ñ".k dh mikfldk gksus osQ dkj.k mudh
dfork esa lxq.k HkfDr eq[; :i ls ekStwn gS
ysfdu fuxZq.k HkfDr dk izHkko Hkh feyrk gSA
lar dfo jSnkl muosQ xq# ekus tkrs gSaA cpiu
ls gh muosQ eu esa Ñ".k HkfDr dh Hkkouk
tUe ys pqdh FkhA blfy, os Ñ".k dks gh viuk vkjkè; vkSj ifr ekurh jghaA
vU; HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa dh rjg ehjk us Hkh ns'k esa nwj&nwj rd ;k=kk,¡
dhaA fpÙkkSM+ jkt?kjkus esa vusd d"V mBkus osQ ckn ehjk okil esM+rk vk xb±A
;gk¡ ls mUgksaus Ñ".k dh yhyk Hkwfe o`Unkou dh ;k=kk dhA thou osQ vafre fnuksa
esa os }kjdk pyh xb±A ekuk tkrk gS fd ogha j.kNksM+ nkl th dh eafnj dh ewfrZ
esa os lekfgr gks xb±A
mUgksaus yksdykt vkSj oqQy dh e;kZnk osQ uke ij yxk, x, lkekftd vkSj
oSpkfjd caèkuksa dk ges'kk fojksèk fd;kA inkZ izFkk dk Hkh ikyu ugha fd;k rFkk
eafnj esa lkoZtfud :i ls ukpus&xkus esa dHkh fgpd eglwl ugha dhA ehjk
© NCERT
not to be republished
136/vkjksg
ekurh Fkha fd egkiq#"kksa osQ lkFk laokn (ftls lRlax dgk tkrk Fkk) ls Kku izkIr
gksrk gS vkSj Kku ls eqfDr feyrh gSA viuh bu ekU;rkvksa dks ysdj os
n`<+fu'p;h FkhaA fuank ;k canxh mudks vius iFk ls fopfyr ugha dj ikbZA ftl
ij fo'okl fd;k] ml ij vey fd;kA bl vFkZ esa ml ;qx esa tgk¡ :f<+;ksa
ls xzLr lekt dk ncnck Fkk] ogk¡ ehjk L=kh eqfDr dh vkok”k cudj mHkjhaA
ehjk dh dfork esa izse dh xaHkhj vfHkO;atuk gSA mlesa fojg dh osnuk gS vkSj
feyu dk mYykl HkhA ehjk dh dfork dk iz/ku xq.k lknxh vkSj ljyrk gSA
dyk dk vHkko gh mldh lcls cM+h dyk gSA mUgksaus eqDrd xs; inksa dh jpuk
dhA yksd laxhr vkSj 'kkL=kh; laxhr nksuksa {ks=kksa esa muosQ in vkt Hkh yksdfiz;
gSaA mudh Hkk"kk ewyr% jktLFkkuh gS rFkk dgha&dgha cztHkk"kk dk izHkko gSA Ñ".k
osQ izse dh nhokuh ehjk ij lwfI
+
kQ;ksa osQ izHkko dks Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gSA ehjk dh
dfork osQ ewy esa nnZ gSA os ckj&ckj dgrh gSa fd dksbZ esjs nnZ dks igpkurk ugha]
u 'k=kq u fe=kA
;gk¡ izLrqr igys in esa ehjk us Ñ".k ls viuh vuU;rk O;Dr dh gS rFkk
O;FkZ osQ dk;ks± esa O;Lr yksxksa osQ izfr nq[k izdV fd;k gSA
nwljs in esa] iszse jl esa Mwch gqbZ ehjk lHkh jhfr&fjoktksa vkSj ca/uksa ls eqDr
gksus vkSj fxfj/j osQ Lusg osQ dkj.k vej gksus dh ckr dj jgh gSaA
nksuksa in ujksÙke nkl Lokeh }kjk ladfyr&laikfnr ehjk¡ eqDrkoyh ls fy,
x, gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ehjk osQ in/137
in 1
esjs rks fxjèkj xksiky] nwljks u dksbZ
tk osQ flj eksj&eqoqQV] esjks ifr lksbZ
NkafM+ n;h oqQy dh dkfu] dgk dfjgS dksbZ\
laru f<x cSfB&cSfB] yksd&ykt [kks;h
valqou ty lhafp&lhafp] izse&csfy cks;h
vc r csfy iSQfy x;h] vk.kan&iQy gks;h
nwèk dh eFkfu;k¡ cM+s izse ls foyks;h
nfèk efFk ?k`r dkf<+ fy;ks] Mkfj n;h Nks;h
Hkxr nsf[k jkth gq;h] txr nsf[k jks;h
nkfl ehjka yky fxjèkj! rkjks vc eksgh
in 2
ix ?kqa?k: ckafèk ehjka ukph]
eSa rks esjs ukjk;.k lwa] vkifg gks xbZ lkph
yksx dgS] ehjka Hkb ckojh_ U;kr dgS oqQy&uklh
fol dk I;kyk jk.kk HksT;k] ihor ehjka gk¡lh
ehjak osQ izHkq fxjèkj ukxj] lgt feys vfouklh
© NCERT
not to be republished
138/vkjksg
vH;kl
in osQ lkFk
1- ehjk Ñ".k dh mikluk fdl :i esa djrh gaS\ og :i oSQlk gS\
2- Hkko o f'kYi lkSan;Z Li"V dhft, µ
(d) valqou ty lhafp&lhafp] izse&csfy cks;h
 vc r csfy iSQfy xbZ] vk.kan&iQy gks;h
([k) nwèk dh eFkfu;k¡ cM+s izse ls foyks;h
 nfèk efFk ?k`r dkf<+ fy;ks] Mkfj n;h Nks;h
3- yksx ehjk dks ckojh D;ksa dgrs gSa\
4- fol dk I;kyk jk.kk HksT;k] ihor ehjka gk¡lh µblesa D;k O;aX; fNik gS\
5- ehjk txr dks ns[kdj jksrh D;ksa gSa\
in osQ vkl&ikl
1- dYiuk djsa] izse izkfIr osQ fy, ehjk dks fdu&fdu dfBukb;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+k gksxkA
2- yksd ykt [kksus dk vfHkizk; D;k gS\
3- ehjk us ^lgt feys vfouklh* D;ksa dgk gS\
4- yksx dgS] ehjka Hkb ckojh] U;kr dgS oqQy&uklh µehjk osQ ckjs esa yksx (lekt) vkSj
U;kr (oqQVqac) dh ,slh èkkj.kk,¡ D;ksa gaS\
'kCn&Nfo
dkfu & e;kZnk
f<x & lkFk
csfy & izse dh csy
foyks;h & eFkh
Nks;h & NkN] lkjghu va'k
vkifg & vius gh vki] fcuk iz;kl
lkph & lPph
© NCERT
not to be republished
ehjk osQ in/139
U;kr & oqQVaqc osQ yksx
oqQy&uklh & oqQy dk uk'k djus okyh
fol & fo"k
ihor & ihrh gqbZ
gk¡lh & g¡l iM+h] g¡l nh
lgt & LokHkkfod :i ls] vuk;kl
© NCERT
not to be republished
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