NCERT Textbook - Poem Ramnaresh Tripathi Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Poem Ramnaresh Tripathi Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


140/vkjksg
ijk/hu jgdj viuk lq[k 'kksd u dg ldrk gS
;g vieku txr esa osQoy i'kq gh lg ldrk gSA
         (ifFkd)
jkeujs'k f=kikBh
tUe% lu~~ 1881] dksbjhiqj] f”kyk tkSuiqj (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% feyu] ifFkd] LoIu ([kaM dkO;)
ekulh (iqQVdj dfork laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1962
jke ujs'k f=kikBh Nk;kokn iwoZ dh [kM+h cksyh osQ
egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh
djus osQ ckn Lokè;k; ls fganh] vaxzs”kh] ckaXyk
vkSj mnwZ dk Kku izkIr fd;kA mUgksaus ml le; osQ
dfo;ksa osQ fiz; fo"k; lekt&lqèkkj osQ LFkku ij
jksekafVd izse dks dfork dk fo"k; cuk;kA mudh dforkvksa esa ns'kizse vkSj
oS;fDrd izse nksuksa ekStwn gSa] ysfdu ns'kizse dks gh fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
dfork dkSeqnh (vkB Hkkx) esa mUgksaus fganh] mnwZ] ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh yksdfiz;
dforkvksa dk ladyu fd;k gSA blh osQ ,d [kaM esa xzkexhr ladfyr gSa] ftls
mUgksaus xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwedj ,d=k fd;k FkkA yksd&lkfgR; osQ laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls fganh
esa ;g mudk igyk ekSfyd dk;Z FkkA fganh esa os cky lkfgR; osQ tud ekus tkrs
gSaA mUgksaus dbZ o"kks± rd ckuj uked cky if=kdk dk laiknu fd;k] ftlesa ekSfyd
,oa f'k{kkizn dgkfu;k¡] izsjd izlax vkfn izdkf'kr gksrs FksA dfork osQ vykok
mUgksaus ukVd] miU;kl] vkykspuk] laLej.k vkfn vU; foèkkvksa esa Hkh jpuk,¡ dhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


140/vkjksg
ijk/hu jgdj viuk lq[k 'kksd u dg ldrk gS
;g vieku txr esa osQoy i'kq gh lg ldrk gSA
         (ifFkd)
jkeujs'k f=kikBh
tUe% lu~~ 1881] dksbjhiqj] f”kyk tkSuiqj (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% feyu] ifFkd] LoIu ([kaM dkO;)
ekulh (iqQVdj dfork laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1962
jke ujs'k f=kikBh Nk;kokn iwoZ dh [kM+h cksyh osQ
egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh
djus osQ ckn Lokè;k; ls fganh] vaxzs”kh] ckaXyk
vkSj mnwZ dk Kku izkIr fd;kA mUgksaus ml le; osQ
dfo;ksa osQ fiz; fo"k; lekt&lqèkkj osQ LFkku ij
jksekafVd izse dks dfork dk fo"k; cuk;kA mudh dforkvksa esa ns'kizse vkSj
oS;fDrd izse nksuksa ekStwn gSa] ysfdu ns'kizse dks gh fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
dfork dkSeqnh (vkB Hkkx) esa mUgksaus fganh] mnwZ] ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh yksdfiz;
dforkvksa dk ladyu fd;k gSA blh osQ ,d [kaM esa xzkexhr ladfyr gSa] ftls
mUgksaus xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwedj ,d=k fd;k FkkA yksd&lkfgR; osQ laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls fganh
esa ;g mudk igyk ekSfyd dk;Z FkkA fganh esa os cky lkfgR; osQ tud ekus tkrs
gSaA mUgksaus dbZ o"kks± rd ckuj uked cky if=kdk dk laiknu fd;k] ftlesa ekSfyd
,oa f'k{kkizn dgkfu;k¡] izsjd izlax vkfn izdkf'kr gksrs FksA dfork osQ vykok
mUgksaus ukVd] miU;kl] vkykspuk] laLej.k vkfn vU; foèkkvksa esa Hkh jpuk,¡ dhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/141
izLrqr va'k ifFkd 'kh"kZd [kaM dkO; osQ igys lxZ ls fy;k x;k gSA bl nqfu;k
osQ nq[kksa ls fojDr dkO; uk;d ifFkd izÑfr osQ lkSan;Z ij eqXèk gksdj ogha cluk
pkgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh lkèkqtu }kjk lans'k xzg.k djosQ og ns'klsok dk ozr ysrk gSA
jktk }kjk mls e`R;qnaM feyrk gS] ijarq mldh dhfrZ lekt esa cuh jgrh gSA
lkxj osQ fdukjs [kM+k ifFkd mlosQ lkSan;Z ij eqX/ gSA izo`Qfr osQ bl vn~Hkqr
lkSan;Z dks og e/qj euksgj mTToy isze dgkuh dh rjg ikuk pkgrk gSA izo`Qfr
osQ izfr ifFkd dk ;g izse mls viuh iRuh osQ izse ls nwj ys tkrk gSA
LoPNanrkoknh bl jpuk esa izse] Hkk"kk vkSj dYiuk dk vn~Hkqr la;ksx feyrk gSA
jkeujs'k f=kikBh/141
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


140/vkjksg
ijk/hu jgdj viuk lq[k 'kksd u dg ldrk gS
;g vieku txr esa osQoy i'kq gh lg ldrk gSA
         (ifFkd)
jkeujs'k f=kikBh
tUe% lu~~ 1881] dksbjhiqj] f”kyk tkSuiqj (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% feyu] ifFkd] LoIu ([kaM dkO;)
ekulh (iqQVdj dfork laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1962
jke ujs'k f=kikBh Nk;kokn iwoZ dh [kM+h cksyh osQ
egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh
djus osQ ckn Lokè;k; ls fganh] vaxzs”kh] ckaXyk
vkSj mnwZ dk Kku izkIr fd;kA mUgksaus ml le; osQ
dfo;ksa osQ fiz; fo"k; lekt&lqèkkj osQ LFkku ij
jksekafVd izse dks dfork dk fo"k; cuk;kA mudh dforkvksa esa ns'kizse vkSj
oS;fDrd izse nksuksa ekStwn gSa] ysfdu ns'kizse dks gh fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
dfork dkSeqnh (vkB Hkkx) esa mUgksaus fganh] mnwZ] ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh yksdfiz;
dforkvksa dk ladyu fd;k gSA blh osQ ,d [kaM esa xzkexhr ladfyr gSa] ftls
mUgksaus xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwedj ,d=k fd;k FkkA yksd&lkfgR; osQ laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls fganh
esa ;g mudk igyk ekSfyd dk;Z FkkA fganh esa os cky lkfgR; osQ tud ekus tkrs
gSaA mUgksaus dbZ o"kks± rd ckuj uked cky if=kdk dk laiknu fd;k] ftlesa ekSfyd
,oa f'k{kkizn dgkfu;k¡] izsjd izlax vkfn izdkf'kr gksrs FksA dfork osQ vykok
mUgksaus ukVd] miU;kl] vkykspuk] laLej.k vkfn vU; foèkkvksa esa Hkh jpuk,¡ dhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/141
izLrqr va'k ifFkd 'kh"kZd [kaM dkO; osQ igys lxZ ls fy;k x;k gSA bl nqfu;k
osQ nq[kksa ls fojDr dkO; uk;d ifFkd izÑfr osQ lkSan;Z ij eqXèk gksdj ogha cluk
pkgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh lkèkqtu }kjk lans'k xzg.k djosQ og ns'klsok dk ozr ysrk gSA
jktk }kjk mls e`R;qnaM feyrk gS] ijarq mldh dhfrZ lekt esa cuh jgrh gSA
lkxj osQ fdukjs [kM+k ifFkd mlosQ lkSan;Z ij eqX/ gSA izo`Qfr osQ bl vn~Hkqr
lkSan;Z dks og e/qj euksgj mTToy isze dgkuh dh rjg ikuk pkgrk gSA izo`Qfr
osQ izfr ifFkd dk ;g izse mls viuh iRuh osQ izse ls nwj ys tkrk gSA
LoPNanrkoknh bl jpuk esa izse] Hkk"kk vkSj dYiuk dk vn~Hkqr la;ksx feyrk gSA
jkeujs'k f=kikBh/141
© NCERT
not to be republished
142/vkjksg
ifFkd
izfr{k.k uwru os'k cukdj jax&fcjax fujkykA
jfo osQ lEeq[k fFkjd jgh gS uHk esa okfjn&ekykA
uhps uhy leqnz euksgj mQij uhy xxu gSA
?ku ij cSB] chp esa fcp:¡ ;gh pkgrk eu gSAA
jRukdj xtZu djrk gS] ey;kfuy cgrk gSA
gjne ;g gkSlyk ân; esa fiz;s! Hkjk jgrk gSA
bl fo'kky] foLr`r] efgeke; jRukdj osQ ?kj osQµ
dksus&dksus esa ygjksa ij cSB fiQ:¡ th Hkj osQ AA
fudy jgk gS tyfuf/&ry ij fnudj&fcac v/wjkA
deyk  osQ  dapu&eafnj  dk  ekuks  dkar  o¡QxwjkA
ykus dks fut iq.;&Hkwfe ij y{eh dh vlokjhA
jRukdj us fufeZr dj nh Lo.kZ&lM+d vfr I;kjhAA
fuHkZ;] n`<+] xaHkhj Hkko ls xjt jgk lkxj gSA
ygjksa ij ygjksa dk vkuk lqanj] vfr lqanj gSA
dgks ;gk¡ ls c<+dj lq[k D;k ik ldrk gS izk.kh\
vuqHko djks ân; ls] gs vuqjkx&Hkjh dY;k.khAA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


140/vkjksg
ijk/hu jgdj viuk lq[k 'kksd u dg ldrk gS
;g vieku txr esa osQoy i'kq gh lg ldrk gSA
         (ifFkd)
jkeujs'k f=kikBh
tUe% lu~~ 1881] dksbjhiqj] f”kyk tkSuiqj (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% feyu] ifFkd] LoIu ([kaM dkO;)
ekulh (iqQVdj dfork laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1962
jke ujs'k f=kikBh Nk;kokn iwoZ dh [kM+h cksyh osQ
egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh
djus osQ ckn Lokè;k; ls fganh] vaxzs”kh] ckaXyk
vkSj mnwZ dk Kku izkIr fd;kA mUgksaus ml le; osQ
dfo;ksa osQ fiz; fo"k; lekt&lqèkkj osQ LFkku ij
jksekafVd izse dks dfork dk fo"k; cuk;kA mudh dforkvksa esa ns'kizse vkSj
oS;fDrd izse nksuksa ekStwn gSa] ysfdu ns'kizse dks gh fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
dfork dkSeqnh (vkB Hkkx) esa mUgksaus fganh] mnwZ] ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh yksdfiz;
dforkvksa dk ladyu fd;k gSA blh osQ ,d [kaM esa xzkexhr ladfyr gSa] ftls
mUgksaus xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwedj ,d=k fd;k FkkA yksd&lkfgR; osQ laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls fganh
esa ;g mudk igyk ekSfyd dk;Z FkkA fganh esa os cky lkfgR; osQ tud ekus tkrs
gSaA mUgksaus dbZ o"kks± rd ckuj uked cky if=kdk dk laiknu fd;k] ftlesa ekSfyd
,oa f'k{kkizn dgkfu;k¡] izsjd izlax vkfn izdkf'kr gksrs FksA dfork osQ vykok
mUgksaus ukVd] miU;kl] vkykspuk] laLej.k vkfn vU; foèkkvksa esa Hkh jpuk,¡ dhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/141
izLrqr va'k ifFkd 'kh"kZd [kaM dkO; osQ igys lxZ ls fy;k x;k gSA bl nqfu;k
osQ nq[kksa ls fojDr dkO; uk;d ifFkd izÑfr osQ lkSan;Z ij eqXèk gksdj ogha cluk
pkgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh lkèkqtu }kjk lans'k xzg.k djosQ og ns'klsok dk ozr ysrk gSA
jktk }kjk mls e`R;qnaM feyrk gS] ijarq mldh dhfrZ lekt esa cuh jgrh gSA
lkxj osQ fdukjs [kM+k ifFkd mlosQ lkSan;Z ij eqX/ gSA izo`Qfr osQ bl vn~Hkqr
lkSan;Z dks og e/qj euksgj mTToy isze dgkuh dh rjg ikuk pkgrk gSA izo`Qfr
osQ izfr ifFkd dk ;g izse mls viuh iRuh osQ izse ls nwj ys tkrk gSA
LoPNanrkoknh bl jpuk esa izse] Hkk"kk vkSj dYiuk dk vn~Hkqr la;ksx feyrk gSA
jkeujs'k f=kikBh/141
© NCERT
not to be republished
142/vkjksg
ifFkd
izfr{k.k uwru os'k cukdj jax&fcjax fujkykA
jfo osQ lEeq[k fFkjd jgh gS uHk esa okfjn&ekykA
uhps uhy leqnz euksgj mQij uhy xxu gSA
?ku ij cSB] chp esa fcp:¡ ;gh pkgrk eu gSAA
jRukdj xtZu djrk gS] ey;kfuy cgrk gSA
gjne ;g gkSlyk ân; esa fiz;s! Hkjk jgrk gSA
bl fo'kky] foLr`r] efgeke; jRukdj osQ ?kj osQµ
dksus&dksus esa ygjksa ij cSB fiQ:¡ th Hkj osQ AA
fudy jgk gS tyfuf/&ry ij fnudj&fcac v/wjkA
deyk  osQ  dapu&eafnj  dk  ekuks  dkar  o¡QxwjkA
ykus dks fut iq.;&Hkwfe ij y{eh dh vlokjhA
jRukdj us fufeZr dj nh Lo.kZ&lM+d vfr I;kjhAA
fuHkZ;] n`<+] xaHkhj Hkko ls xjt jgk lkxj gSA
ygjksa ij ygjksa dk vkuk lqanj] vfr lqanj gSA
dgks ;gk¡ ls c<+dj lq[k D;k ik ldrk gS izk.kh\
vuqHko djks ân; ls] gs vuqjkx&Hkjh dY;k.khAA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/143
tc xaHkhj re v¼Z&fu'kk esa tx dks <d ysrk gSA
varfj{k dh Nr ij rkjksa dks fNVdk nsrk gSA
lfLer&onu txr dk Lokeh e`nq xfr ls vkrk gSA
rV ij [kM+k xxu&xaxk osQ e/qj xhr xkrk gSAA
mlls gh foeqX/ gks uHk esa panz fog¡l nsrk gSA
o`{k fofo/ iÙkksa&iq"iksa ls ru dks lt ysrk gSA
i{kh g"kZ l¡Hkky u ldrs eqX/ pgd mBrs gSaA
iwQy lk¡l ysdj lq[k dh lkuan egd mBrs gSaµ
ou] miou] fxfj] lkuq] oaqQt esa es?k cjl iM+rs gSaA
esjk vkRe&izy; gksrk gS] u;u uhj >M+rs gSaA
i<+ks ygj] rV] r`.k] r#] fxfj] uHk] fdju] tyn ij I;kjhA
fy[kh gqbZ ;g e/qj dgkuh fo'o&foeksgugkjhAA
dSlh e/qj euksgj mTToy gS ;g izse&dgkuhA
th esa gS v{kj cu blosQ cuw¡ fo'o dh ckuhA
fLFkj] ifo=k] vkuan&izokfgr] lnk 'kkafr lq[kdj gSA
vgk! izse dk jkT; ije lqanj] vfr'k; lqanj gSAA
vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- ifFkd dk eu dgk¡ fopjuk pkgrk gS\
2- lw;kZsn; o.kZu osQ fy, fdl rjg osQ fcacksa dk iz;ksx gqvk gS\
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


140/vkjksg
ijk/hu jgdj viuk lq[k 'kksd u dg ldrk gS
;g vieku txr esa osQoy i'kq gh lg ldrk gSA
         (ifFkd)
jkeujs'k f=kikBh
tUe% lu~~ 1881] dksbjhiqj] f”kyk tkSuiqj (m-iz)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% feyu] ifFkd] LoIu ([kaM dkO;)
ekulh (iqQVdj dfork laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1962
jke ujs'k f=kikBh Nk;kokn iwoZ dh [kM+h cksyh osQ
egRoiw.kZ dfo ekus tkrs gSaA vkjafHkd f'k{kk iwjh
djus osQ ckn Lokè;k; ls fganh] vaxzs”kh] ckaXyk
vkSj mnwZ dk Kku izkIr fd;kA mUgksaus ml le; osQ
dfo;ksa osQ fiz; fo"k; lekt&lqèkkj osQ LFkku ij
jksekafVd izse dks dfork dk fo"k; cuk;kA mudh dforkvksa esa ns'kizse vkSj
oS;fDrd izse nksuksa ekStwn gSa] ysfdu ns'kizse dks gh fo'ks"k LFkku fn;k x;k gSA
dfork dkSeqnh (vkB Hkkx) esa mUgksaus fganh] mnwZ] ckaXyk vkSj laLÑr dh yksdfiz;
dforkvksa dk ladyu fd;k gSA blh osQ ,d [kaM esa xzkexhr ladfyr gSa] ftls
mUgksaus xk¡o&xk¡o ?kwedj ,d=k fd;k FkkA yksd&lkfgR; osQ laj{k.k dh n`f"V ls fganh
esa ;g mudk igyk ekSfyd dk;Z FkkA fganh esa os cky lkfgR; osQ tud ekus tkrs
gSaA mUgksaus dbZ o"kks± rd ckuj uked cky if=kdk dk laiknu fd;k] ftlesa ekSfyd
,oa f'k{kkizn dgkfu;k¡] izsjd izlax vkfn izdkf'kr gksrs FksA dfork osQ vykok
mUgksaus ukVd] miU;kl] vkykspuk] laLej.k vkfn vU; foèkkvksa esa Hkh jpuk,¡ dhaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/141
izLrqr va'k ifFkd 'kh"kZd [kaM dkO; osQ igys lxZ ls fy;k x;k gSA bl nqfu;k
osQ nq[kksa ls fojDr dkO; uk;d ifFkd izÑfr osQ lkSan;Z ij eqXèk gksdj ogha cluk
pkgrk gSA ;gk¡ fdlh lkèkqtu }kjk lans'k xzg.k djosQ og ns'klsok dk ozr ysrk gSA
jktk }kjk mls e`R;qnaM feyrk gS] ijarq mldh dhfrZ lekt esa cuh jgrh gSA
lkxj osQ fdukjs [kM+k ifFkd mlosQ lkSan;Z ij eqX/ gSA izo`Qfr osQ bl vn~Hkqr
lkSan;Z dks og e/qj euksgj mTToy isze dgkuh dh rjg ikuk pkgrk gSA izo`Qfr
osQ izfr ifFkd dk ;g izse mls viuh iRuh osQ izse ls nwj ys tkrk gSA
LoPNanrkoknh bl jpuk esa izse] Hkk"kk vkSj dYiuk dk vn~Hkqr la;ksx feyrk gSA
jkeujs'k f=kikBh/141
© NCERT
not to be republished
142/vkjksg
ifFkd
izfr{k.k uwru os'k cukdj jax&fcjax fujkykA
jfo osQ lEeq[k fFkjd jgh gS uHk esa okfjn&ekykA
uhps uhy leqnz euksgj mQij uhy xxu gSA
?ku ij cSB] chp esa fcp:¡ ;gh pkgrk eu gSAA
jRukdj xtZu djrk gS] ey;kfuy cgrk gSA
gjne ;g gkSlyk ân; esa fiz;s! Hkjk jgrk gSA
bl fo'kky] foLr`r] efgeke; jRukdj osQ ?kj osQµ
dksus&dksus esa ygjksa ij cSB fiQ:¡ th Hkj osQ AA
fudy jgk gS tyfuf/&ry ij fnudj&fcac v/wjkA
deyk  osQ  dapu&eafnj  dk  ekuks  dkar  o¡QxwjkA
ykus dks fut iq.;&Hkwfe ij y{eh dh vlokjhA
jRukdj us fufeZr dj nh Lo.kZ&lM+d vfr I;kjhAA
fuHkZ;] n`<+] xaHkhj Hkko ls xjt jgk lkxj gSA
ygjksa ij ygjksa dk vkuk lqanj] vfr lqanj gSA
dgks ;gk¡ ls c<+dj lq[k D;k ik ldrk gS izk.kh\
vuqHko djks ân; ls] gs vuqjkx&Hkjh dY;k.khAA
© NCERT
not to be republished
ifFkd/143
tc xaHkhj re v¼Z&fu'kk esa tx dks <d ysrk gSA
varfj{k dh Nr ij rkjksa dks fNVdk nsrk gSA
lfLer&onu txr dk Lokeh e`nq xfr ls vkrk gSA
rV ij [kM+k xxu&xaxk osQ e/qj xhr xkrk gSAA
mlls gh foeqX/ gks uHk esa panz fog¡l nsrk gSA
o`{k fofo/ iÙkksa&iq"iksa ls ru dks lt ysrk gSA
i{kh g"kZ l¡Hkky u ldrs eqX/ pgd mBrs gSaA
iwQy lk¡l ysdj lq[k dh lkuan egd mBrs gSaµ
ou] miou] fxfj] lkuq] oaqQt esa es?k cjl iM+rs gSaA
esjk vkRe&izy; gksrk gS] u;u uhj >M+rs gSaA
i<+ks ygj] rV] r`.k] r#] fxfj] uHk] fdju] tyn ij I;kjhA
fy[kh gqbZ ;g e/qj dgkuh fo'o&foeksgugkjhAA
dSlh e/qj euksgj mTToy gS ;g izse&dgkuhA
th esa gS v{kj cu blosQ cuw¡ fo'o dh ckuhA
fLFkj] ifo=k] vkuan&izokfgr] lnk 'kkafr lq[kdj gSA
vgk! izse dk jkT; ije lqanj] vfr'k; lqanj gSAA
vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- ifFkd dk eu dgk¡ fopjuk pkgrk gS\
2- lw;kZsn; o.kZu osQ fy, fdl rjg osQ fcacksa dk iz;ksx gqvk gS\
© NCERT
not to be republished
144/vkjksg
3- vk'k; Li"V djsa µ
(d)  lfLer&onu txr dk Lokeh e`nq xfr ls vkrk gSA
  rV ij [kM+k xxu&xaxk osQ e/qj xhr xkrk gSAA
([k)  dSlh e/qj euksgj mTToy gS ;g izse&dgkuhA
  th esa gS v{kj cu blds cuw¡ fo'o dh ckuhA
4- dfork esa dbZ LFkkuksa ij izo`Qfr dks euq"; osQ :i esa ns[kk x;k gSA ,sls mnkgj.kksa dk Hkko
Li"V djrs gq, fy[ksaA
dfork osQ vkl&ikl
1- leqnz dks ns[kdj vkiosQ eu esa D;k Hkko mBrs gSa\ yxHkx 200 'kCnksa esa fy[ksaA
2- isze lR; gS] lqanj gS&izse ds fofHk :iksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, bl fo"k; ij ifjppkZ djsaA
3- orZeku le; esa ge izo`Qfr ls nwj gksrs tk jgs gSaµ bl ij ppkZ djsa vkSj fy[ksa fd izÑfr
ls tqM+s jgus osQ fy, D;k dj ldrs gaSA
4- lkxj laca/h nl dforkvksa dk ladyu djsa vkSj iksLVj cuk,¡A
'kCn&Nfo
okfjn&ekyk & fxjrh gqbZ o"kkZ dh yfM+;k¡
jRukdj & lkxj
ey;kfuy & ey; ioZr (tgk¡ panu ou gS) ls vkus okyh 'khry] lqaxf/r
gok
d¡xwjk & xqacn] cq”kZ
vlokjh & lokjh
varfj{k & vkdk'k] /jrh vkSj vkdk'k ds chp dh [kqyh txg
lkuq & lery Hkwfe
vkRe&izy; & Lo;a dks Hkwy tkuk
fo'o&foeksgugkjh & lalkj dks eqX/ djus okyh
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