NCERT Textbook - Premchand Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Created by: Anant Ahuja

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Premchand Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


mfpr izdkj dh f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS izKk dks
tkx`r djuk rFkk lefUor thou dk iks"k.k
djuk vkSj osQoy ,slh gh f'k{kk ,d
uohu laLÑfr rFkk 'kkafre; fo'o dh
LFkkiuk dj losQxhA
ts- Ñ".kewfrZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


mfpr izdkj dh f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS izKk dks
tkx`r djuk rFkk lefUor thou dk iks"k.k
djuk vkSj osQoy ,slh gh f'k{kk ,d
uohu laLÑfr rFkk 'kkafre; fo'o dh
LFkkiuk dj losQxhA
ts- Ñ".kewfrZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
2/vkjksg
dksbZ Hkh iqLrd oqQN 'kCnksa dk la?kkr gSA 'kCnksa osQ lewg gh rks
iqLrd dgykrs gSaA ijarq os 'kCn ltkdj bl izdkj j[ks x, gksrs
gSa fd muls ge ,d vFkZ ikrs jgrs gSaA (lkfgR; dk O;kdj.k]
g”kkjh izlkn f}osnh)
dykdkj gksus osQ fy, ”k:jh gS fd og ph”kksa dks dl dj
idM+s vkSj vuqHko dks Le`fr esa] Le`fr dks vfHkO;fDr esa] rRo dks
:i esa <kysA
(dyk dk iz;kstu] vULVZ fiQ'kj)
dgkuh 'kk;n le; dh dyk gS_ le; osQ lkFk dgkuh vusd
izdkj dh dyk,¡ fn[kkrh gSA dHkh o"kks± dks lesVdj ,d {k.k esa
ck¡/ ysrh gS_ dHkh {k.k dks [kksydj o"kks± esa iSQyk nsrh gS_ dHkh
le; osQ nk;js dks rksM+rh gS rks dHkh VqdM+ksa dks tksM+dj ,d
nk;jk cukrh gSA
(dgkuh vkSj iSaQVslh] ukeoj ¯lg)
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


mfpr izdkj dh f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS izKk dks
tkx`r djuk rFkk lefUor thou dk iks"k.k
djuk vkSj osQoy ,slh gh f'k{kk ,d
uohu laLÑfr rFkk 'kkafre; fo'o dh
LFkkiuk dj losQxhA
ts- Ñ".kewfrZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
2/vkjksg
dksbZ Hkh iqLrd oqQN 'kCnksa dk la?kkr gSA 'kCnksa osQ lewg gh rks
iqLrd dgykrs gSaA ijarq os 'kCn ltkdj bl izdkj j[ks x, gksrs
gSa fd muls ge ,d vFkZ ikrs jgrs gSaA (lkfgR; dk O;kdj.k]
g”kkjh izlkn f}osnh)
dykdkj gksus osQ fy, ”k:jh gS fd og ph”kksa dks dl dj
idM+s vkSj vuqHko dks Le`fr esa] Le`fr dks vfHkO;fDr esa] rRo dks
:i esa <kysA
(dyk dk iz;kstu] vULVZ fiQ'kj)
dgkuh 'kk;n le; dh dyk gS_ le; osQ lkFk dgkuh vusd
izdkj dh dyk,¡ fn[kkrh gSA dHkh o"kks± dks lesVdj ,d {k.k esa
ck¡/ ysrh gS_ dHkh {k.k dks [kksydj o"kks± esa iSQyk nsrh gS_ dHkh
le; osQ nk;js dks rksM+rh gS rks dHkh VqdM+ksa dks tksM+dj ,d
nk;jk cukrh gSA
(dgkuh vkSj iSaQVslh] ukeoj ¯lg)
© NCERT
not to be republished
çsepan/3
lkfgR; og tknw dh ydM+h gS tks i'kqvksa esa] b±V&iRFkjksa esa]
isM+&ikSèkksa esa Hkh fo'o dh vkRek dk n'kZu djk nsrh gSA
(thou esa lkfgR; dk LFkku)
iszepan
ewy uke% /uir jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1880] yegh xk¡o (m-iz-)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lsoklnu] izsekJe] jaxHkwfe]
fueZyk] dk;kdYi] xcu] deZHkwfe] xksnku
(miU;kl)_ lks”ks oru] ekuljksojµvkB [kaM
esa] xqIr /u (dgkuh laxzg)_ dcZyk] laxzke]
izse dh nsoh (ukVd)_ oqQN fopkj] fofo/
izlax (fuca/&laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1936
izsepan fganh dFkk&lkfgR; osQ f'k[kj iq#"k ekus tkrs gSaA dFkk&lkfgR; osQ bl
f'k[kj iq#"k dk cpiu vHkkoksa esa chrkA LowQyh f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn
ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa osQ dkj.k tSls&rSls ch- ,- rd dh i<+kbZ dhA vaxzs”kh esa
,e-,- djuk pkgrs Fks ysfdu thou;kiu osQ fy, ukSdjh djuh iM+hA ljdkjh
ukSdjh feyh Hkh ysfdu egkRek xkaèkh osQ vlg;ksx vkanksyu esa lfØ; gksus osQ
dkj.k R;kxi=k nsuk iM+kA jk"Vªh; vkanksyu ls tqM+us osQ ckotwn ys[ku dk;Z
lqpkjQ :i ls pyrk jgkA iRuh f'kojkuh nsoh osQ lkFk vaxzs”kksa osQ f[kykI
+
kQ
vkanksyuksa esa fgLlk ysrs jgsA muds thou dk jktuhfrd la?k"kZ mudh jpukvksa esa
lkekftd la?k"kZ cudj lkeus vk;k ftlesa thou dk ;FkkFkZ vkSj vkn'kZ nksuksa FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


mfpr izdkj dh f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS izKk dks
tkx`r djuk rFkk lefUor thou dk iks"k.k
djuk vkSj osQoy ,slh gh f'k{kk ,d
uohu laLÑfr rFkk 'kkafre; fo'o dh
LFkkiuk dj losQxhA
ts- Ñ".kewfrZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
2/vkjksg
dksbZ Hkh iqLrd oqQN 'kCnksa dk la?kkr gSA 'kCnksa osQ lewg gh rks
iqLrd dgykrs gSaA ijarq os 'kCn ltkdj bl izdkj j[ks x, gksrs
gSa fd muls ge ,d vFkZ ikrs jgrs gSaA (lkfgR; dk O;kdj.k]
g”kkjh izlkn f}osnh)
dykdkj gksus osQ fy, ”k:jh gS fd og ph”kksa dks dl dj
idM+s vkSj vuqHko dks Le`fr esa] Le`fr dks vfHkO;fDr esa] rRo dks
:i esa <kysA
(dyk dk iz;kstu] vULVZ fiQ'kj)
dgkuh 'kk;n le; dh dyk gS_ le; osQ lkFk dgkuh vusd
izdkj dh dyk,¡ fn[kkrh gSA dHkh o"kks± dks lesVdj ,d {k.k esa
ck¡/ ysrh gS_ dHkh {k.k dks [kksydj o"kks± esa iSQyk nsrh gS_ dHkh
le; osQ nk;js dks rksM+rh gS rks dHkh VqdM+ksa dks tksM+dj ,d
nk;jk cukrh gSA
(dgkuh vkSj iSaQVslh] ukeoj ¯lg)
© NCERT
not to be republished
çsepan/3
lkfgR; og tknw dh ydM+h gS tks i'kqvksa esa] b±V&iRFkjksa esa]
isM+&ikSèkksa esa Hkh fo'o dh vkRek dk n'kZu djk nsrh gSA
(thou esa lkfgR; dk LFkku)
iszepan
ewy uke% /uir jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1880] yegh xk¡o (m-iz-)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lsoklnu] izsekJe] jaxHkwfe]
fueZyk] dk;kdYi] xcu] deZHkwfe] xksnku
(miU;kl)_ lks”ks oru] ekuljksojµvkB [kaM
esa] xqIr /u (dgkuh laxzg)_ dcZyk] laxzke]
izse dh nsoh (ukVd)_ oqQN fopkj] fofo/
izlax (fuca/&laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1936
izsepan fganh dFkk&lkfgR; osQ f'k[kj iq#"k ekus tkrs gSaA dFkk&lkfgR; osQ bl
f'k[kj iq#"k dk cpiu vHkkoksa esa chrkA LowQyh f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn
ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa osQ dkj.k tSls&rSls ch- ,- rd dh i<+kbZ dhA vaxzs”kh esa
,e-,- djuk pkgrs Fks ysfdu thou;kiu osQ fy, ukSdjh djuh iM+hA ljdkjh
ukSdjh feyh Hkh ysfdu egkRek xkaèkh osQ vlg;ksx vkanksyu esa lfØ; gksus osQ
dkj.k R;kxi=k nsuk iM+kA jk"Vªh; vkanksyu ls tqM+us osQ ckotwn ys[ku dk;Z
lqpkjQ :i ls pyrk jgkA iRuh f'kojkuh nsoh osQ lkFk vaxzs”kksa osQ f[kykI
+
kQ
vkanksyuksa esa fgLlk ysrs jgsA muds thou dk jktuhfrd la?k"kZ mudh jpukvksa esa
lkekftd la?k"kZ cudj lkeus vk;k ftlesa thou dk ;FkkFkZ vkSj vkn'kZ nksuksa FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
4/vkjksg
fganh lkfgR; osQ bfrgkl esa dgkuh vkSj miU;kl dh fo/k osQ fodkl dk
dky&foHkktu izsepan dks gh osaQnz esa j[kdj fd;k tkrk jgk gS (izsepan&iwoZ ;qx]
izsepan ;qx] izsepanksÙkj ;qx)A ;g izsepan osQ fufoZokn egÙo dk ,d Li"V izek.k
gSA oLrqr% izsepan gh igys jpukdkj gSa ftUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl dh foèkk
dks dYiuk vkSj #ekfu;r osQ èkq¡èkyosQ ls fudkydj ;FkkFkZ dh Bksl ”kehu ij
izfrf"Br fd;kA ;FkkFkZ dh ”kehu ls tqM+dj dgkuh fdLlkxksbZ rd lhfer u
jgdj i<+us&i<+kus dh ijaijk ls Hkh tqM+hA blesa mudh fganqLrkuh (fganh&mnwZ
fefJr) Hkk"kk dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA muosQ ;gk¡ fganqLrkuh Hkk"kk vius iwjs
BkV&ckV vkSj tkrh; Lo:i osQ lkFk vkbZ gSA
mudk vkjafHkd dFkk&lkfgR; dYiuk] la;ksx vkSj #ekfu;r osQ rkus&ckus
ls cquk x;k gSA ysfdu ,d dFkkdkj osQ :i esa mUgksaus yxkrkj fodkl fd;k
vkSj iap ijes'oj tSlh dgkuh rFkk lsoklnu tSls miU;kl osQ lkFk
lkekftd thou dks dgkuh dk vk/kj cukus okyh ;FkkFkZoknh dyk osQ vxznwr
osQ :i esa lkeus vk,A ;FkkFkZokn osQ Hkhrj Hkh vkn'kksZUeq[k ;FkkFkZokn ls
vkykspukRed ;FkkFkZokn rd dh fodkl&;k=kk izsepan us dhA vkn'kksZUeq[k
;FkkFkZokn Lo;a mUgha dh x<+h gqbZ laKk gSA ;g dgkuh vkSj miU;kl osQ {ks=k
esa fd, x, muosQ ,sls jpukRed iz;klksa ij ykxw gksrh gS tks dVq ;FkkFkZ dk
fp=k.k djrs gq, Hkh leL;kvksa vkSj varfoZjks/ksa dks varr% ,d vkn'kZoknh vkSj
euksokafNr lek/ku rd igq¡pk nsrh gSA lsoklnu] izsekJe vkfn miU;kl vkSj
iap ijes'oj] cM+s ?kj dh csVh] ued dk nkjksxk vkfn dgkfu;k¡ ,slh gh
gSaA ckn dh mudh jpukvksa esa ;g vkn'kZoknh izo`fÙk de gksrh xbZ gS vkSj
èkhjs&èkhjs os ,slh fLFkfr rd igq¡prs gSa tgk¡ dBksj okLrfodrk dks izLrqr djus
esa os fdlh rjg dk le>kSrk ugha djrsA xksnku miU;kl vkSj iwl dh jkr]
dI
+
kQu vkfn dgkfu;k¡ blosQ laqnj mnkgj.k gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


mfpr izdkj dh f'k{kk dk vFkZ gS izKk dks
tkx`r djuk rFkk lefUor thou dk iks"k.k
djuk vkSj osQoy ,slh gh f'k{kk ,d
uohu laLÑfr rFkk 'kkafre; fo'o dh
LFkkiuk dj losQxhA
ts- Ñ".kewfrZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
2/vkjksg
dksbZ Hkh iqLrd oqQN 'kCnksa dk la?kkr gSA 'kCnksa osQ lewg gh rks
iqLrd dgykrs gSaA ijarq os 'kCn ltkdj bl izdkj j[ks x, gksrs
gSa fd muls ge ,d vFkZ ikrs jgrs gSaA (lkfgR; dk O;kdj.k]
g”kkjh izlkn f}osnh)
dykdkj gksus osQ fy, ”k:jh gS fd og ph”kksa dks dl dj
idM+s vkSj vuqHko dks Le`fr esa] Le`fr dks vfHkO;fDr esa] rRo dks
:i esa <kysA
(dyk dk iz;kstu] vULVZ fiQ'kj)
dgkuh 'kk;n le; dh dyk gS_ le; osQ lkFk dgkuh vusd
izdkj dh dyk,¡ fn[kkrh gSA dHkh o"kks± dks lesVdj ,d {k.k esa
ck¡/ ysrh gS_ dHkh {k.k dks [kksydj o"kks± esa iSQyk nsrh gS_ dHkh
le; osQ nk;js dks rksM+rh gS rks dHkh VqdM+ksa dks tksM+dj ,d
nk;jk cukrh gSA
(dgkuh vkSj iSaQVslh] ukeoj ¯lg)
© NCERT
not to be republished
çsepan/3
lkfgR; og tknw dh ydM+h gS tks i'kqvksa esa] b±V&iRFkjksa esa]
isM+&ikSèkksa esa Hkh fo'o dh vkRek dk n'kZu djk nsrh gSA
(thou esa lkfgR; dk LFkku)
iszepan
ewy uke% /uir jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1880] yegh xk¡o (m-iz-)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% lsoklnu] izsekJe] jaxHkwfe]
fueZyk] dk;kdYi] xcu] deZHkwfe] xksnku
(miU;kl)_ lks”ks oru] ekuljksojµvkB [kaM
esa] xqIr /u (dgkuh laxzg)_ dcZyk] laxzke]
izse dh nsoh (ukVd)_ oqQN fopkj] fofo/
izlax (fuca/&laxzg)
e`R;q% lu~~ 1936
izsepan fganh dFkk&lkfgR; osQ f'k[kj iq#"k ekus tkrs gSaA dFkk&lkfgR; osQ bl
f'k[kj iq#"k dk cpiu vHkkoksa esa chrkA LowQyh f'k{kk iwjh djus osQ ckn
ikfjokfjd leL;kvksa osQ dkj.k tSls&rSls ch- ,- rd dh i<+kbZ dhA vaxzs”kh esa
,e-,- djuk pkgrs Fks ysfdu thou;kiu osQ fy, ukSdjh djuh iM+hA ljdkjh
ukSdjh feyh Hkh ysfdu egkRek xkaèkh osQ vlg;ksx vkanksyu esa lfØ; gksus osQ
dkj.k R;kxi=k nsuk iM+kA jk"Vªh; vkanksyu ls tqM+us osQ ckotwn ys[ku dk;Z
lqpkjQ :i ls pyrk jgkA iRuh f'kojkuh nsoh osQ lkFk vaxzs”kksa osQ f[kykI
+
kQ
vkanksyuksa esa fgLlk ysrs jgsA muds thou dk jktuhfrd la?k"kZ mudh jpukvksa esa
lkekftd la?k"kZ cudj lkeus vk;k ftlesa thou dk ;FkkFkZ vkSj vkn'kZ nksuksa FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
4/vkjksg
fganh lkfgR; osQ bfrgkl esa dgkuh vkSj miU;kl dh fo/k osQ fodkl dk
dky&foHkktu izsepan dks gh osaQnz esa j[kdj fd;k tkrk jgk gS (izsepan&iwoZ ;qx]
izsepan ;qx] izsepanksÙkj ;qx)A ;g izsepan osQ fufoZokn egÙo dk ,d Li"V izek.k
gSA oLrqr% izsepan gh igys jpukdkj gSa ftUgksaus dgkuh vkSj miU;kl dh foèkk
dks dYiuk vkSj #ekfu;r osQ èkq¡èkyosQ ls fudkydj ;FkkFkZ dh Bksl ”kehu ij
izfrf"Br fd;kA ;FkkFkZ dh ”kehu ls tqM+dj dgkuh fdLlkxksbZ rd lhfer u
jgdj i<+us&i<+kus dh ijaijk ls Hkh tqM+hA blesa mudh fganqLrkuh (fganh&mnwZ
fefJr) Hkk"kk dk fo'ks"k ;ksxnku jgkA muosQ ;gk¡ fganqLrkuh Hkk"kk vius iwjs
BkV&ckV vkSj tkrh; Lo:i osQ lkFk vkbZ gSA
mudk vkjafHkd dFkk&lkfgR; dYiuk] la;ksx vkSj #ekfu;r osQ rkus&ckus
ls cquk x;k gSA ysfdu ,d dFkkdkj osQ :i esa mUgksaus yxkrkj fodkl fd;k
vkSj iap ijes'oj tSlh dgkuh rFkk lsoklnu tSls miU;kl osQ lkFk
lkekftd thou dks dgkuh dk vk/kj cukus okyh ;FkkFkZoknh dyk osQ vxznwr
osQ :i esa lkeus vk,A ;FkkFkZokn osQ Hkhrj Hkh vkn'kksZUeq[k ;FkkFkZokn ls
vkykspukRed ;FkkFkZokn rd dh fodkl&;k=kk izsepan us dhA vkn'kksZUeq[k
;FkkFkZokn Lo;a mUgha dh x<+h gqbZ laKk gSA ;g dgkuh vkSj miU;kl osQ {ks=k
esa fd, x, muosQ ,sls jpukRed iz;klksa ij ykxw gksrh gS tks dVq ;FkkFkZ dk
fp=k.k djrs gq, Hkh leL;kvksa vkSj varfoZjks/ksa dks varr% ,d vkn'kZoknh vkSj
euksokafNr lek/ku rd igq¡pk nsrh gSA lsoklnu] izsekJe vkfn miU;kl vkSj
iap ijes'oj] cM+s ?kj dh csVh] ued dk nkjksxk vkfn dgkfu;k¡ ,slh gh
gSaA ckn dh mudh jpukvksa esa ;g vkn'kZoknh izo`fÙk de gksrh xbZ gS vkSj
èkhjs&èkhjs os ,slh fLFkfr rd igq¡prs gSa tgk¡ dBksj okLrfodrk dks izLrqr djus
esa os fdlh rjg dk le>kSrk ugha djrsA xksnku miU;kl vkSj iwl dh jkr]
dI
+
kQu vkfn dgkfu;k¡ blosQ laqnj mnkgj.k gSaA
© NCERT
not to be republished
çsepan/5 izsepan/5
;gk¡ nh xbZ dgkuh ued dk nkjksxk (izFke izdk'ku 1914 bZ-) izsepan dh
cgqpfpZr dgkuh gS ftls vkn'kksZUeq[k ;FkkFkZokn osQ ,d eqdEey mnkgj.k osQ
:i esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA dgkuh esa gh vk, gq, ,d eqgkojs dks ysa rks ;g èku
osQ mQij /eZ dh thr dh dgkuh gSA /u vkSj /eZ dks ge Øe'k% ln~o`fÙk vkSj
vln~o`fÙk] cqjkbZ vkSj vPNkbZ] vlR; vkSj lR; bR;kfn Hkh dg ldrs gSaA dgkuh
esa budk izfrfuf/Ro Øe'k% iafMr vyksihnhu vkSj eqa'kh oa'kh/j uked ik=kksa us
fd;k gSA bZekunkj deZ;ksxh eqa'kh oa'kh/j dks [kjhnus esa vliQy jgus osQ ckn
iafMr vyksihnhu vius /u dh efgek dk mi;ksx dj mUgsa ukSdjh ls eqvÙky
djk nsrs gSa] ysfdu var%lR; osQ vkxs mudk flj >qd tkrk gSA os ljdkjh
egdes ls c[kkZLr oa'kh/j dks cgqr mQ¡ps osru vkSj HkÙks osQ lkFk viuh lkjh
tk;nkn dk LFkk;h eSustj fu;qDr djrs gSa vkSj xgjs vijk/&cks/ ls Hkjh gqbZ
ok.kh esa fuosnu djrs gSa] ijekRek ls ;gh izkFkZuk gS fd og vkidks lnSo
ogh unh osQ fdukjsokyk cseqjkSor] míaM] ¯drq /eZfu"B nkjksxk cuk, j[ksA
dgkuh osQ bl vafre izlax ls igys rd dh leLr ?kVuk,¡ iz'kklfud vkSj
U;kf;d O;oLFkk eas O;kIr Hkz"Vkpkj rFkk ml Hkz"Vkpkj dh O;kid lkekftd
Lohdk;Zrk dks vR;ar lkgfld rjhosQ ls gekjs lkeus mtkxj djrh gSaA bZekunkj
O;fDr osQ vfHkeU;q osQ leku fugRFks vkSj vosQys iM+rs tkus dh ;FkkFkZ rLkohj
bl dgkuh dh cgqr cM+h [kwch gSA ¯drq izsepan bl lans'k ij dgkuh dks [kRe
ugha djuk pkgrs D;ksafd ml nkSj esa os ekurs Fks fd ,slk ;FkkFkZokn gedks
fujk'kkoknh cuk nsrk gS] ekuo&pfj=k ij ls gekjk fo'okl mB tkrk gS]
gedks pkjksa rjI
+
kQ cqjkbZ&gh&cqjkbZ u”kj vkus yxrh gS (^miU;kl* 'kh"kZd
fuca/ ls) blhfy, dgkuh dk var lR; dh thr osQ lkFk gksrk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
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