NCERT Textbook - Presentation of Data Commerce Notes | EduRev

Statistics for Economics - Class XI

Created by: Pj Commerce Academy

Commerce : NCERT Textbook - Presentation of Data Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Presentation of Data
1. INTRODUCTION
You have already learnt in previous
chapters how data are collected and
organised. As data are generally
voluminous, they need to be put in a
compact and presentable form. This
chapter deals with presentation of data
precisely so that the voluminous data
collected could be made usable readily
and are easily comprehended. There are
generally three forms of presentation of
data:
• Textual or Descriptive presentation
• Tabular presentation
• Diagrammatic presentation.
2. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
In textual presentation, data are
described within the text. When the
quantity of data is not too large this form
of presentation is more suitable. Look
at the following cases:
Case 1
In a bandh call given on 08 September
2005 protesting the hike in prices of
petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were
found open  and 17 were closed whereas
2 schools were closed and remaining 9
schools were found open in a town of
Bihar.
Studying this chapter should
enable you to:
• present data using tables;
• represent data using appropriate
diagrams.
CHAPTER
Page 2


Presentation of Data
1. INTRODUCTION
You have already learnt in previous
chapters how data are collected and
organised. As data are generally
voluminous, they need to be put in a
compact and presentable form. This
chapter deals with presentation of data
precisely so that the voluminous data
collected could be made usable readily
and are easily comprehended. There are
generally three forms of presentation of
data:
• Textual or Descriptive presentation
• Tabular presentation
• Diagrammatic presentation.
2. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
In textual presentation, data are
described within the text. When the
quantity of data is not too large this form
of presentation is more suitable. Look
at the following cases:
Case 1
In a bandh call given on 08 September
2005 protesting the hike in prices of
petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were
found open  and 17 were closed whereas
2 schools were closed and remaining 9
schools were found open in a town of
Bihar.
Studying this chapter should
enable you to:
• present data using tables;
• represent data using appropriate
diagrams.
CHAPTER
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 1
Case 2
Census of India 2001 reported that
Indian population had risen to 102
crore of which only 49 crore were
females against 53 crore males. 74 crore
people resided in rural India and only
28 crore lived in towns or cities. While
there were 62 crore non-worker
population against 40 crore workers in
the entire country, urban population
had an even higher share of non-
workers (19 crores) against the workers
(9 crores) as compared to the rural
population where there were 31 crore
workers out of a 74 crore population....
In both the cases data have been
presented only in the text. A serious
drawback of this method of presentation
is that one has to go through the
complete text of presentation for
comprehension but at the same time, it
enables one to emphasise certain points
of the presentation.
3. TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DATA
In a tabular presentation, data are
presented in rows (read horizontally)
and columns (read vertically). For
example see Table 4.1 below tabulating
information about literacy rates. It has
3 rows (for male, female and total) and
3 columns (for urban, rural and total).
It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving 9 items
of information in 9 boxes called the
"cells" of the Table. Each cell gives
information that relates an attribute of
gender ("male", "female" or total) with a
number (literacy percentages of rural
people, urban people and total). The
most important advantage of tabulation
is that it organises data for further
statistical treatment and decision-
making. Classification used in
tabulation is of four kinds:
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Temporal and
• Spatial
Qualitative classification
When classification is done according
to qualitative characteristics like social
status, physical status, nationality, etc.,
it is called qualitative classification. For
example, in Table 4.1 the characteris-
tics for classification are sex and
location which are qualitative in nature.
TABLE 4.1
Literacy in Bihar by sex and location (per cent)
Location Total
Sex Rural Urban
Male 57.70 80.80 60.32
Female 30.03 63.30 33.57
Total 44.42 72.71 47.53
Source: Census of India 2001, Provisional
Population Totals.
Quantitative classification
In quantitative classification, the data
are classified on the basis of
Page 3


Presentation of Data
1. INTRODUCTION
You have already learnt in previous
chapters how data are collected and
organised. As data are generally
voluminous, they need to be put in a
compact and presentable form. This
chapter deals with presentation of data
precisely so that the voluminous data
collected could be made usable readily
and are easily comprehended. There are
generally three forms of presentation of
data:
• Textual or Descriptive presentation
• Tabular presentation
• Diagrammatic presentation.
2. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
In textual presentation, data are
described within the text. When the
quantity of data is not too large this form
of presentation is more suitable. Look
at the following cases:
Case 1
In a bandh call given on 08 September
2005 protesting the hike in prices of
petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were
found open  and 17 were closed whereas
2 schools were closed and remaining 9
schools were found open in a town of
Bihar.
Studying this chapter should
enable you to:
• present data using tables;
• represent data using appropriate
diagrams.
CHAPTER
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 1
Case 2
Census of India 2001 reported that
Indian population had risen to 102
crore of which only 49 crore were
females against 53 crore males. 74 crore
people resided in rural India and only
28 crore lived in towns or cities. While
there were 62 crore non-worker
population against 40 crore workers in
the entire country, urban population
had an even higher share of non-
workers (19 crores) against the workers
(9 crores) as compared to the rural
population where there were 31 crore
workers out of a 74 crore population....
In both the cases data have been
presented only in the text. A serious
drawback of this method of presentation
is that one has to go through the
complete text of presentation for
comprehension but at the same time, it
enables one to emphasise certain points
of the presentation.
3. TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DATA
In a tabular presentation, data are
presented in rows (read horizontally)
and columns (read vertically). For
example see Table 4.1 below tabulating
information about literacy rates. It has
3 rows (for male, female and total) and
3 columns (for urban, rural and total).
It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving 9 items
of information in 9 boxes called the
"cells" of the Table. Each cell gives
information that relates an attribute of
gender ("male", "female" or total) with a
number (literacy percentages of rural
people, urban people and total). The
most important advantage of tabulation
is that it organises data for further
statistical treatment and decision-
making. Classification used in
tabulation is of four kinds:
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Temporal and
• Spatial
Qualitative classification
When classification is done according
to qualitative characteristics like social
status, physical status, nationality, etc.,
it is called qualitative classification. For
example, in Table 4.1 the characteris-
tics for classification are sex and
location which are qualitative in nature.
TABLE 4.1
Literacy in Bihar by sex and location (per cent)
Location Total
Sex Rural Urban
Male 57.70 80.80 60.32
Female 30.03 63.30 33.57
Total 44.42 72.71 47.53
Source: Census of India 2001, Provisional
Population Totals.
Quantitative classification
In quantitative classification, the data
are classified on the basis of
4 2 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS
characteristics which are quantitative
in nature. In other words these
characteristics can be measured
quantitatively. For example, age, height,
production, income, etc are quantitative
characteristics. Classes are formed by
assigning limits called class limits for
the values of the characteristic under
consideration. An example of
quantitative classification is Table 4.2.
TABLE 4.2
Distribution of 542 respondents by
their age in an election study in Bihar
Age group No. of
(yrs) respondents Per cent
20–30 3 0.55
30–40 61 11.25
40–50 132 24.35
50–60 153 28.24
60–70 140 25.83
70–80 51 9.41
80–90 2 0.37
A l l 542 100.00
Source: Assembly election Patna central
constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social
Studies, Patna.
Here classifying characteristic is age
in years and is quantifiable.
Activities
• Construct a table presenting
data on preferential liking of the
students of your class for Star
News, Zee News, BBC World,
CNN, Aaj Tak and DD News.
• Prepare a table of
( i ) heights (in cm) and
( i i ) weights (in kg) of students
of your class.
Temporal classification
In this classification time becomes the
classifying variable and data are
categorised according to time. Time
may be in hours, days, weeks, months,
years, etc. For example, see Table 4.3.
TABLE 4.3
Yearly sales of a tea shop
from 1995 to 2000
Years Sale (Rs in lakhs)
1995 79.2
1996 81.3
1997 82.4
1998 80.5
1999 100.2
2000 91.2
Data Source: Unpublished data.
In this table the classifying
characteristic is year and takes values
in the scale of time.
Activity
• Go to your library and collect
data on the number of books in
economics, the library had at
the end of the year for the last
ten years and present the data
in a table.
Spatial classification
When classification is done in such a
way that place becomes the classifying
variable, it is called spatial
classification. The place may be a
village/town, block, district, state,
country, etc.
Here the classifying characteristic is
country of the world. Table 4.4 is an
example of spatial classification.
Page 4


Presentation of Data
1. INTRODUCTION
You have already learnt in previous
chapters how data are collected and
organised. As data are generally
voluminous, they need to be put in a
compact and presentable form. This
chapter deals with presentation of data
precisely so that the voluminous data
collected could be made usable readily
and are easily comprehended. There are
generally three forms of presentation of
data:
• Textual or Descriptive presentation
• Tabular presentation
• Diagrammatic presentation.
2. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
In textual presentation, data are
described within the text. When the
quantity of data is not too large this form
of presentation is more suitable. Look
at the following cases:
Case 1
In a bandh call given on 08 September
2005 protesting the hike in prices of
petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were
found open  and 17 were closed whereas
2 schools were closed and remaining 9
schools were found open in a town of
Bihar.
Studying this chapter should
enable you to:
• present data using tables;
• represent data using appropriate
diagrams.
CHAPTER
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 1
Case 2
Census of India 2001 reported that
Indian population had risen to 102
crore of which only 49 crore were
females against 53 crore males. 74 crore
people resided in rural India and only
28 crore lived in towns or cities. While
there were 62 crore non-worker
population against 40 crore workers in
the entire country, urban population
had an even higher share of non-
workers (19 crores) against the workers
(9 crores) as compared to the rural
population where there were 31 crore
workers out of a 74 crore population....
In both the cases data have been
presented only in the text. A serious
drawback of this method of presentation
is that one has to go through the
complete text of presentation for
comprehension but at the same time, it
enables one to emphasise certain points
of the presentation.
3. TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DATA
In a tabular presentation, data are
presented in rows (read horizontally)
and columns (read vertically). For
example see Table 4.1 below tabulating
information about literacy rates. It has
3 rows (for male, female and total) and
3 columns (for urban, rural and total).
It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving 9 items
of information in 9 boxes called the
"cells" of the Table. Each cell gives
information that relates an attribute of
gender ("male", "female" or total) with a
number (literacy percentages of rural
people, urban people and total). The
most important advantage of tabulation
is that it organises data for further
statistical treatment and decision-
making. Classification used in
tabulation is of four kinds:
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Temporal and
• Spatial
Qualitative classification
When classification is done according
to qualitative characteristics like social
status, physical status, nationality, etc.,
it is called qualitative classification. For
example, in Table 4.1 the characteris-
tics for classification are sex and
location which are qualitative in nature.
TABLE 4.1
Literacy in Bihar by sex and location (per cent)
Location Total
Sex Rural Urban
Male 57.70 80.80 60.32
Female 30.03 63.30 33.57
Total 44.42 72.71 47.53
Source: Census of India 2001, Provisional
Population Totals.
Quantitative classification
In quantitative classification, the data
are classified on the basis of
4 2 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS
characteristics which are quantitative
in nature. In other words these
characteristics can be measured
quantitatively. For example, age, height,
production, income, etc are quantitative
characteristics. Classes are formed by
assigning limits called class limits for
the values of the characteristic under
consideration. An example of
quantitative classification is Table 4.2.
TABLE 4.2
Distribution of 542 respondents by
their age in an election study in Bihar
Age group No. of
(yrs) respondents Per cent
20–30 3 0.55
30–40 61 11.25
40–50 132 24.35
50–60 153 28.24
60–70 140 25.83
70–80 51 9.41
80–90 2 0.37
A l l 542 100.00
Source: Assembly election Patna central
constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social
Studies, Patna.
Here classifying characteristic is age
in years and is quantifiable.
Activities
• Construct a table presenting
data on preferential liking of the
students of your class for Star
News, Zee News, BBC World,
CNN, Aaj Tak and DD News.
• Prepare a table of
( i ) heights (in cm) and
( i i ) weights (in kg) of students
of your class.
Temporal classification
In this classification time becomes the
classifying variable and data are
categorised according to time. Time
may be in hours, days, weeks, months,
years, etc. For example, see Table 4.3.
TABLE 4.3
Yearly sales of a tea shop
from 1995 to 2000
Years Sale (Rs in lakhs)
1995 79.2
1996 81.3
1997 82.4
1998 80.5
1999 100.2
2000 91.2
Data Source: Unpublished data.
In this table the classifying
characteristic is year and takes values
in the scale of time.
Activity
• Go to your library and collect
data on the number of books in
economics, the library had at
the end of the year for the last
ten years and present the data
in a table.
Spatial classification
When classification is done in such a
way that place becomes the classifying
variable, it is called spatial
classification. The place may be a
village/town, block, district, state,
country, etc.
Here the classifying characteristic is
country of the world. Table 4.4 is an
example of spatial classification.
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 3
TABLE 4.4
Export from India to rest of the world in
one year as share of total export (per cent)
Destination Export share
USA 21.8
Germany 5.6
Other EU 14.7
U K 5.7
Japan 4.9
Russia 2.1
Other East Europe 0.6
OPEC 10.5
Asia 19.0
Other LDCs 5.6
Others 9.5
A l l 100.0
(Total Exports: US $ 33658.5 million)
Activity
• Construct a table presenting
data collected from students of
your class according to their
native states/residential
locality.
4. TABULATION OF DATA AND PARTS OF
A TABLE
To construct a table it is important to
learn first what are the parts of a good
statistical table. When put together in
a systematically ordered manner these
parts form a table. The most simple way
of conceptualising a table may be data
presented in rows and columns
alongwith some explanatory notes.
Tabulation can be done using one-
way, two-way or three-way
classification depending upon the
number of characteristics involved. A
good table should essentially have the
following:
( i ) Table Number
Table number is assigned to a table for
identification purpose. If more than one
table is presented, it is the table
number that distinguishes one table
from another. It is given at the top or
at the beginning of the title of the table.
Generally, table numbers are whole
numbers in ascending order if there are
many tables in a book. Subscripted
numbers like 1.2, 3.1, etc. are also in
use for identifying the table according
to its location. For example, Table
number 4.5 may read as fifth table
of the fourth chapter and so on.
(See Table  4.5)
( i i ) Title
The title of a table narrates about the
contents of the table. It has to be very
clear, brief and carefully worded so that
the interpretations made from the table
are clear and free from any ambiguity.
It finds place at the head of the table
succeeding the table number or just
below it. (See Table 4.5).
( i i i )Captions or Column Headings
At the top of each column in a table a
column designation is given to explain
figures of the column. This is
called caption or column heading.
(See Table 4.5)
( i v ) Stubs or Row Headings
Like a caption or column heading each
row of the table has to be given a
heading. The designations of the rows
are also called stubs or stub items, and
the complete left column is known as
Page 5


Presentation of Data
1. INTRODUCTION
You have already learnt in previous
chapters how data are collected and
organised. As data are generally
voluminous, they need to be put in a
compact and presentable form. This
chapter deals with presentation of data
precisely so that the voluminous data
collected could be made usable readily
and are easily comprehended. There are
generally three forms of presentation of
data:
• Textual or Descriptive presentation
• Tabular presentation
• Diagrammatic presentation.
2. TEXTUAL PRESENTATION OF DATA
In textual presentation, data are
described within the text. When the
quantity of data is not too large this form
of presentation is more suitable. Look
at the following cases:
Case 1
In a bandh call given on 08 September
2005 protesting the hike in prices of
petrol and diesel, 5 petrol pumps were
found open  and 17 were closed whereas
2 schools were closed and remaining 9
schools were found open in a town of
Bihar.
Studying this chapter should
enable you to:
• present data using tables;
• represent data using appropriate
diagrams.
CHAPTER
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 1
Case 2
Census of India 2001 reported that
Indian population had risen to 102
crore of which only 49 crore were
females against 53 crore males. 74 crore
people resided in rural India and only
28 crore lived in towns or cities. While
there were 62 crore non-worker
population against 40 crore workers in
the entire country, urban population
had an even higher share of non-
workers (19 crores) against the workers
(9 crores) as compared to the rural
population where there were 31 crore
workers out of a 74 crore population....
In both the cases data have been
presented only in the text. A serious
drawback of this method of presentation
is that one has to go through the
complete text of presentation for
comprehension but at the same time, it
enables one to emphasise certain points
of the presentation.
3. TABULAR PRESENTATION OF DATA
In a tabular presentation, data are
presented in rows (read horizontally)
and columns (read vertically). For
example see Table 4.1 below tabulating
information about literacy rates. It has
3 rows (for male, female and total) and
3 columns (for urban, rural and total).
It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving 9 items
of information in 9 boxes called the
"cells" of the Table. Each cell gives
information that relates an attribute of
gender ("male", "female" or total) with a
number (literacy percentages of rural
people, urban people and total). The
most important advantage of tabulation
is that it organises data for further
statistical treatment and decision-
making. Classification used in
tabulation is of four kinds:
• Qualitative
• Quantitative
• Temporal and
• Spatial
Qualitative classification
When classification is done according
to qualitative characteristics like social
status, physical status, nationality, etc.,
it is called qualitative classification. For
example, in Table 4.1 the characteris-
tics for classification are sex and
location which are qualitative in nature.
TABLE 4.1
Literacy in Bihar by sex and location (per cent)
Location Total
Sex Rural Urban
Male 57.70 80.80 60.32
Female 30.03 63.30 33.57
Total 44.42 72.71 47.53
Source: Census of India 2001, Provisional
Population Totals.
Quantitative classification
In quantitative classification, the data
are classified on the basis of
4 2 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS
characteristics which are quantitative
in nature. In other words these
characteristics can be measured
quantitatively. For example, age, height,
production, income, etc are quantitative
characteristics. Classes are formed by
assigning limits called class limits for
the values of the characteristic under
consideration. An example of
quantitative classification is Table 4.2.
TABLE 4.2
Distribution of 542 respondents by
their age in an election study in Bihar
Age group No. of
(yrs) respondents Per cent
20–30 3 0.55
30–40 61 11.25
40–50 132 24.35
50–60 153 28.24
60–70 140 25.83
70–80 51 9.41
80–90 2 0.37
A l l 542 100.00
Source: Assembly election Patna central
constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social
Studies, Patna.
Here classifying characteristic is age
in years and is quantifiable.
Activities
• Construct a table presenting
data on preferential liking of the
students of your class for Star
News, Zee News, BBC World,
CNN, Aaj Tak and DD News.
• Prepare a table of
( i ) heights (in cm) and
( i i ) weights (in kg) of students
of your class.
Temporal classification
In this classification time becomes the
classifying variable and data are
categorised according to time. Time
may be in hours, days, weeks, months,
years, etc. For example, see Table 4.3.
TABLE 4.3
Yearly sales of a tea shop
from 1995 to 2000
Years Sale (Rs in lakhs)
1995 79.2
1996 81.3
1997 82.4
1998 80.5
1999 100.2
2000 91.2
Data Source: Unpublished data.
In this table the classifying
characteristic is year and takes values
in the scale of time.
Activity
• Go to your library and collect
data on the number of books in
economics, the library had at
the end of the year for the last
ten years and present the data
in a table.
Spatial classification
When classification is done in such a
way that place becomes the classifying
variable, it is called spatial
classification. The place may be a
village/town, block, district, state,
country, etc.
Here the classifying characteristic is
country of the world. Table 4.4 is an
example of spatial classification.
PRESENTATION OF DATA 4 3
TABLE 4.4
Export from India to rest of the world in
one year as share of total export (per cent)
Destination Export share
USA 21.8
Germany 5.6
Other EU 14.7
U K 5.7
Japan 4.9
Russia 2.1
Other East Europe 0.6
OPEC 10.5
Asia 19.0
Other LDCs 5.6
Others 9.5
A l l 100.0
(Total Exports: US $ 33658.5 million)
Activity
• Construct a table presenting
data collected from students of
your class according to their
native states/residential
locality.
4. TABULATION OF DATA AND PARTS OF
A TABLE
To construct a table it is important to
learn first what are the parts of a good
statistical table. When put together in
a systematically ordered manner these
parts form a table. The most simple way
of conceptualising a table may be data
presented in rows and columns
alongwith some explanatory notes.
Tabulation can be done using one-
way, two-way or three-way
classification depending upon the
number of characteristics involved. A
good table should essentially have the
following:
( i ) Table Number
Table number is assigned to a table for
identification purpose. If more than one
table is presented, it is the table
number that distinguishes one table
from another. It is given at the top or
at the beginning of the title of the table.
Generally, table numbers are whole
numbers in ascending order if there are
many tables in a book. Subscripted
numbers like 1.2, 3.1, etc. are also in
use for identifying the table according
to its location. For example, Table
number 4.5 may read as fifth table
of the fourth chapter and so on.
(See Table  4.5)
( i i ) Title
The title of a table narrates about the
contents of the table. It has to be very
clear, brief and carefully worded so that
the interpretations made from the table
are clear and free from any ambiguity.
It finds place at the head of the table
succeeding the table number or just
below it. (See Table 4.5).
( i i i )Captions or Column Headings
At the top of each column in a table a
column designation is given to explain
figures of the column. This is
called caption or column heading.
(See Table 4.5)
( i v ) Stubs or Row Headings
Like a caption or column heading each
row of the table has to be given a
heading. The designations of the rows
are also called stubs or stub items, and
the complete left column is known as
4 4 STATISTICS FOR ECONOMICS
stub column. A brief description of the
row headings may also be given at the
left hand top in the table. (See Table
4.5).
( v ) Body of the Table
Body of a table is the main part and it
contains the actual data. Location of
any one figure/data in the table is fixed
and determined by the row and column
of the table.  For example, data in the
second row and fourth column indicate
that 25 crore females in rural India
were non-workers in 2001. (See Table
4.5).
( v i ) Unit of Measurement
The unit of measurement of the figures
in the table (actual data) should always
be stated alongwith the title if the unit
does not change throughout the table.
If different units are there for rows or
columns of the table, these units must
be stated alongwith ‘stubs’ or
‘captions’. If figures are large, they
should be rounded up and the method
(Note : Table 4.5 presents the same data in tabular form already presented through case 2 in
textual presentation of data)
Table 4.5  Population of India according to workers and non-workers by gender and location
Location Gender Workers Non-worker Total
Main Marginal Total
Male 17 3 20 18 38
Female 6 5 11 25 36
Total 23 8 31 43 74
Male 7 1 8 7 15
Female 1 0 1 12 13
Total 8 1 9 19 28
Male 24 4 28 25 53
Female 7 5 12 37 49
Total 31 9 40 62 102
Source : Census of India 2001
Foot note : Figures are rounded to nearest crore
All Urban Rural
Body of the table
?
Footnote
?
Source note
?
Row Headings/stubs
?
?
Units
(Crore)
?
Column Headings/Captions
?
Title
?
Table Number
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