NCERT Textbook - Rajasthan Ki Rajat Bunde Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Rajasthan Ki Rajat Bunde Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    9
1- mdMw¡+ cSBuk] iats osQ cy ?kqVus eksM+ dj cSBukA
i
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas
                 & vuqie feJ
lhus esa rjcrj psyokath oqaQbZ osQ Hkhrj dke dj jgs gSaA dksbZ
rhl&iSarhl gkFk xgjh [kqnkbZ gks pqdh gSA vc Hkhrj xjeh c<+rh gh
tk,xhA oqaQbZ dk O;kl] ?ksjk cgqr gh ladjk gSA m[k:¡
1
 cSBs psyokath
dh ihB vkSj Nkrh ls ,d&,d gkFk dh nwjh ij fe^h gSA bruh ladjh txg
esa [kksnus dk dke oqQYgkM+h ;k iQkoM+s ls ugha gks ldrkA [kqnkbZ ;gk¡ clkSyh ls
dh tk jgh gSA clkSyh NksVh MaMh dk NksVs iQkoM+s tSlk vkS”kkj gksrk gSA uqdhyk
iQy yksgs dk vkSj gRFkk ydM+h dkA
oqaQbZ dh xgjkbZ esa py jgs esgurh dke ij ogk¡ dh xjeh dk vlj iM+sxkA
xjeh de djus osQ fy, mQij ”kehu ij [kM+s yksx chp&chp esa eq_h Hkj jsr
cgqr ”kksj osQ lkFk uhps isaQdrs gSaA blls mQij dh rk”kh gok uhps fiQdkrh gS vkSj
xgjkbZ esa tek ne?kksaVw xje gok Åij ykSVrh gSA brus mQij ls isaQdh tk jgh jsr
osQ d.k uhps dke dj jgs psyokath osQ flj ij yx ldrs gSa blfy, os vius
flj ij dkals] ihry ;k vU; fdlh èkkrq dk ,d crZu Vksi dh rjg igus gq,
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    9
1- mdMw¡+ cSBuk] iats osQ cy ?kqVus eksM+ dj cSBukA
i
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas
                 & vuqie feJ
lhus esa rjcrj psyokath oqaQbZ osQ Hkhrj dke dj jgs gSaA dksbZ
rhl&iSarhl gkFk xgjh [kqnkbZ gks pqdh gSA vc Hkhrj xjeh c<+rh gh
tk,xhA oqaQbZ dk O;kl] ?ksjk cgqr gh ladjk gSA m[k:¡
1
 cSBs psyokath
dh ihB vkSj Nkrh ls ,d&,d gkFk dh nwjh ij fe^h gSA bruh ladjh txg
esa [kksnus dk dke oqQYgkM+h ;k iQkoM+s ls ugha gks ldrkA [kqnkbZ ;gk¡ clkSyh ls
dh tk jgh gSA clkSyh NksVh MaMh dk NksVs iQkoM+s tSlk vkS”kkj gksrk gSA uqdhyk
iQy yksgs dk vkSj gRFkk ydM+h dkA
oqaQbZ dh xgjkbZ esa py jgs esgurh dke ij ogk¡ dh xjeh dk vlj iM+sxkA
xjeh de djus osQ fy, mQij ”kehu ij [kM+s yksx chp&chp esa eq_h Hkj jsr
cgqr ”kksj osQ lkFk uhps isaQdrs gSaA blls mQij dh rk”kh gok uhps fiQdkrh gS vkSj
xgjkbZ esa tek ne?kksaVw xje gok Åij ykSVrh gSA brus mQij ls isaQdh tk jgh jsr
osQ d.k uhps dke dj jgs psyokath osQ flj ij yx ldrs gSa blfy, os vius
flj ij dkals] ihry ;k vU; fdlh èkkrq dk ,d crZu Vksi dh rjg igus gq,
© NCERT
not to be republished
10   forku
gSaA uhps FkksM+h [kqnkbZ gks tkus osQ ckn psyokath osQ iatkssa osQ vklikl eyck tek gks
x;k gSA mQij jLlh ls ,d NksVk&lk Mksy ;k ckYVh mrkjh tkrh gSA fe^h mlesa Hkj
nh tkrh gSA iwjh lkoèkkuh osQ lkFk mQij [khaprs le; Hkh ckYVh esa ls oqQN jsr]
oaQdM+&iRFkj uhps fxj ldrs gSaA Vksi buls Hkh
psyokath dk flj cpk,xkA
psyokath ;kuh pstkjks] oaqQbZ dh [kqnkbZ
vkSj ,d fo'ks"k rjg dh fpukbZ djus okys
n{kre yksxA ;g dke pstk dgykrk gSA
pstkjks ftl oqaQbZ dks cuk jgs gSa] og Hkh dksbZ
lkèkkj.k <k¡pk ugha gSA oqaQbZ ;kuh cgqr gh
NksVk&lk oqQvk¡A oqQvk¡ iqa¯yx gS] oqaQbZ L=khfyaxA
;g NksVh Hkh osQoy O;kl esa gh gSA xgjkbZ rks
bl oqaQbZ dh dgha ls de ughaA jktLFkku esa
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij ,d fo'ks"k dkj.k ls
oqaQb;ksa dh xgjkbZ oqQN de&”;knk gksrh gSA
oqaQbZ ,d vkSj vFkZ esa oqQ,¡ ls fcyoqQy
vyx gSA oqQvk¡ Hkwty dks ikus osQ fy,
curk gS ij oqaQbZ Hkwty ls Bhd oSls ugha
tqM+rh tSls oqQvk¡ tqM+rk gSA oqaQbZ o"kkZ osQ
ty dks cM+s fofp=k <ax ls lesVrh gSµ rc
Hkh tc o"kkZ gh ugha gksrh! ;kuh oqaQbZ esa u rks
lrg ij cgus okyk ikuh gS] u Hkwty gSA ;g
rks ^usfr&usfr* tSlk oqQN isphnk ekeyk gSA
e#Hkwfe esa jsr dk foLrkj vkSj xgjkbZ
vFkkg gSA ;gk¡ o"kkZ vfèkd ek=kk esa Hkh gks rks mls Hkwfe eas lek tkus esa nsj ugha
yxrhA ij dgha&dgha e#Hkwfe esa jsr dh lrg osQ uhps izk;% nl&ianzg gkFk ls
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    9
1- mdMw¡+ cSBuk] iats osQ cy ?kqVus eksM+ dj cSBukA
i
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas
                 & vuqie feJ
lhus esa rjcrj psyokath oqaQbZ osQ Hkhrj dke dj jgs gSaA dksbZ
rhl&iSarhl gkFk xgjh [kqnkbZ gks pqdh gSA vc Hkhrj xjeh c<+rh gh
tk,xhA oqaQbZ dk O;kl] ?ksjk cgqr gh ladjk gSA m[k:¡
1
 cSBs psyokath
dh ihB vkSj Nkrh ls ,d&,d gkFk dh nwjh ij fe^h gSA bruh ladjh txg
esa [kksnus dk dke oqQYgkM+h ;k iQkoM+s ls ugha gks ldrkA [kqnkbZ ;gk¡ clkSyh ls
dh tk jgh gSA clkSyh NksVh MaMh dk NksVs iQkoM+s tSlk vkS”kkj gksrk gSA uqdhyk
iQy yksgs dk vkSj gRFkk ydM+h dkA
oqaQbZ dh xgjkbZ esa py jgs esgurh dke ij ogk¡ dh xjeh dk vlj iM+sxkA
xjeh de djus osQ fy, mQij ”kehu ij [kM+s yksx chp&chp esa eq_h Hkj jsr
cgqr ”kksj osQ lkFk uhps isaQdrs gSaA blls mQij dh rk”kh gok uhps fiQdkrh gS vkSj
xgjkbZ esa tek ne?kksaVw xje gok Åij ykSVrh gSA brus mQij ls isaQdh tk jgh jsr
osQ d.k uhps dke dj jgs psyokath osQ flj ij yx ldrs gSa blfy, os vius
flj ij dkals] ihry ;k vU; fdlh èkkrq dk ,d crZu Vksi dh rjg igus gq,
© NCERT
not to be republished
10   forku
gSaA uhps FkksM+h [kqnkbZ gks tkus osQ ckn psyokath osQ iatkssa osQ vklikl eyck tek gks
x;k gSA mQij jLlh ls ,d NksVk&lk Mksy ;k ckYVh mrkjh tkrh gSA fe^h mlesa Hkj
nh tkrh gSA iwjh lkoèkkuh osQ lkFk mQij [khaprs le; Hkh ckYVh esa ls oqQN jsr]
oaQdM+&iRFkj uhps fxj ldrs gSaA Vksi buls Hkh
psyokath dk flj cpk,xkA
psyokath ;kuh pstkjks] oaqQbZ dh [kqnkbZ
vkSj ,d fo'ks"k rjg dh fpukbZ djus okys
n{kre yksxA ;g dke pstk dgykrk gSA
pstkjks ftl oqaQbZ dks cuk jgs gSa] og Hkh dksbZ
lkèkkj.k <k¡pk ugha gSA oqaQbZ ;kuh cgqr gh
NksVk&lk oqQvk¡A oqQvk¡ iqa¯yx gS] oqaQbZ L=khfyaxA
;g NksVh Hkh osQoy O;kl esa gh gSA xgjkbZ rks
bl oqaQbZ dh dgha ls de ughaA jktLFkku esa
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij ,d fo'ks"k dkj.k ls
oqaQb;ksa dh xgjkbZ oqQN de&”;knk gksrh gSA
oqaQbZ ,d vkSj vFkZ esa oqQ,¡ ls fcyoqQy
vyx gSA oqQvk¡ Hkwty dks ikus osQ fy,
curk gS ij oqaQbZ Hkwty ls Bhd oSls ugha
tqM+rh tSls oqQvk¡ tqM+rk gSA oqaQbZ o"kkZ osQ
ty dks cM+s fofp=k <ax ls lesVrh gSµ rc
Hkh tc o"kkZ gh ugha gksrh! ;kuh oqaQbZ esa u rks
lrg ij cgus okyk ikuh gS] u Hkwty gSA ;g
rks ^usfr&usfr* tSlk oqQN isphnk ekeyk gSA
e#Hkwfe esa jsr dk foLrkj vkSj xgjkbZ
vFkkg gSA ;gk¡ o"kkZ vfèkd ek=kk esa Hkh gks rks mls Hkwfe eas lek tkus esa nsj ugha
yxrhA ij dgha&dgha e#Hkwfe esa jsr dh lrg osQ uhps izk;% nl&ianzg gkFk ls
© NCERT
not to be republished
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    11
ipkl&lkB gkFk uhps [kfM+;k iRFkj dh ,d
i^h pyrh gSSA ;g i^h tgk¡ Hkh gS] dkI
+
kQh
yach&pkSM+h gS ij jsr osQ uhps nch jgus d s dkj.k
mQij ls fn[krh ugha gSA
,sls {ks=kksa esa cM+s oqQ,¡ [kksnrs le; fe^h esa gks
jgs ifjorZu ls [kfM+;k i^h dk irk py tkrk gSA
cM+s d qvksa esa ikuh rks Ms<+ lkS&nks lkS gkFk ij fudy
gh vkrk gS ij og izk;% [kkjk gksrk gSA blfy, ihus
ds  dke esa ugha vk ldrkA cl rc bu {ks=kksa esa
d qab;k¡ cukbZ tkrh gSaA i^h [kkstus esa ihf<+;ksa dk
vuqHko Hkh dke vkrk gSA cjlkr dk ikuh fdlh
{ks=k esa ,dne ^cSBs* ugha rks irk py tkrk gS fd
jsr osQ uhps ,slh i^h py jgh gSA
;g i^h o"kkZ osQ ty dks xgjs [kkjs Hkwty
rd tkdj feyus ls jksdrh gSSA ,slh fLFkfr esa
ml cM+s {ks=k esa cjlk ikuh Hkwfe dh jsrhyh
lrg vkSj uhps py jgh iFkjhyh i^h osQ chp
vVd dj ueh dh rjg iSQy tkrk gSA rs”k iM+us okyh xjeh esa bl ueh dh Hkki
cudj mM+ tkus dh vk'kadk mB ldrh gSA ij ,sls {ks=kksa esa izÑfr dh ,d vkSj
vuks[kh mnkjrk dke djrh gSA
jsr osQ d.k cgqr gh ckjhd gksrs gSaA os vU;=k feyus okyh fe^h osQ d.kksa
dh rjg ,d nwljs ls fpidrs ughaA tgk¡ yxko gS] ogk¡ vyxko Hkh gksrk gSA
ftl fe^h osQ d.k ijLij fpidrs gSa] os viuh txg Hkh NksM+rs gSa vkSj blfy,
ogk¡ oqQN LFkku [kkyh NwV tkrk gSA tSls nkseV ;k dkyh fe^h osQ {ks=k esa xqtjkr]
eè; izns'k] egkjk"Vª] fcgkj vkfn esa o"kkZ can gksus osQ ckn èkwi fudyus ij fe^h
osQ d.k fpidus yxrs gSa vkSj èkjrh esa] [ksr vkSj vk¡xu esa njkjsa iM+ tkrh gSaA
izo`Qfr dh mnkjrk ij [kM+h oqaQbZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    9
1- mdMw¡+ cSBuk] iats osQ cy ?kqVus eksM+ dj cSBukA
i
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas
                 & vuqie feJ
lhus esa rjcrj psyokath oqaQbZ osQ Hkhrj dke dj jgs gSaA dksbZ
rhl&iSarhl gkFk xgjh [kqnkbZ gks pqdh gSA vc Hkhrj xjeh c<+rh gh
tk,xhA oqaQbZ dk O;kl] ?ksjk cgqr gh ladjk gSA m[k:¡
1
 cSBs psyokath
dh ihB vkSj Nkrh ls ,d&,d gkFk dh nwjh ij fe^h gSA bruh ladjh txg
esa [kksnus dk dke oqQYgkM+h ;k iQkoM+s ls ugha gks ldrkA [kqnkbZ ;gk¡ clkSyh ls
dh tk jgh gSA clkSyh NksVh MaMh dk NksVs iQkoM+s tSlk vkS”kkj gksrk gSA uqdhyk
iQy yksgs dk vkSj gRFkk ydM+h dkA
oqaQbZ dh xgjkbZ esa py jgs esgurh dke ij ogk¡ dh xjeh dk vlj iM+sxkA
xjeh de djus osQ fy, mQij ”kehu ij [kM+s yksx chp&chp esa eq_h Hkj jsr
cgqr ”kksj osQ lkFk uhps isaQdrs gSaA blls mQij dh rk”kh gok uhps fiQdkrh gS vkSj
xgjkbZ esa tek ne?kksaVw xje gok Åij ykSVrh gSA brus mQij ls isaQdh tk jgh jsr
osQ d.k uhps dke dj jgs psyokath osQ flj ij yx ldrs gSa blfy, os vius
flj ij dkals] ihry ;k vU; fdlh èkkrq dk ,d crZu Vksi dh rjg igus gq,
© NCERT
not to be republished
10   forku
gSaA uhps FkksM+h [kqnkbZ gks tkus osQ ckn psyokath osQ iatkssa osQ vklikl eyck tek gks
x;k gSA mQij jLlh ls ,d NksVk&lk Mksy ;k ckYVh mrkjh tkrh gSA fe^h mlesa Hkj
nh tkrh gSA iwjh lkoèkkuh osQ lkFk mQij [khaprs le; Hkh ckYVh esa ls oqQN jsr]
oaQdM+&iRFkj uhps fxj ldrs gSaA Vksi buls Hkh
psyokath dk flj cpk,xkA
psyokath ;kuh pstkjks] oaqQbZ dh [kqnkbZ
vkSj ,d fo'ks"k rjg dh fpukbZ djus okys
n{kre yksxA ;g dke pstk dgykrk gSA
pstkjks ftl oqaQbZ dks cuk jgs gSa] og Hkh dksbZ
lkèkkj.k <k¡pk ugha gSA oqaQbZ ;kuh cgqr gh
NksVk&lk oqQvk¡A oqQvk¡ iqa¯yx gS] oqaQbZ L=khfyaxA
;g NksVh Hkh osQoy O;kl esa gh gSA xgjkbZ rks
bl oqaQbZ dh dgha ls de ughaA jktLFkku esa
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij ,d fo'ks"k dkj.k ls
oqaQb;ksa dh xgjkbZ oqQN de&”;knk gksrh gSA
oqaQbZ ,d vkSj vFkZ esa oqQ,¡ ls fcyoqQy
vyx gSA oqQvk¡ Hkwty dks ikus osQ fy,
curk gS ij oqaQbZ Hkwty ls Bhd oSls ugha
tqM+rh tSls oqQvk¡ tqM+rk gSA oqaQbZ o"kkZ osQ
ty dks cM+s fofp=k <ax ls lesVrh gSµ rc
Hkh tc o"kkZ gh ugha gksrh! ;kuh oqaQbZ esa u rks
lrg ij cgus okyk ikuh gS] u Hkwty gSA ;g
rks ^usfr&usfr* tSlk oqQN isphnk ekeyk gSA
e#Hkwfe esa jsr dk foLrkj vkSj xgjkbZ
vFkkg gSA ;gk¡ o"kkZ vfèkd ek=kk esa Hkh gks rks mls Hkwfe eas lek tkus esa nsj ugha
yxrhA ij dgha&dgha e#Hkwfe esa jsr dh lrg osQ uhps izk;% nl&ianzg gkFk ls
© NCERT
not to be republished
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    11
ipkl&lkB gkFk uhps [kfM+;k iRFkj dh ,d
i^h pyrh gSSA ;g i^h tgk¡ Hkh gS] dkI
+
kQh
yach&pkSM+h gS ij jsr osQ uhps nch jgus d s dkj.k
mQij ls fn[krh ugha gSA
,sls {ks=kksa esa cM+s oqQ,¡ [kksnrs le; fe^h esa gks
jgs ifjorZu ls [kfM+;k i^h dk irk py tkrk gSA
cM+s d qvksa esa ikuh rks Ms<+ lkS&nks lkS gkFk ij fudy
gh vkrk gS ij og izk;% [kkjk gksrk gSA blfy, ihus
ds  dke esa ugha vk ldrkA cl rc bu {ks=kksa esa
d qab;k¡ cukbZ tkrh gSaA i^h [kkstus esa ihf<+;ksa dk
vuqHko Hkh dke vkrk gSA cjlkr dk ikuh fdlh
{ks=k esa ,dne ^cSBs* ugha rks irk py tkrk gS fd
jsr osQ uhps ,slh i^h py jgh gSA
;g i^h o"kkZ osQ ty dks xgjs [kkjs Hkwty
rd tkdj feyus ls jksdrh gSSA ,slh fLFkfr esa
ml cM+s {ks=k esa cjlk ikuh Hkwfe dh jsrhyh
lrg vkSj uhps py jgh iFkjhyh i^h osQ chp
vVd dj ueh dh rjg iSQy tkrk gSA rs”k iM+us okyh xjeh esa bl ueh dh Hkki
cudj mM+ tkus dh vk'kadk mB ldrh gSA ij ,sls {ks=kksa esa izÑfr dh ,d vkSj
vuks[kh mnkjrk dke djrh gSA
jsr osQ d.k cgqr gh ckjhd gksrs gSaA os vU;=k feyus okyh fe^h osQ d.kksa
dh rjg ,d nwljs ls fpidrs ughaA tgk¡ yxko gS] ogk¡ vyxko Hkh gksrk gSA
ftl fe^h osQ d.k ijLij fpidrs gSa] os viuh txg Hkh NksM+rs gSa vkSj blfy,
ogk¡ oqQN LFkku [kkyh NwV tkrk gSA tSls nkseV ;k dkyh fe^h osQ {ks=k esa xqtjkr]
eè; izns'k] egkjk"Vª] fcgkj vkfn esa o"kkZ can gksus osQ ckn èkwi fudyus ij fe^h
osQ d.k fpidus yxrs gSa vkSj èkjrh esa] [ksr vkSj vk¡xu esa njkjsa iM+ tkrh gSaA
izo`Qfr dh mnkjrk ij [kM+h oqaQbZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
12   forku
èkjrh dh lafpr ueh bu njkjksa ls xjeh iM+rs gh ok"i cudj okil okrkoj.k
esa ykSVus yxrh gSA
ij ;gk¡ fc[kjs jgus esa gh laxBu gSA ejQHkwfe esa jsr osQ d.k leku :i ls
fc[kjs jgrs gSaA ;gk¡ ijLij yxko ugha] blfy, vyxko Hkh ugha gksrkA ikuh fxjus
ij d.k FkksM+s Hkkjh gks tkrs gSa ij viuh txg ugha NksM+rsA blfy, ejQHkwfe esa
èkjrh ij njkjsa ugha iM+rhaA Hkhrj lek;k o"kkZ dk ty Hkhrj gh cuk jgrk gSA
,d rjI
+
kQ FkksM+s uhps py jgh
i^h bldh j[kokyh djrh gS
rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ mQij jsr osQ
vla[; d.kksa dk dM+k igjk
cSBk jgrk gSA
bl fgLls esa cjlh cw¡n&cw¡n
jsr esa lek dj ueh esa cny
tkrh gSA vc ;gk¡ oqaQbZ cu tk,
rks mldk isV] mldh [kkyh
txg pkjksa rjI
+
kQ jsr esa lekbZ
ueh dks fiQj ls cw¡nksa esa cnyrh
gSA cw¡n&cw¡n fjlrh gS vkSj d aq bZ esa
ikuh tek gksus yxrk gSµ[kkjs
ikuh ds lkxj esa ve`r tSlk
ehBk ikuhA
bl ve`r dks ikus osQ
fy, ejQHkwfe osQ lekt us
[kwc eaFku fd;k gSA vius
vuqHkoksa dks O;ogkj esa mrkjus
dk iwjk ,d 'kkL=k fodflr
[kkjs ikuh osQ lkxj esa
ve`r tSlk ehBk ikuh
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    9
1- mdMw¡+ cSBuk] iats osQ cy ?kqVus eksM+ dj cSBukA
i
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas
                 & vuqie feJ
lhus esa rjcrj psyokath oqaQbZ osQ Hkhrj dke dj jgs gSaA dksbZ
rhl&iSarhl gkFk xgjh [kqnkbZ gks pqdh gSA vc Hkhrj xjeh c<+rh gh
tk,xhA oqaQbZ dk O;kl] ?ksjk cgqr gh ladjk gSA m[k:¡
1
 cSBs psyokath
dh ihB vkSj Nkrh ls ,d&,d gkFk dh nwjh ij fe^h gSA bruh ladjh txg
esa [kksnus dk dke oqQYgkM+h ;k iQkoM+s ls ugha gks ldrkA [kqnkbZ ;gk¡ clkSyh ls
dh tk jgh gSA clkSyh NksVh MaMh dk NksVs iQkoM+s tSlk vkS”kkj gksrk gSA uqdhyk
iQy yksgs dk vkSj gRFkk ydM+h dkA
oqaQbZ dh xgjkbZ esa py jgs esgurh dke ij ogk¡ dh xjeh dk vlj iM+sxkA
xjeh de djus osQ fy, mQij ”kehu ij [kM+s yksx chp&chp esa eq_h Hkj jsr
cgqr ”kksj osQ lkFk uhps isaQdrs gSaA blls mQij dh rk”kh gok uhps fiQdkrh gS vkSj
xgjkbZ esa tek ne?kksaVw xje gok Åij ykSVrh gSA brus mQij ls isaQdh tk jgh jsr
osQ d.k uhps dke dj jgs psyokath osQ flj ij yx ldrs gSa blfy, os vius
flj ij dkals] ihry ;k vU; fdlh èkkrq dk ,d crZu Vksi dh rjg igus gq,
© NCERT
not to be republished
10   forku
gSaA uhps FkksM+h [kqnkbZ gks tkus osQ ckn psyokath osQ iatkssa osQ vklikl eyck tek gks
x;k gSA mQij jLlh ls ,d NksVk&lk Mksy ;k ckYVh mrkjh tkrh gSA fe^h mlesa Hkj
nh tkrh gSA iwjh lkoèkkuh osQ lkFk mQij [khaprs le; Hkh ckYVh esa ls oqQN jsr]
oaQdM+&iRFkj uhps fxj ldrs gSaA Vksi buls Hkh
psyokath dk flj cpk,xkA
psyokath ;kuh pstkjks] oaqQbZ dh [kqnkbZ
vkSj ,d fo'ks"k rjg dh fpukbZ djus okys
n{kre yksxA ;g dke pstk dgykrk gSA
pstkjks ftl oqaQbZ dks cuk jgs gSa] og Hkh dksbZ
lkèkkj.k <k¡pk ugha gSA oqaQbZ ;kuh cgqr gh
NksVk&lk oqQvk¡A oqQvk¡ iqa¯yx gS] oqaQbZ L=khfyaxA
;g NksVh Hkh osQoy O;kl esa gh gSA xgjkbZ rks
bl oqaQbZ dh dgha ls de ughaA jktLFkku esa
vyx&vyx LFkkuksa ij ,d fo'ks"k dkj.k ls
oqaQb;ksa dh xgjkbZ oqQN de&”;knk gksrh gSA
oqaQbZ ,d vkSj vFkZ esa oqQ,¡ ls fcyoqQy
vyx gSA oqQvk¡ Hkwty dks ikus osQ fy,
curk gS ij oqaQbZ Hkwty ls Bhd oSls ugha
tqM+rh tSls oqQvk¡ tqM+rk gSA oqaQbZ o"kkZ osQ
ty dks cM+s fofp=k <ax ls lesVrh gSµ rc
Hkh tc o"kkZ gh ugha gksrh! ;kuh oqaQbZ esa u rks
lrg ij cgus okyk ikuh gS] u Hkwty gSA ;g
rks ^usfr&usfr* tSlk oqQN isphnk ekeyk gSA
e#Hkwfe esa jsr dk foLrkj vkSj xgjkbZ
vFkkg gSA ;gk¡ o"kkZ vfèkd ek=kk esa Hkh gks rks mls Hkwfe eas lek tkus esa nsj ugha
yxrhA ij dgha&dgha e#Hkwfe esa jsr dh lrg osQ uhps izk;% nl&ianzg gkFk ls
© NCERT
not to be republished
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    11
ipkl&lkB gkFk uhps [kfM+;k iRFkj dh ,d
i^h pyrh gSSA ;g i^h tgk¡ Hkh gS] dkI
+
kQh
yach&pkSM+h gS ij jsr osQ uhps nch jgus d s dkj.k
mQij ls fn[krh ugha gSA
,sls {ks=kksa esa cM+s oqQ,¡ [kksnrs le; fe^h esa gks
jgs ifjorZu ls [kfM+;k i^h dk irk py tkrk gSA
cM+s d qvksa esa ikuh rks Ms<+ lkS&nks lkS gkFk ij fudy
gh vkrk gS ij og izk;% [kkjk gksrk gSA blfy, ihus
ds  dke esa ugha vk ldrkA cl rc bu {ks=kksa esa
d qab;k¡ cukbZ tkrh gSaA i^h [kkstus esa ihf<+;ksa dk
vuqHko Hkh dke vkrk gSA cjlkr dk ikuh fdlh
{ks=k esa ,dne ^cSBs* ugha rks irk py tkrk gS fd
jsr osQ uhps ,slh i^h py jgh gSA
;g i^h o"kkZ osQ ty dks xgjs [kkjs Hkwty
rd tkdj feyus ls jksdrh gSSA ,slh fLFkfr esa
ml cM+s {ks=k esa cjlk ikuh Hkwfe dh jsrhyh
lrg vkSj uhps py jgh iFkjhyh i^h osQ chp
vVd dj ueh dh rjg iSQy tkrk gSA rs”k iM+us okyh xjeh esa bl ueh dh Hkki
cudj mM+ tkus dh vk'kadk mB ldrh gSA ij ,sls {ks=kksa esa izÑfr dh ,d vkSj
vuks[kh mnkjrk dke djrh gSA
jsr osQ d.k cgqr gh ckjhd gksrs gSaA os vU;=k feyus okyh fe^h osQ d.kksa
dh rjg ,d nwljs ls fpidrs ughaA tgk¡ yxko gS] ogk¡ vyxko Hkh gksrk gSA
ftl fe^h osQ d.k ijLij fpidrs gSa] os viuh txg Hkh NksM+rs gSa vkSj blfy,
ogk¡ oqQN LFkku [kkyh NwV tkrk gSA tSls nkseV ;k dkyh fe^h osQ {ks=k esa xqtjkr]
eè; izns'k] egkjk"Vª] fcgkj vkfn esa o"kkZ can gksus osQ ckn èkwi fudyus ij fe^h
osQ d.k fpidus yxrs gSa vkSj èkjrh esa] [ksr vkSj vk¡xu esa njkjsa iM+ tkrh gSaA
izo`Qfr dh mnkjrk ij [kM+h oqaQbZ
© NCERT
not to be republished
12   forku
èkjrh dh lafpr ueh bu njkjksa ls xjeh iM+rs gh ok"i cudj okil okrkoj.k
esa ykSVus yxrh gSA
ij ;gk¡ fc[kjs jgus esa gh laxBu gSA ejQHkwfe esa jsr osQ d.k leku :i ls
fc[kjs jgrs gSaA ;gk¡ ijLij yxko ugha] blfy, vyxko Hkh ugha gksrkA ikuh fxjus
ij d.k FkksM+s Hkkjh gks tkrs gSa ij viuh txg ugha NksM+rsA blfy, ejQHkwfe esa
èkjrh ij njkjsa ugha iM+rhaA Hkhrj lek;k o"kkZ dk ty Hkhrj gh cuk jgrk gSA
,d rjI
+
kQ FkksM+s uhps py jgh
i^h bldh j[kokyh djrh gS
rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ mQij jsr osQ
vla[; d.kksa dk dM+k igjk
cSBk jgrk gSA
bl fgLls esa cjlh cw¡n&cw¡n
jsr esa lek dj ueh esa cny
tkrh gSA vc ;gk¡ oqaQbZ cu tk,
rks mldk isV] mldh [kkyh
txg pkjksa rjI
+
kQ jsr esa lekbZ
ueh dks fiQj ls cw¡nksa esa cnyrh
gSA cw¡n&cw¡n fjlrh gS vkSj d aq bZ esa
ikuh tek gksus yxrk gSµ[kkjs
ikuh ds lkxj esa ve`r tSlk
ehBk ikuhA
bl ve`r dks ikus osQ
fy, ejQHkwfe osQ lekt us
[kwc eaFku fd;k gSA vius
vuqHkoksa dks O;ogkj esa mrkjus
dk iwjk ,d 'kkL=k fodflr
[kkjs ikuh osQ lkxj esa
ve`r tSlk ehBk ikuh
© NCERT
not to be republished
jktLFkku dh jtr cw¡nas    13
fd;k gSA bl 'kkL=k us lekt osQ fy, miyCèk ikuh dks
rhu :iksa esa ck¡Vk gSA
igyk :i gS ikyjikuhA ;kuh lhèks cjlkr ls feyus
okyk ikuhA ;g èkjkry ij cgrk gS vkSj bls unh] rkykc
vkfn esa jksdk tkrk gSA ;gk¡ vkfn 'kCn esa Hkh cgqr oqQN
fNik gSA mldk iwjk fooj.k vkxs dgha vkSj feysxkA
ikuh dk nwljk :i ikrkyikuh dgykrk gSA ;g ogh
Hkwty gS tks d q vksa esa ls fudkyk tkrk gSA
ikyjikuh vkSj ikrkyikuh osQ chp ikuh dk rhljk :i
gS] jstk.khikuhA èkjkry ls uhps mrjk ysfdu ikrky esa u
fey ik;k ikuh jstk.kh gSA o"kkZ dh ek=kk ukius esa Hkh bap
;k lsaVhehVj ugha cfYd jstk 'kCn dk mi;ksx gksrk gSA vkSj jstk dk eki èkjkry
ij gqbZ o"kkZ dks ugha] èkjkry esa lekbZ o"kkZ dks ukirk gSA ejQHkwfe esa ikuh bruk fxjs
fd ik¡p vaxqy Hkhrj lek tk, rks ml fnu dh o"kkZ dks ik¡p vaxqy jstks dgsaxsA
jstk.khikuh [kfM+;k i^h osQ dkj.k ikrkyhikuh ls vyx cuk jgrk gSA ,slh
i^h osQ vHkko esa jstk.khikuh èkhjs&èkhjs uhps tkdj ikrkyhikuh esa feydj viuk
fof'k"V :i [kks nsrk gSA ;fn fdlh txg Hkwty] ikrkyhikuh [kkjk gS rks
jstk.khikuh Hkh mlesa feydj [kkjk gks tkrk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
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