NCERT Textbook - Satyajit Ray Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Satyajit Ray Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/31
vPNh rduhd og gS ftldk bLrseky fn[kkbZ u iM+sA
(iVdFkk&16 osQ lk{kkRdkj ls)
lR;ftr jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1921] dksydkrk (if'pe caxky)
izeq[k fI
+
kQYesa% vijkftrk] viw dk lalkj]
tylk?kj] nsoh pk#yrk] egkuxj] xksih xk;su
ckdk ck;su] iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)_ 'krjat
osQ f[kykM+h] ln~xfr (fganh)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% izks- 'kaoqQ osQ dkjukes] lksus dk
fdyk] tgk¡xhj dh Lo.kZ eqnzk] ckn'kkgh v¡xwBh
vkfnA
izeq[k lEeku% izQkal dk ystu Mh vkWuj] iwjs
thou dh miyfC/;ksa ij vkWLdj vkSj HkkjrjRu
lfgr fI
+
kQYe txr dk gj egRoiw.kZ lEeku
e`R;q % lu~~ 1992
Hkkjrh; flusek dks dykRed m¡QpkbZ iznku djus okys fI
+
kQYedkjksa esa lR;ftr jk;
vxyh drkj esa gSaA buosQ funsZ'ku esa igyh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYe iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)
1955 esa iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlus jk; dks varjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij izfr"Bk izkIr djusokyk
Hkkjrh; funsZ'kd cuk fn;kA budh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYeksa dh oqQy la[;k rhl osQ yxHkx
gSA bu fI
+
kQYeksa osQ ”kfj, bUgksaus fI
+
kQYe foèkk dks le`¼ gh ugha fd;k cfYd bl
ekè;e osQ ckjs esa funsZ'kdksa vkSj vkykspdksa osQ chp ,d le> fodflr djus esa
Hkh viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd budh ”;knkrj fI
+
kQYesa lkfgfR;d
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/31
vPNh rduhd og gS ftldk bLrseky fn[kkbZ u iM+sA
(iVdFkk&16 osQ lk{kkRdkj ls)
lR;ftr jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1921] dksydkrk (if'pe caxky)
izeq[k fI
+
kQYesa% vijkftrk] viw dk lalkj]
tylk?kj] nsoh pk#yrk] egkuxj] xksih xk;su
ckdk ck;su] iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)_ 'krjat
osQ f[kykM+h] ln~xfr (fganh)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% izks- 'kaoqQ osQ dkjukes] lksus dk
fdyk] tgk¡xhj dh Lo.kZ eqnzk] ckn'kkgh v¡xwBh
vkfnA
izeq[k lEeku% izQkal dk ystu Mh vkWuj] iwjs
thou dh miyfC/;ksa ij vkWLdj vkSj HkkjrjRu
lfgr fI
+
kQYe txr dk gj egRoiw.kZ lEeku
e`R;q % lu~~ 1992
Hkkjrh; flusek dks dykRed m¡QpkbZ iznku djus okys fI
+
kQYedkjksa esa lR;ftr jk;
vxyh drkj esa gSaA buosQ funsZ'ku esa igyh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYe iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)
1955 esa iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlus jk; dks varjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij izfr"Bk izkIr djusokyk
Hkkjrh; funsZ'kd cuk fn;kA budh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYeksa dh oqQy la[;k rhl osQ yxHkx
gSA bu fI
+
kQYeksa osQ ”kfj, bUgksaus fI
+
kQYe foèkk dks le`¼ gh ugha fd;k cfYd bl
ekè;e osQ ckjs esa funsZ'kdksa vkSj vkykspdksa osQ chp ,d le> fodflr djus esa
Hkh viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd budh ”;knkrj fI
+
kQYesa lkfgfR;d
© NCERT
not to be republished
32/vkjksg
Ñfr;ksa ij vk/kfjr gSaA buosQ ilanhnk lkfgR;dkjksa esa ckaXyk osQ foHkwfr Hkw"k.k
ca|ksikè;k; ls ysdj fganh osQ izsepan rd 'kkfey gSaA fI
+
kQYeksa osQ iVdFkk&ys[ku]
laxhr&la;kstu ,oa funsZ'ku osQ vykok jk; us ckaXyk esa cPpksa ,oa fd'kksjksa osQ fy,
ys[ku dk dke Hkh cgqr gh laTkhnxh osQ lkFk fd;k gSA budh fy[kh dgkfu;ksa esa
tklwlh jksekap osQ lkFk&lkFk isM+&ikS/s rFkk i'kq&i{kh dk lgt lalkj Hkh gSA
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky uked laLej.k iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe osQ vuqHkoksa ls
lacaf/r gS ftldk fuekZ.k Hkkjrh; fI
+
kQYe osQ bfrgkl esa ,d cgqr cM+h ?kVuk osQ
:i esa ntZ gSA blls fI
+
kQYe osQ l`tu vkSj mlosQ O;kdj.k ls lacaf/r dbZ
ckjhfd;ksa dk irk pyrk gSA ;gh ugha] tks fI
+
kQYeh nqfu;k gesa vius XySEkj ls
pqafèk;krh gqbZ tku iM+rh gS] mldk ,d ,slk lp gekjss lkeus vkrk gS] ftlesa
lkèkughurk osQ chp viuh dykn`f"V dks lkdkj djus dk la?k"kZ Hkh gSA bl ikB
dk Hkk"kkarj ckaXyk ewy ls foykl fxrs us fd;k gSA
fdlh fI
+
kQYedkj osQ fy, mldh igyh fI
+
kQYe ,d vcw> igsyh gksrh gSA cuus
;k u cu ikus dh vewrZ 'kadkvksa ls f?kjhA fI
+
kQYe iwjh gksrh gS rks fI
+
kQYedkj tUe
ysrk gSA viuh igyh fI
+
kQYe dh jpuk osQ nkSjku gj fI
+
kQYedkj dk vuqHko&lalkj
bruk jksekapdkjh gksrk gS fd og mlosQ thou esa cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa dh rjg
ges'kk thoar cuk jgrk gSA bl vuqHko lalkj esa nkf[ky gksuk ml csgrjhu fI
+
kQYe
ls xq”kjus ls de ugha gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/31
vPNh rduhd og gS ftldk bLrseky fn[kkbZ u iM+sA
(iVdFkk&16 osQ lk{kkRdkj ls)
lR;ftr jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1921] dksydkrk (if'pe caxky)
izeq[k fI
+
kQYesa% vijkftrk] viw dk lalkj]
tylk?kj] nsoh pk#yrk] egkuxj] xksih xk;su
ckdk ck;su] iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)_ 'krjat
osQ f[kykM+h] ln~xfr (fganh)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% izks- 'kaoqQ osQ dkjukes] lksus dk
fdyk] tgk¡xhj dh Lo.kZ eqnzk] ckn'kkgh v¡xwBh
vkfnA
izeq[k lEeku% izQkal dk ystu Mh vkWuj] iwjs
thou dh miyfC/;ksa ij vkWLdj vkSj HkkjrjRu
lfgr fI
+
kQYe txr dk gj egRoiw.kZ lEeku
e`R;q % lu~~ 1992
Hkkjrh; flusek dks dykRed m¡QpkbZ iznku djus okys fI
+
kQYedkjksa esa lR;ftr jk;
vxyh drkj esa gSaA buosQ funsZ'ku esa igyh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYe iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)
1955 esa iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlus jk; dks varjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij izfr"Bk izkIr djusokyk
Hkkjrh; funsZ'kd cuk fn;kA budh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYeksa dh oqQy la[;k rhl osQ yxHkx
gSA bu fI
+
kQYeksa osQ ”kfj, bUgksaus fI
+
kQYe foèkk dks le`¼ gh ugha fd;k cfYd bl
ekè;e osQ ckjs esa funsZ'kdksa vkSj vkykspdksa osQ chp ,d le> fodflr djus esa
Hkh viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd budh ”;knkrj fI
+
kQYesa lkfgfR;d
© NCERT
not to be republished
32/vkjksg
Ñfr;ksa ij vk/kfjr gSaA buosQ ilanhnk lkfgR;dkjksa esa ckaXyk osQ foHkwfr Hkw"k.k
ca|ksikè;k; ls ysdj fganh osQ izsepan rd 'kkfey gSaA fI
+
kQYeksa osQ iVdFkk&ys[ku]
laxhr&la;kstu ,oa funsZ'ku osQ vykok jk; us ckaXyk esa cPpksa ,oa fd'kksjksa osQ fy,
ys[ku dk dke Hkh cgqr gh laTkhnxh osQ lkFk fd;k gSA budh fy[kh dgkfu;ksa esa
tklwlh jksekap osQ lkFk&lkFk isM+&ikS/s rFkk i'kq&i{kh dk lgt lalkj Hkh gSA
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky uked laLej.k iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe osQ vuqHkoksa ls
lacaf/r gS ftldk fuekZ.k Hkkjrh; fI
+
kQYe osQ bfrgkl esa ,d cgqr cM+h ?kVuk osQ
:i esa ntZ gSA blls fI
+
kQYe osQ l`tu vkSj mlosQ O;kdj.k ls lacaf/r dbZ
ckjhfd;ksa dk irk pyrk gSA ;gh ugha] tks fI
+
kQYeh nqfu;k gesa vius XySEkj ls
pqafèk;krh gqbZ tku iM+rh gS] mldk ,d ,slk lp gekjss lkeus vkrk gS] ftlesa
lkèkughurk osQ chp viuh dykn`f"V dks lkdkj djus dk la?k"kZ Hkh gSA bl ikB
dk Hkk"kkarj ckaXyk ewy ls foykl fxrs us fd;k gSA
fdlh fI
+
kQYedkj osQ fy, mldh igyh fI
+
kQYe ,d vcw> igsyh gksrh gSA cuus
;k u cu ikus dh vewrZ 'kadkvksa ls f?kjhA fI
+
kQYe iwjh gksrh gS rks fI
+
kQYedkj tUe
ysrk gSA viuh igyh fI
+
kQYe dh jpuk osQ nkSjku gj fI
+
kQYedkj dk vuqHko&lalkj
bruk jksekapdkjh gksrk gS fd og mlosQ thou esa cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa dh rjg
ges'kk thoar cuk jgrk gSA bl vuqHko lalkj esa nkf[ky gksuk ml csgrjhu fI
+
kQYe
ls xq”kjus ls de ugha gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/33
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky
iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe dh 'kwfVax dk dke <kbZ lky rd pyk Fkk! bl <kbZ lky
osQ dky[kaM esa gj jks”k rks 'kwfVax gksrh ugha FkhA eSa rc ,d foKkiu oaQiuh esa
ukSdjh djrk FkkA ukSdjh osQ dke ls tc I
+
kqQlZr feyrh Fkh] rc 'kwfVax djrk FkkA
esjs ikl ml le; i;kZIr iSls Hkh ugha FksA iSls [kRe gksus osQ ckn] fiQj ls iSls
tek gksus rd 'kwfVax LFkfxr j[kuh iM+rh FkhA
'kwfVax dk vkjaHk djus ls igys fI
+
kQYe esa dke djus osQ fy, dykdkj bd_k
djus dk ,d cM+k vk;kstu gqvkA fo'ks"kdj viw dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus osQ fy, Ng
lky dk yM+dk fey gh ugha jgk FkkA vkf[kj eSaus v[kckj esa ml lanHkZ esa ,d
b'rgkj fn;kA
jklfcgkjh ,osU;w dh ,d fcfYaMx esa eSaus ,d dejk HkkM+s ij fy;k Fkk] ogk¡
ij cPps baVjO;w osQ fy, vkrs FksA cgqr&ls yM+osQ vk,] ysfdu viw dh Hkwfedk
osQ fy, eq>s ftl rjg dk yM+dk pkfg, Fkk] oSlk ,d Hkh ugha FkkA ,d fnu ,d
yM+dk vk;kA mldh xnZu ij yxk ikmMj ns[kdj eq>s 'kd gqvkA uke iwNus ij
uk”kqd vkok”k esa og cksykµ^fV;k*A mlosQ lkFk vk, mlosQ firk th ls eSaus iwNk]
^D;k vHkh&vHkh blosQ cky dVokdj ;gk¡ ys vk, gSa\* os lTtu idM+s x,A lp
fNik ugha losQ cksys] ^^vly esa ;g esjh csVh gSA viw dh Hkwfedk feyus dh
vk'kk ls blosQ cky dVokdj vkiosQ ;gk¡ ys vk;k gw¡A**
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/31
vPNh rduhd og gS ftldk bLrseky fn[kkbZ u iM+sA
(iVdFkk&16 osQ lk{kkRdkj ls)
lR;ftr jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1921] dksydkrk (if'pe caxky)
izeq[k fI
+
kQYesa% vijkftrk] viw dk lalkj]
tylk?kj] nsoh pk#yrk] egkuxj] xksih xk;su
ckdk ck;su] iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)_ 'krjat
osQ f[kykM+h] ln~xfr (fganh)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% izks- 'kaoqQ osQ dkjukes] lksus dk
fdyk] tgk¡xhj dh Lo.kZ eqnzk] ckn'kkgh v¡xwBh
vkfnA
izeq[k lEeku% izQkal dk ystu Mh vkWuj] iwjs
thou dh miyfC/;ksa ij vkWLdj vkSj HkkjrjRu
lfgr fI
+
kQYe txr dk gj egRoiw.kZ lEeku
e`R;q % lu~~ 1992
Hkkjrh; flusek dks dykRed m¡QpkbZ iznku djus okys fI
+
kQYedkjksa esa lR;ftr jk;
vxyh drkj esa gSaA buosQ funsZ'ku esa igyh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYe iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)
1955 esa iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlus jk; dks varjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij izfr"Bk izkIr djusokyk
Hkkjrh; funsZ'kd cuk fn;kA budh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYeksa dh oqQy la[;k rhl osQ yxHkx
gSA bu fI
+
kQYeksa osQ ”kfj, bUgksaus fI
+
kQYe foèkk dks le`¼ gh ugha fd;k cfYd bl
ekè;e osQ ckjs esa funsZ'kdksa vkSj vkykspdksa osQ chp ,d le> fodflr djus esa
Hkh viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd budh ”;knkrj fI
+
kQYesa lkfgfR;d
© NCERT
not to be republished
32/vkjksg
Ñfr;ksa ij vk/kfjr gSaA buosQ ilanhnk lkfgR;dkjksa esa ckaXyk osQ foHkwfr Hkw"k.k
ca|ksikè;k; ls ysdj fganh osQ izsepan rd 'kkfey gSaA fI
+
kQYeksa osQ iVdFkk&ys[ku]
laxhr&la;kstu ,oa funsZ'ku osQ vykok jk; us ckaXyk esa cPpksa ,oa fd'kksjksa osQ fy,
ys[ku dk dke Hkh cgqr gh laTkhnxh osQ lkFk fd;k gSA budh fy[kh dgkfu;ksa esa
tklwlh jksekap osQ lkFk&lkFk isM+&ikS/s rFkk i'kq&i{kh dk lgt lalkj Hkh gSA
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky uked laLej.k iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe osQ vuqHkoksa ls
lacaf/r gS ftldk fuekZ.k Hkkjrh; fI
+
kQYe osQ bfrgkl esa ,d cgqr cM+h ?kVuk osQ
:i esa ntZ gSA blls fI
+
kQYe osQ l`tu vkSj mlosQ O;kdj.k ls lacaf/r dbZ
ckjhfd;ksa dk irk pyrk gSA ;gh ugha] tks fI
+
kQYeh nqfu;k gesa vius XySEkj ls
pqafèk;krh gqbZ tku iM+rh gS] mldk ,d ,slk lp gekjss lkeus vkrk gS] ftlesa
lkèkughurk osQ chp viuh dykn`f"V dks lkdkj djus dk la?k"kZ Hkh gSA bl ikB
dk Hkk"kkarj ckaXyk ewy ls foykl fxrs us fd;k gSA
fdlh fI
+
kQYedkj osQ fy, mldh igyh fI
+
kQYe ,d vcw> igsyh gksrh gSA cuus
;k u cu ikus dh vewrZ 'kadkvksa ls f?kjhA fI
+
kQYe iwjh gksrh gS rks fI
+
kQYedkj tUe
ysrk gSA viuh igyh fI
+
kQYe dh jpuk osQ nkSjku gj fI
+
kQYedkj dk vuqHko&lalkj
bruk jksekapdkjh gksrk gS fd og mlosQ thou esa cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa dh rjg
ges'kk thoar cuk jgrk gSA bl vuqHko lalkj esa nkf[ky gksuk ml csgrjhu fI
+
kQYe
ls xq”kjus ls de ugha gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/33
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky
iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe dh 'kwfVax dk dke <kbZ lky rd pyk Fkk! bl <kbZ lky
osQ dky[kaM esa gj jks”k rks 'kwfVax gksrh ugha FkhA eSa rc ,d foKkiu oaQiuh esa
ukSdjh djrk FkkA ukSdjh osQ dke ls tc I
+
kqQlZr feyrh Fkh] rc 'kwfVax djrk FkkA
esjs ikl ml le; i;kZIr iSls Hkh ugha FksA iSls [kRe gksus osQ ckn] fiQj ls iSls
tek gksus rd 'kwfVax LFkfxr j[kuh iM+rh FkhA
'kwfVax dk vkjaHk djus ls igys fI
+
kQYe esa dke djus osQ fy, dykdkj bd_k
djus dk ,d cM+k vk;kstu gqvkA fo'ks"kdj viw dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus osQ fy, Ng
lky dk yM+dk fey gh ugha jgk FkkA vkf[kj eSaus v[kckj esa ml lanHkZ esa ,d
b'rgkj fn;kA
jklfcgkjh ,osU;w dh ,d fcfYaMx esa eSaus ,d dejk HkkM+s ij fy;k Fkk] ogk¡
ij cPps baVjO;w osQ fy, vkrs FksA cgqr&ls yM+osQ vk,] ysfdu viw dh Hkwfedk
osQ fy, eq>s ftl rjg dk yM+dk pkfg, Fkk] oSlk ,d Hkh ugha FkkA ,d fnu ,d
yM+dk vk;kA mldh xnZu ij yxk ikmMj ns[kdj eq>s 'kd gqvkA uke iwNus ij
uk”kqd vkok”k esa og cksykµ^fV;k*A mlosQ lkFk vk, mlosQ firk th ls eSaus iwNk]
^D;k vHkh&vHkh blosQ cky dVokdj ;gk¡ ys vk, gSa\* os lTtu idM+s x,A lp
fNik ugha losQ cksys] ^^vly esa ;g esjh csVh gSA viw dh Hkwfedk feyus dh
vk'kk ls blosQ cky dVokdj vkiosQ ;gk¡ ys vk;k gw¡A**
© NCERT
not to be republished
34/vkjksg
foKkiu nsdj Hkh viw dh Hkwfedk osQ fy, lgh rjg dk yM+dk u feyus
osQ dkj.k eSa rks csgky gks x;kA vkf[kj ,d fnu esjh iRuh Nr ls uhps vkdj
eq>ls cksyh] ^ikl okys edku dh Nr ij ,d yM+dk ns[kk] ”kjk mls cqykb,
rks!* vkf[kj gekjs iM+ksl osQ ?kj esa jgus okyk yM+dk lqchj cuthZ gh ^iFksj
ikapkyh* esa ^viw* cukA fI
+
kQYe dk dke vkxs Hkh <kbZ lky pyus okyk gS] bl
ckr dk vank”kk eq>s igys ugha FkkA blfy, tSls&tSls fnu chrus yxs] oSls&oSls
eq>s Mj yxus yxkA viw vkSj nqxkZ dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okys cPps vxj ”;knk cM+s
gks x,] rks fI
+
kQYe esa og fn[kkbZ nsxk! ysfdu esjh [kq'k fdLerh ls ml mez esa
cPps ftrus c<+rs gSa] mrus viw vkSj nqxkZ dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okys cPps ugha c<+sA
bafnjk Bkd#u dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okyh vLlh lky mez dh pqUuhckyk nsoh <kbZ
lky rd dke dj ldh] ;g Hkh esjs lkSHkkX; dh ckr FkhA
'kwfVax dh 'kq#vkr esa gh ,d xM+cM+ gks xbZA viw vkSj nqxkZ dks ysdj ge
dydÙkk* ls lÙkj ehy ij ikyflV uke osQ ,d xk¡o x,A ogk¡ jsy&ykbu osQ ikl
dk'kiwQyksa ls Hkjk ,d eSnku
FkkA viw vkSj nqxkZ igyh
ckj jsyxkM+h ns[krs gSaµ
bl lhu dh 'kwfVax gesa
djuh FkhA ;g lhu cgqr
gh cM+k FkkA ,d fnu esa
mldh 'kwfVax iwjh gksuk
ukeqefdu FkkA de&ls&
de nks fnu yx ldrs
FksA igys fnu tx¼k=kh iwtk
dk R;ksgkj FkkA nqxkZ osQ
ihNs&ihNs nkSM+rs gq, viw
* orZeku esa dksydkrk
iFksj ikapkyh fI+kQYe dk ,d n`';
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/31
vPNh rduhd og gS ftldk bLrseky fn[kkbZ u iM+sA
(iVdFkk&16 osQ lk{kkRdkj ls)
lR;ftr jk;
tUe% lu~~ 1921] dksydkrk (if'pe caxky)
izeq[k fI
+
kQYesa% vijkftrk] viw dk lalkj]
tylk?kj] nsoh pk#yrk] egkuxj] xksih xk;su
ckdk ck;su] iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)_ 'krjat
osQ f[kykM+h] ln~xfr (fganh)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% izks- 'kaoqQ osQ dkjukes] lksus dk
fdyk] tgk¡xhj dh Lo.kZ eqnzk] ckn'kkgh v¡xwBh
vkfnA
izeq[k lEeku% izQkal dk ystu Mh vkWuj] iwjs
thou dh miyfC/;ksa ij vkWLdj vkSj HkkjrjRu
lfgr fI
+
kQYe txr dk gj egRoiw.kZ lEeku
e`R;q % lu~~ 1992
Hkkjrh; flusek dks dykRed m¡QpkbZ iznku djus okys fI
+
kQYedkjksa esa lR;ftr jk;
vxyh drkj esa gSaA buosQ funsZ'ku esa igyh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYe iFksj ikapkyh (ckaXyk)
1955 esa iznf'kZr gqbZ] mlus jk; dks varjjk"Vªh; Lrj ij izfr"Bk izkIr djusokyk
Hkkjrh; funsZ'kd cuk fn;kA budh I
+
kQhpj fI
+
kQYeksa dh oqQy la[;k rhl osQ yxHkx
gSA bu fI
+
kQYeksa osQ ”kfj, bUgksaus fI
+
kQYe foèkk dks le`¼ gh ugha fd;k cfYd bl
ekè;e osQ ckjs esa funsZ'kdksa vkSj vkykspdksa osQ chp ,d le> fodflr djus esa
Hkh viuk ;ksxnku fn;kA è;ku nsus dh ckr gS fd budh ”;knkrj fI
+
kQYesa lkfgfR;d
© NCERT
not to be republished
32/vkjksg
Ñfr;ksa ij vk/kfjr gSaA buosQ ilanhnk lkfgR;dkjksa esa ckaXyk osQ foHkwfr Hkw"k.k
ca|ksikè;k; ls ysdj fganh osQ izsepan rd 'kkfey gSaA fI
+
kQYeksa osQ iVdFkk&ys[ku]
laxhr&la;kstu ,oa funsZ'ku osQ vykok jk; us ckaXyk esa cPpksa ,oa fd'kksjksa osQ fy,
ys[ku dk dke Hkh cgqr gh laTkhnxh osQ lkFk fd;k gSA budh fy[kh dgkfu;ksa esa
tklwlh jksekap osQ lkFk&lkFk isM+&ikS/s rFkk i'kq&i{kh dk lgt lalkj Hkh gSA
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky uked laLej.k iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe osQ vuqHkoksa ls
lacaf/r gS ftldk fuekZ.k Hkkjrh; fI
+
kQYe osQ bfrgkl esa ,d cgqr cM+h ?kVuk osQ
:i esa ntZ gSA blls fI
+
kQYe osQ l`tu vkSj mlosQ O;kdj.k ls lacaf/r dbZ
ckjhfd;ksa dk irk pyrk gSA ;gh ugha] tks fI
+
kQYeh nqfu;k gesa vius XySEkj ls
pqafèk;krh gqbZ tku iM+rh gS] mldk ,d ,slk lp gekjss lkeus vkrk gS] ftlesa
lkèkughurk osQ chp viuh dykn`f"V dks lkdkj djus dk la?k"kZ Hkh gSA bl ikB
dk Hkk"kkarj ckaXyk ewy ls foykl fxrs us fd;k gSA
fdlh fI
+
kQYedkj osQ fy, mldh igyh fI
+
kQYe ,d vcw> igsyh gksrh gSA cuus
;k u cu ikus dh vewrZ 'kadkvksa ls f?kjhA fI
+
kQYe iwjh gksrh gS rks fI
+
kQYedkj tUe
ysrk gSA viuh igyh fI
+
kQYe dh jpuk osQ nkSjku gj fI
+
kQYedkj dk vuqHko&lalkj
bruk jksekapdkjh gksrk gS fd og mlosQ thou esa cpiu dh Le`fr;ksa dh rjg
ges'kk thoar cuk jgrk gSA bl vuqHko lalkj esa nkf[ky gksuk ml csgrjhu fI
+
kQYe
ls xq”kjus ls de ugha gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/33
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky
iFksj ikapkyh fI
+
kQYe dh 'kwfVax dk dke <kbZ lky rd pyk Fkk! bl <kbZ lky
osQ dky[kaM esa gj jks”k rks 'kwfVax gksrh ugha FkhA eSa rc ,d foKkiu oaQiuh esa
ukSdjh djrk FkkA ukSdjh osQ dke ls tc I
+
kqQlZr feyrh Fkh] rc 'kwfVax djrk FkkA
esjs ikl ml le; i;kZIr iSls Hkh ugha FksA iSls [kRe gksus osQ ckn] fiQj ls iSls
tek gksus rd 'kwfVax LFkfxr j[kuh iM+rh FkhA
'kwfVax dk vkjaHk djus ls igys fI
+
kQYe esa dke djus osQ fy, dykdkj bd_k
djus dk ,d cM+k vk;kstu gqvkA fo'ks"kdj viw dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus osQ fy, Ng
lky dk yM+dk fey gh ugha jgk FkkA vkf[kj eSaus v[kckj esa ml lanHkZ esa ,d
b'rgkj fn;kA
jklfcgkjh ,osU;w dh ,d fcfYaMx esa eSaus ,d dejk HkkM+s ij fy;k Fkk] ogk¡
ij cPps baVjO;w osQ fy, vkrs FksA cgqr&ls yM+osQ vk,] ysfdu viw dh Hkwfedk
osQ fy, eq>s ftl rjg dk yM+dk pkfg, Fkk] oSlk ,d Hkh ugha FkkA ,d fnu ,d
yM+dk vk;kA mldh xnZu ij yxk ikmMj ns[kdj eq>s 'kd gqvkA uke iwNus ij
uk”kqd vkok”k esa og cksykµ^fV;k*A mlosQ lkFk vk, mlosQ firk th ls eSaus iwNk]
^D;k vHkh&vHkh blosQ cky dVokdj ;gk¡ ys vk, gSa\* os lTtu idM+s x,A lp
fNik ugha losQ cksys] ^^vly esa ;g esjh csVh gSA viw dh Hkwfedk feyus dh
vk'kk ls blosQ cky dVokdj vkiosQ ;gk¡ ys vk;k gw¡A**
© NCERT
not to be republished
34/vkjksg
foKkiu nsdj Hkh viw dh Hkwfedk osQ fy, lgh rjg dk yM+dk u feyus
osQ dkj.k eSa rks csgky gks x;kA vkf[kj ,d fnu esjh iRuh Nr ls uhps vkdj
eq>ls cksyh] ^ikl okys edku dh Nr ij ,d yM+dk ns[kk] ”kjk mls cqykb,
rks!* vkf[kj gekjs iM+ksl osQ ?kj esa jgus okyk yM+dk lqchj cuthZ gh ^iFksj
ikapkyh* esa ^viw* cukA fI
+
kQYe dk dke vkxs Hkh <kbZ lky pyus okyk gS] bl
ckr dk vank”kk eq>s igys ugha FkkA blfy, tSls&tSls fnu chrus yxs] oSls&oSls
eq>s Mj yxus yxkA viw vkSj nqxkZ dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okys cPps vxj ”;knk cM+s
gks x,] rks fI
+
kQYe esa og fn[kkbZ nsxk! ysfdu esjh [kq'k fdLerh ls ml mez esa
cPps ftrus c<+rs gSa] mrus viw vkSj nqxkZ dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okys cPps ugha c<+sA
bafnjk Bkd#u dh Hkwfedk fuHkkus okyh vLlh lky mez dh pqUuhckyk nsoh <kbZ
lky rd dke dj ldh] ;g Hkh esjs lkSHkkX; dh ckr FkhA
'kwfVax dh 'kq#vkr esa gh ,d xM+cM+ gks xbZA viw vkSj nqxkZ dks ysdj ge
dydÙkk* ls lÙkj ehy ij ikyflV uke osQ ,d xk¡o x,A ogk¡ jsy&ykbu osQ ikl
dk'kiwQyksa ls Hkjk ,d eSnku
FkkA viw vkSj nqxkZ igyh
ckj jsyxkM+h ns[krs gSaµ
bl lhu dh 'kwfVax gesa
djuh FkhA ;g lhu cgqr
gh cM+k FkkA ,d fnu esa
mldh 'kwfVax iwjh gksuk
ukeqefdu FkkA de&ls&
de nks fnu yx ldrs
FksA igys fnu tx¼k=kh iwtk
dk R;ksgkj FkkA nqxkZ osQ
ihNs&ihNs nkSM+rs gq, viw
* orZeku esa dksydkrk
iFksj ikapkyh fI+kQYe dk ,d n`';
© NCERT
not to be republished
viw osQ lkFk <kbZ lky/35
dk'kiwQyksa osQ ou esa igq¡prk gSA lqcg 'kwfVax 'kq: djosQ 'kke rd geus lhu dk
vkèkk Hkkx fpf=kr fd;kA funsZ'kd] Nk;kdkj] NksVs vfHkusrk&vfHkus=kh ge lHkh bl
{ks=k esa uokxr gksus osQ dkj.k FkksM+s ckSjk, gq, gh Fks] ckdh dk lhu ckn esa fpf=kr
djus dk fu.kZ; ysdj ge ?kj igq¡psA lkr fnu ckn 'kwfVax osQ fy, ml txg x,]
rks og txg ge igpku gh ugha ik,! yxk] ;s dgk¡ vk x, gSa ge\ dgk¡ x, os
lkjs dk'kiwQyA chp osQ lkr fnuksa esa tkuojksa us os lkjs dk'kiwQy [kk Mkys Fks! vc
vxj ge ml txg ckdh vkèks lhu dh 'kwfVax djrs] rks igys vkèks lhu osQ lkFk
mldk esy oSQls cSBrk\ mlesa ls ^oaQfVU;qbVh* unkjn gks tkrh!
ml lhu osQ ckdh va'k dh 'kwfVax geus mlosQ vxys lky 'kjn ½rq esa]
tc fiQj ls og eSnku dk'kiwQyksa ls Hkj x;k] rc dhA mlh le; jsyxkM+h osQ
Hkh 'kkWV~l fy,A ysfdu jsyxkM+h osQ brus 'kkWV~l Fks fd ,d jsyxkM+h ls dke ugha
pykA ,d osQ ckn ,d rhu jsyxkfM+;ksa dks geus 'kwfVax osQ fy, bLrseky fd;kA
lqcg ls ysdj nksigj rd fdruh jsyxkfM+;k¡ ml ykbu ij ls tkrh gSaµ;g igys
gh Vkbe&Vscy ns[kdj tku fy;k FkkA gj ,d Vªsu ,d gh fn'kk ls vkus okyh
FkhA ftl LVs'ku ls os jsyxkfM+;k¡ vkus okyh Fkha] ml LVs'ku ij gekjh Vhe osQ
vfuy ckcw FksA jsyxkM+h LVs'ku ls fudyrs le; vfuy ckcw Hkh baftu&Mªkboj dh
osQfcu esa p<+rs FksA D;ksafd xkM+h osQ 'kwfVax dh txg osQ ikl vkrs gh ckW;yj
esa dks;yk Mkyuk ”k:jh Fkk] rkfd dkyk èkqvk¡ fudysA lI
+
ksQn dk'kiwQyksa dh
i`"BHkwfe ij vxj dkyk èkqvk¡ ugha vk;k] rks n`'; oSQls vPNk yxsxk\
^iFksj ikapkyh* fI
+
kQYe esa tc ;g lhu fn[kkbZ nsrk gS] rc n'kZd igpku ugha
ikrs fd ml lhu esa geus rhu vyx&vyx jsyxkfM+;ksa dk bLrseky fd;k gSA
vkt osQ Mh”ky vkSj fctyh ij pyus okys batuksa osQ ;qx esa og n`'; ml izdkj
ls ge fpf=kr u dj ikrsA
vkfFkZd vHkko osQ dkj.k cgqr fnuksa rd gesa vyx&vyx leL;kvksa ls
tw>uk iM+kA ,d mnkgj.k nsrk gw¡A
© NCERT
not to be republished
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