NCERT Textbook - Shekhar Joshi Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Created by: Anant Ahuja

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Shekhar Joshi Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


54/vkjksg
varj dh ?kqeM+rh osnuk dks vk¡[kksa dh jkg ckgj fudky ysus ij euq"; tks
Hkh fu'p; djrk gS os Hkkoqd {k.kksa dh vis{kk vfèkd foosdiw.kZ gksrs gSaA
(nkT;w)
'ks[kj tks'kh
tUe% lu~ 1932] vYeksM+k (mÙkjkapy)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% dkslh dk ?kVokj] lkFk osQ yksx]
nkT;w] gyokgk] ukSjaxh chekj gS (dgkuh&laxzg)_
,d isM+ dh ;kn ('kCnfp=k&laxzg)
lEeku% igy lEeku
fiNyh lnh dk NBok¡ n'kd fganh dgkuh osQ
fy, ;qxkardkjh le; FkkA ,d lkFk dbZ ;qok
dgkuhdkjksa us vc rd pyh vkrh dgkfu;ksa osQ
jax&<ax ls vyx rjg dh dgkfu;k¡ fy[kuh 'kq:
dha vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs dgkuh dh fo/k lkfgR;&txr osQ osaQnz esa vk [kM+h gqbZA ml
iwjs mBku dks uke fn;k x;k ubZ dgkuh vkanksyuA bl vkanksyu osQ chp mHkjh
gqbZ izfrHkkvksa esa 'ks[kj tks'kh dk LFkku vU;re gSA mudh dgkfu;k¡ ubZ dgkuh
vkanksyu osQ izxfr'khy i{k dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSaA lekt dk esgurd'k vkSj
lqfo/kghu rcdk mudh dgkfu;ksa esa txg ikrk gSA fugk;r lgt ,oa vkMacjghu
Hkk"kk&'kSyh esa os lkekftd ;FkkFkZ osQ ckjhd uqDrksa dks idM+rs vkSj izLrqr djrs
gSaA muosQ jpuk&lalkj ls xq”kjrs gq, ledkyhu tuthou dh cgqfo/ foMacukvksa
dks eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slk djus esa mudh izxfr'khy thou&n`f"V vkSj
;FkkFkZ cksèk dk cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 2


54/vkjksg
varj dh ?kqeM+rh osnuk dks vk¡[kksa dh jkg ckgj fudky ysus ij euq"; tks
Hkh fu'p; djrk gS os Hkkoqd {k.kksa dh vis{kk vfèkd foosdiw.kZ gksrs gSaA
(nkT;w)
'ks[kj tks'kh
tUe% lu~ 1932] vYeksM+k (mÙkjkapy)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% dkslh dk ?kVokj] lkFk osQ yksx]
nkT;w] gyokgk] ukSjaxh chekj gS (dgkuh&laxzg)_
,d isM+ dh ;kn ('kCnfp=k&laxzg)
lEeku% igy lEeku
fiNyh lnh dk NBok¡ n'kd fganh dgkuh osQ
fy, ;qxkardkjh le; FkkA ,d lkFk dbZ ;qok
dgkuhdkjksa us vc rd pyh vkrh dgkfu;ksa osQ
jax&<ax ls vyx rjg dh dgkfu;k¡ fy[kuh 'kq:
dha vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs dgkuh dh fo/k lkfgR;&txr osQ osaQnz esa vk [kM+h gqbZA ml
iwjs mBku dks uke fn;k x;k ubZ dgkuh vkanksyuA bl vkanksyu osQ chp mHkjh
gqbZ izfrHkkvksa esa 'ks[kj tks'kh dk LFkku vU;re gSA mudh dgkfu;k¡ ubZ dgkuh
vkanksyu osQ izxfr'khy i{k dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSaA lekt dk esgurd'k vkSj
lqfo/kghu rcdk mudh dgkfu;ksa esa txg ikrk gSA fugk;r lgt ,oa vkMacjghu
Hkk"kk&'kSyh esa os lkekftd ;FkkFkZ osQ ckjhd uqDrksa dks idM+rs vkSj izLrqr djrs
gSaA muosQ jpuk&lalkj ls xq”kjrs gq, ledkyhu tuthou dh cgqfo/ foMacukvksa
dks eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slk djus esa mudh izxfr'khy thou&n`f"V vkSj
;FkkFkZ cksèk dk cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/55
'ks[kj th dh dgkfu;k¡ fofHkUu Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxzs”kh] iksfy'k
vkSj :lh esa Hkh vuwfnr gks pqdh gSaA mudh izfl¼ dgkuh nkT;w ij fpYMªal
fI
+
kQYe lkslkbVh }kjk fI
+
kQYe dk fuekZ.k Hkh gqvk gSA
xyrk yksgk 'ks[kj tks'kh dh dgkuh&dyk dk ,d izfrfuf/ uewuk gSA lekt
osQ tkfrxr foHkktu ij dbZ dks.kksa ls fVIi.kh djus okyh ;g dgkuh bl ckr dk
mnkgj.k gS fd 'ks[kj tks'kh osQ ys[ku esa vFkZ dh xgjkbZ dk fn[kkok vkSj
cM+cksykiu ftruk gh de gS] okLrfod vFkZ&xkaHkh;Z mruk gh vf/dA ys[kd dh
fdlh eq[kj fVIi.kh osQ cxSj gh iwjs ikB ls xq”kjrs gq, ge ;g ns[k ikrs gSa fd
,d esèkkoh] foaQrq fu/Zu czkã.k ;qod eksgu fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ pyrs ml
euksn'kk rd igq¡prk gS] tgk¡ mlosQ fy, tkrh; vfHkeku csekuh gks tkrk gSA
lkekftd fof/&fu"ks/ksa dks rkd ij j[kdj og /ujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj ij cSBrk
gh ugha] mlosQ dke esa Hkh viuh oqQ'kyrk fn[kkrk gSA eksgu dk O;fDrRo tkfrxr
vk/kj ij fufeZr >wBs HkkbZpkjs dh txg esgurd'kksa osQ lPps HkkbZpkjs dh izLrkouk
djrk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks yksgk xydj ,d u;k vkdkj ys jgk gksA
'ks[kj tks'kh/55
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 3


54/vkjksg
varj dh ?kqeM+rh osnuk dks vk¡[kksa dh jkg ckgj fudky ysus ij euq"; tks
Hkh fu'p; djrk gS os Hkkoqd {k.kksa dh vis{kk vfèkd foosdiw.kZ gksrs gSaA
(nkT;w)
'ks[kj tks'kh
tUe% lu~ 1932] vYeksM+k (mÙkjkapy)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% dkslh dk ?kVokj] lkFk osQ yksx]
nkT;w] gyokgk] ukSjaxh chekj gS (dgkuh&laxzg)_
,d isM+ dh ;kn ('kCnfp=k&laxzg)
lEeku% igy lEeku
fiNyh lnh dk NBok¡ n'kd fganh dgkuh osQ
fy, ;qxkardkjh le; FkkA ,d lkFk dbZ ;qok
dgkuhdkjksa us vc rd pyh vkrh dgkfu;ksa osQ
jax&<ax ls vyx rjg dh dgkfu;k¡ fy[kuh 'kq:
dha vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs dgkuh dh fo/k lkfgR;&txr osQ osaQnz esa vk [kM+h gqbZA ml
iwjs mBku dks uke fn;k x;k ubZ dgkuh vkanksyuA bl vkanksyu osQ chp mHkjh
gqbZ izfrHkkvksa esa 'ks[kj tks'kh dk LFkku vU;re gSA mudh dgkfu;k¡ ubZ dgkuh
vkanksyu osQ izxfr'khy i{k dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSaA lekt dk esgurd'k vkSj
lqfo/kghu rcdk mudh dgkfu;ksa esa txg ikrk gSA fugk;r lgt ,oa vkMacjghu
Hkk"kk&'kSyh esa os lkekftd ;FkkFkZ osQ ckjhd uqDrksa dks idM+rs vkSj izLrqr djrs
gSaA muosQ jpuk&lalkj ls xq”kjrs gq, ledkyhu tuthou dh cgqfo/ foMacukvksa
dks eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slk djus esa mudh izxfr'khy thou&n`f"V vkSj
;FkkFkZ cksèk dk cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/55
'ks[kj th dh dgkfu;k¡ fofHkUu Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxzs”kh] iksfy'k
vkSj :lh esa Hkh vuwfnr gks pqdh gSaA mudh izfl¼ dgkuh nkT;w ij fpYMªal
fI
+
kQYe lkslkbVh }kjk fI
+
kQYe dk fuekZ.k Hkh gqvk gSA
xyrk yksgk 'ks[kj tks'kh dh dgkuh&dyk dk ,d izfrfuf/ uewuk gSA lekt
osQ tkfrxr foHkktu ij dbZ dks.kksa ls fVIi.kh djus okyh ;g dgkuh bl ckr dk
mnkgj.k gS fd 'ks[kj tks'kh osQ ys[ku esa vFkZ dh xgjkbZ dk fn[kkok vkSj
cM+cksykiu ftruk gh de gS] okLrfod vFkZ&xkaHkh;Z mruk gh vf/dA ys[kd dh
fdlh eq[kj fVIi.kh osQ cxSj gh iwjs ikB ls xq”kjrs gq, ge ;g ns[k ikrs gSa fd
,d esèkkoh] foaQrq fu/Zu czkã.k ;qod eksgu fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ pyrs ml
euksn'kk rd igq¡prk gS] tgk¡ mlosQ fy, tkrh; vfHkeku csekuh gks tkrk gSA
lkekftd fof/&fu"ks/ksa dks rkd ij j[kdj og /ujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj ij cSBrk
gh ugha] mlosQ dke esa Hkh viuh oqQ'kyrk fn[kkrk gSA eksgu dk O;fDrRo tkfrxr
vk/kj ij fufeZr >wBs HkkbZpkjs dh txg esgurd'kksa osQ lPps HkkbZpkjs dh izLrkouk
djrk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks yksgk xydj ,d u;k vkdkj ys jgk gksA
'ks[kj tks'kh/55
© NCERT
not to be republished
56/vkjksg
xyrk yksgk
eksgu osQ iSj vuk;kl gh f'kYidkj Vksys dh vksj eqM+ x,A mlosQ eu osQ fdlh
dksus esa 'kk;n èkujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj dh og vuqxw¡t 'ks"k Fkh ftls og fiNys
rhu&pkj fnuksa ls nqdku dh vksj tkrs gq, nwj ls lqurk jgk FkkA fugkbZ ij j[ks
yky xeZ yksgs ij iM+rh gFkkSM+s dh èki~&èki~ vkok”k] BaMs yksgs ij yxrh pksV ls
mBrk Budrk Loj vkSj fu'kkuk lkèkus ls igys [kkyh fugkbZ ij iM+rh gFkkSM+h dh
[kud ftUgsa og nwj ls gh igpku ldrk FkkA
yacs csaVokys g¡lqos dks ysdj og ?kj ls bl mís'; ls fudyk Fkk fd vius
[ksrksa osQ fdukjs mx vkbZ dk¡Vsnkj >kfM+;ksa dks dkV&Nk¡Vdj lkI
+
kQ dj vk,xkA cw<+s
oa'khèkj th osQ cwrs dk vc ;g lc dke ugha jgkA ;gh D;k] tUe Hkj ftl
iqjksfgrkbZ osQ cwrs ij mUgksaus ?kj&lalkj pyk;k Fkk] og Hkh vc oSls dgk¡ dj ikrs
gSa! ;teku yksx mudh fu"Bk vkSj la;e osQ dkj.k gh muij J¼k j[krs gSa ysfdu
cq<+kis dk ttZj 'kjhj vc mruk dfBu Je vkSj ozr&miokl ugha >sy ikrkA
lqcg&lqcg tSls mlls lgkjk ikus dh uh;r ls gh mUgksaus xgjk fu%'okl ysdj
dgk Fkkµ
^vkt x.kukFk tkdj panznÙk th osQ fy, #nzhikB djuk Fkk] vc eqf'dy gh
yx jgk gSA ;g nks ehy dh lhèkh p<+kbZ vc vius cwrs dh ughaA ,dk,d uk Hkh
ugha dgk tk ldrk] oqQN le> esa ugha vkrk!*
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 4


54/vkjksg
varj dh ?kqeM+rh osnuk dks vk¡[kksa dh jkg ckgj fudky ysus ij euq"; tks
Hkh fu'p; djrk gS os Hkkoqd {k.kksa dh vis{kk vfèkd foosdiw.kZ gksrs gSaA
(nkT;w)
'ks[kj tks'kh
tUe% lu~ 1932] vYeksM+k (mÙkjkapy)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% dkslh dk ?kVokj] lkFk osQ yksx]
nkT;w] gyokgk] ukSjaxh chekj gS (dgkuh&laxzg)_
,d isM+ dh ;kn ('kCnfp=k&laxzg)
lEeku% igy lEeku
fiNyh lnh dk NBok¡ n'kd fganh dgkuh osQ
fy, ;qxkardkjh le; FkkA ,d lkFk dbZ ;qok
dgkuhdkjksa us vc rd pyh vkrh dgkfu;ksa osQ
jax&<ax ls vyx rjg dh dgkfu;k¡ fy[kuh 'kq:
dha vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs dgkuh dh fo/k lkfgR;&txr osQ osaQnz esa vk [kM+h gqbZA ml
iwjs mBku dks uke fn;k x;k ubZ dgkuh vkanksyuA bl vkanksyu osQ chp mHkjh
gqbZ izfrHkkvksa esa 'ks[kj tks'kh dk LFkku vU;re gSA mudh dgkfu;k¡ ubZ dgkuh
vkanksyu osQ izxfr'khy i{k dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSaA lekt dk esgurd'k vkSj
lqfo/kghu rcdk mudh dgkfu;ksa esa txg ikrk gSA fugk;r lgt ,oa vkMacjghu
Hkk"kk&'kSyh esa os lkekftd ;FkkFkZ osQ ckjhd uqDrksa dks idM+rs vkSj izLrqr djrs
gSaA muosQ jpuk&lalkj ls xq”kjrs gq, ledkyhu tuthou dh cgqfo/ foMacukvksa
dks eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slk djus esa mudh izxfr'khy thou&n`f"V vkSj
;FkkFkZ cksèk dk cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/55
'ks[kj th dh dgkfu;k¡ fofHkUu Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxzs”kh] iksfy'k
vkSj :lh esa Hkh vuwfnr gks pqdh gSaA mudh izfl¼ dgkuh nkT;w ij fpYMªal
fI
+
kQYe lkslkbVh }kjk fI
+
kQYe dk fuekZ.k Hkh gqvk gSA
xyrk yksgk 'ks[kj tks'kh dh dgkuh&dyk dk ,d izfrfuf/ uewuk gSA lekt
osQ tkfrxr foHkktu ij dbZ dks.kksa ls fVIi.kh djus okyh ;g dgkuh bl ckr dk
mnkgj.k gS fd 'ks[kj tks'kh osQ ys[ku esa vFkZ dh xgjkbZ dk fn[kkok vkSj
cM+cksykiu ftruk gh de gS] okLrfod vFkZ&xkaHkh;Z mruk gh vf/dA ys[kd dh
fdlh eq[kj fVIi.kh osQ cxSj gh iwjs ikB ls xq”kjrs gq, ge ;g ns[k ikrs gSa fd
,d esèkkoh] foaQrq fu/Zu czkã.k ;qod eksgu fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ pyrs ml
euksn'kk rd igq¡prk gS] tgk¡ mlosQ fy, tkrh; vfHkeku csekuh gks tkrk gSA
lkekftd fof/&fu"ks/ksa dks rkd ij j[kdj og /ujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj ij cSBrk
gh ugha] mlosQ dke esa Hkh viuh oqQ'kyrk fn[kkrk gSA eksgu dk O;fDrRo tkfrxr
vk/kj ij fufeZr >wBs HkkbZpkjs dh txg esgurd'kksa osQ lPps HkkbZpkjs dh izLrkouk
djrk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks yksgk xydj ,d u;k vkdkj ys jgk gksA
'ks[kj tks'kh/55
© NCERT
not to be republished
56/vkjksg
xyrk yksgk
eksgu osQ iSj vuk;kl gh f'kYidkj Vksys dh vksj eqM+ x,A mlosQ eu osQ fdlh
dksus esa 'kk;n èkujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj dh og vuqxw¡t 'ks"k Fkh ftls og fiNys
rhu&pkj fnuksa ls nqdku dh vksj tkrs gq, nwj ls lqurk jgk FkkA fugkbZ ij j[ks
yky xeZ yksgs ij iM+rh gFkkSM+s dh èki~&èki~ vkok”k] BaMs yksgs ij yxrh pksV ls
mBrk Budrk Loj vkSj fu'kkuk lkèkus ls igys [kkyh fugkbZ ij iM+rh gFkkSM+h dh
[kud ftUgsa og nwj ls gh igpku ldrk FkkA
yacs csaVokys g¡lqos dks ysdj og ?kj ls bl mís'; ls fudyk Fkk fd vius
[ksrksa osQ fdukjs mx vkbZ dk¡Vsnkj >kfM+;ksa dks dkV&Nk¡Vdj lkI
+
kQ dj vk,xkA cw<+s
oa'khèkj th osQ cwrs dk vc ;g lc dke ugha jgkA ;gh D;k] tUe Hkj ftl
iqjksfgrkbZ osQ cwrs ij mUgksaus ?kj&lalkj pyk;k Fkk] og Hkh vc oSls dgk¡ dj ikrs
gSa! ;teku yksx mudh fu"Bk vkSj la;e osQ dkj.k gh muij J¼k j[krs gSa ysfdu
cq<+kis dk ttZj 'kjhj vc mruk dfBu Je vkSj ozr&miokl ugha >sy ikrkA
lqcg&lqcg tSls mlls lgkjk ikus dh uh;r ls gh mUgksaus xgjk fu%'okl ysdj
dgk Fkkµ
^vkt x.kukFk tkdj panznÙk th osQ fy, #nzhikB djuk Fkk] vc eqf'dy gh
yx jgk gSA ;g nks ehy dh lhèkh p<+kbZ vc vius cwrs dh ughaA ,dk,d uk Hkh
ugha dgk tk ldrk] oqQN le> esa ugha vkrk!*
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/57
eksgu mudk vk'k; u le>rk gks ,slh ckr ugha ysfdu firk dh rjg ,sls
vuq"Bku dj ikus dk u mls vH;kl gh gS vkSj u oSlh xfrA firk dh ckrsa lqudj
Hkh mlus mudk Hkkj gydk djus dk dksbZ lq>ko ugha fn;kA tSls gok esa ckr dg
nh xbZ Fkh oSls gh vuqÙkfjr jg xbZA
firk dk Hkkj gydk djus osQ fy, og [ksrksa dh vksj pyk Fkk ysfdu g¡lqos
dh èkkj ij gkFk isQjrs gq, mls yxk og iwjh rjg oqaQn gks pqdh gSA
èkujke vius ck,¡ gkFk ls èkkSaduh iwQ¡drk gqvk nk,¡ gkFk ls Hkêòh esa xje gksrs
yksgs dks myV&iyV jgk Fkk vkSj eksgu Hk_h ls nwj gVdj ,d [kkyh dfuLrj osQ
mQij cSBk mldh dkjhxjh dks ikj[kh fuxkgksa ls ns[k jgk FkkA
^ekLVj f=kyksd flag rks vc xq”kj x, gksaxs]* eksgu us iwNkA
os nksuksa vc vius cpiu dh nqfu;k esa ykSV vk, FksA èkujke dh vk¡[kksa esa
,d ped&lh vk xbZA og cksyk] ^ekLlkc Hkh D;k vkneh Fks yyk! vHkh fiNys
lky gh xq”kjsA lp dgw¡] vkf[kjh ne rd mudh NM+h dk Mj yxk gh jgrk FkkA*
nksuksa gks&gks dj g¡l fn,A oqQN {k.kksa osQ fy, os nksuksa gh tSls fdlh chrh gqbZ
nqfu;k esa ykSV x,A
---xksiky flag dh nqdku ls gqDosQ dk vkf[kjh d'k [khapdj f=kyksd flag
LowQy dh pgkjnhokjh esa mrjrs gSaA
FkksM+h nsj igys rd èkekpkSdM+h epkrs] mBk&iVd djrs vkSj ckat osQ isM+ksa dh
Vgfu;ksa ij >wyrs cPpksa dks tSls lk¡i lw¡?k x;k gSA dM+s Loj esa og iwNrs gSa]
^izkFkZuk dj yh rqe yksxksa us\*
;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ;fn izkFkZuk gks xbZ gksrh rks xksiky flag dh nqdku rd
mudk leosr Loj igq¡prk gh] f=kyksd flag ?kwj&?kwjdj ,d&,d yM+osQ dks ns[krs
gSaA fiQj ogh dM+dnkj vkok”k] ^eksgu ugha vk;k vkt\*
eksgu mudk pgsrk f'k"; FkkA iqjksfgr [kkunku dk oqQ'kkxz cqf¼ dk ckyoQ
i<+us esa gh ugha] xk;u esa Hkh cstksM+A f=kyksd flag ekLVj us mls iwjs LowQy dk
ekWuhVj cuk j[kk FkkA ogh lqcg&lqcg] ^gs izHkks vkuannkrk! Kku gedks nhft,A*
dk igyk Loj mBkdj izkFkZuk 'kq: djrk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
Page 5


54/vkjksg
varj dh ?kqeM+rh osnuk dks vk¡[kksa dh jkg ckgj fudky ysus ij euq"; tks
Hkh fu'p; djrk gS os Hkkoqd {k.kksa dh vis{kk vfèkd foosdiw.kZ gksrs gSaA
(nkT;w)
'ks[kj tks'kh
tUe% lu~ 1932] vYeksM+k (mÙkjkapy)
izeq[k jpuk,¡% dkslh dk ?kVokj] lkFk osQ yksx]
nkT;w] gyokgk] ukSjaxh chekj gS (dgkuh&laxzg)_
,d isM+ dh ;kn ('kCnfp=k&laxzg)
lEeku% igy lEeku
fiNyh lnh dk NBok¡ n'kd fganh dgkuh osQ
fy, ;qxkardkjh le; FkkA ,d lkFk dbZ ;qok
dgkuhdkjksa us vc rd pyh vkrh dgkfu;ksa osQ
jax&<ax ls vyx rjg dh dgkfu;k¡ fy[kuh 'kq:
dha vkSj ns[krs&ns[krs dgkuh dh fo/k lkfgR;&txr osQ osaQnz esa vk [kM+h gqbZA ml
iwjs mBku dks uke fn;k x;k ubZ dgkuh vkanksyuA bl vkanksyu osQ chp mHkjh
gqbZ izfrHkkvksa esa 'ks[kj tks'kh dk LFkku vU;re gSA mudh dgkfu;k¡ ubZ dgkuh
vkanksyu osQ izxfr'khy i{k dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSaA lekt dk esgurd'k vkSj
lqfo/kghu rcdk mudh dgkfu;ksa esa txg ikrk gSA fugk;r lgt ,oa vkMacjghu
Hkk"kk&'kSyh esa os lkekftd ;FkkFkZ osQ ckjhd uqDrksa dks idM+rs vkSj izLrqr djrs
gSaA muosQ jpuk&lalkj ls xq”kjrs gq, ledkyhu tuthou dh cgqfo/ foMacukvksa
dks eglwl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,slk djus esa mudh izxfr'khy thou&n`f"V vkSj
;FkkFkZ cksèk dk cM+k ;ksxnku jgk gSA
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/55
'ks[kj th dh dgkfu;k¡ fofHkUu Hkkjrh; Hkk"kkvksa osQ vfrfjDr vaxzs”kh] iksfy'k
vkSj :lh esa Hkh vuwfnr gks pqdh gSaA mudh izfl¼ dgkuh nkT;w ij fpYMªal
fI
+
kQYe lkslkbVh }kjk fI
+
kQYe dk fuekZ.k Hkh gqvk gSA
xyrk yksgk 'ks[kj tks'kh dh dgkuh&dyk dk ,d izfrfuf/ uewuk gSA lekt
osQ tkfrxr foHkktu ij dbZ dks.kksa ls fVIi.kh djus okyh ;g dgkuh bl ckr dk
mnkgj.k gS fd 'ks[kj tks'kh osQ ys[ku esa vFkZ dh xgjkbZ dk fn[kkok vkSj
cM+cksykiu ftruk gh de gS] okLrfod vFkZ&xkaHkh;Z mruk gh vf/dA ys[kd dh
fdlh eq[kj fVIi.kh osQ cxSj gh iwjs ikB ls xq”kjrs gq, ge ;g ns[k ikrs gSa fd
,d esèkkoh] foaQrq fu/Zu czkã.k ;qod eksgu fdu ifjfLFkfr;ksa osQ pyrs ml
euksn'kk rd igq¡prk gS] tgk¡ mlosQ fy, tkrh; vfHkeku csekuh gks tkrk gSA
lkekftd fof/&fu"ks/ksa dks rkd ij j[kdj og /ujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj ij cSBrk
gh ugha] mlosQ dke esa Hkh viuh oqQ'kyrk fn[kkrk gSA eksgu dk O;fDrRo tkfrxr
vk/kj ij fufeZr >wBs HkkbZpkjs dh txg esgurd'kksa osQ lPps HkkbZpkjs dh izLrkouk
djrk izrhr gksrk gS] ekuks yksgk xydj ,d u;k vkdkj ys jgk gksA
'ks[kj tks'kh/55
© NCERT
not to be republished
56/vkjksg
xyrk yksgk
eksgu osQ iSj vuk;kl gh f'kYidkj Vksys dh vksj eqM+ x,A mlosQ eu osQ fdlh
dksus esa 'kk;n èkujke yksgkj osQ vkiQj dh og vuqxw¡t 'ks"k Fkh ftls og fiNys
rhu&pkj fnuksa ls nqdku dh vksj tkrs gq, nwj ls lqurk jgk FkkA fugkbZ ij j[ks
yky xeZ yksgs ij iM+rh gFkkSM+s dh èki~&èki~ vkok”k] BaMs yksgs ij yxrh pksV ls
mBrk Budrk Loj vkSj fu'kkuk lkèkus ls igys [kkyh fugkbZ ij iM+rh gFkkSM+h dh
[kud ftUgsa og nwj ls gh igpku ldrk FkkA
yacs csaVokys g¡lqos dks ysdj og ?kj ls bl mís'; ls fudyk Fkk fd vius
[ksrksa osQ fdukjs mx vkbZ dk¡Vsnkj >kfM+;ksa dks dkV&Nk¡Vdj lkI
+
kQ dj vk,xkA cw<+s
oa'khèkj th osQ cwrs dk vc ;g lc dke ugha jgkA ;gh D;k] tUe Hkj ftl
iqjksfgrkbZ osQ cwrs ij mUgksaus ?kj&lalkj pyk;k Fkk] og Hkh vc oSls dgk¡ dj ikrs
gSa! ;teku yksx mudh fu"Bk vkSj la;e osQ dkj.k gh muij J¼k j[krs gSa ysfdu
cq<+kis dk ttZj 'kjhj vc mruk dfBu Je vkSj ozr&miokl ugha >sy ikrkA
lqcg&lqcg tSls mlls lgkjk ikus dh uh;r ls gh mUgksaus xgjk fu%'okl ysdj
dgk Fkkµ
^vkt x.kukFk tkdj panznÙk th osQ fy, #nzhikB djuk Fkk] vc eqf'dy gh
yx jgk gSA ;g nks ehy dh lhèkh p<+kbZ vc vius cwrs dh ughaA ,dk,d uk Hkh
ugha dgk tk ldrk] oqQN le> esa ugha vkrk!*
© NCERT
not to be republished
xyrk yksgk/57
eksgu mudk vk'k; u le>rk gks ,slh ckr ugha ysfdu firk dh rjg ,sls
vuq"Bku dj ikus dk u mls vH;kl gh gS vkSj u oSlh xfrA firk dh ckrsa lqudj
Hkh mlus mudk Hkkj gydk djus dk dksbZ lq>ko ugha fn;kA tSls gok esa ckr dg
nh xbZ Fkh oSls gh vuqÙkfjr jg xbZA
firk dk Hkkj gydk djus osQ fy, og [ksrksa dh vksj pyk Fkk ysfdu g¡lqos
dh èkkj ij gkFk isQjrs gq, mls yxk og iwjh rjg oqaQn gks pqdh gSA
èkujke vius ck,¡ gkFk ls èkkSaduh iwQ¡drk gqvk nk,¡ gkFk ls Hkêòh esa xje gksrs
yksgs dks myV&iyV jgk Fkk vkSj eksgu Hk_h ls nwj gVdj ,d [kkyh dfuLrj osQ
mQij cSBk mldh dkjhxjh dks ikj[kh fuxkgksa ls ns[k jgk FkkA
^ekLVj f=kyksd flag rks vc xq”kj x, gksaxs]* eksgu us iwNkA
os nksuksa vc vius cpiu dh nqfu;k esa ykSV vk, FksA èkujke dh vk¡[kksa esa
,d ped&lh vk xbZA og cksyk] ^ekLlkc Hkh D;k vkneh Fks yyk! vHkh fiNys
lky gh xq”kjsA lp dgw¡] vkf[kjh ne rd mudh NM+h dk Mj yxk gh jgrk FkkA*
nksuksa gks&gks dj g¡l fn,A oqQN {k.kksa osQ fy, os nksuksa gh tSls fdlh chrh gqbZ
nqfu;k esa ykSV x,A
---xksiky flag dh nqdku ls gqDosQ dk vkf[kjh d'k [khapdj f=kyksd flag
LowQy dh pgkjnhokjh esa mrjrs gSaA
FkksM+h nsj igys rd èkekpkSdM+h epkrs] mBk&iVd djrs vkSj ckat osQ isM+ksa dh
Vgfu;ksa ij >wyrs cPpksa dks tSls lk¡i lw¡?k x;k gSA dM+s Loj esa og iwNrs gSa]
^izkFkZuk dj yh rqe yksxksa us\*
;g tkurs gq, Hkh fd ;fn izkFkZuk gks xbZ gksrh rks xksiky flag dh nqdku rd
mudk leosr Loj igq¡prk gh] f=kyksd flag ?kwj&?kwjdj ,d&,d yM+osQ dks ns[krs
gSaA fiQj ogh dM+dnkj vkok”k] ^eksgu ugha vk;k vkt\*
eksgu mudk pgsrk f'k"; FkkA iqjksfgr [kkunku dk oqQ'kkxz cqf¼ dk ckyoQ
i<+us esa gh ugha] xk;u esa Hkh cstksM+A f=kyksd flag ekLVj us mls iwjs LowQy dk
ekWuhVj cuk j[kk FkkA ogh lqcg&lqcg] ^gs izHkks vkuannkrk! Kku gedks nhft,A*
dk igyk Loj mBkdj izkFkZuk 'kq: djrk FkkA
© NCERT
not to be republished
58/vkjksg
eksgu dks ysdj ekLVj f=kyksd flag dks cM+h mEehnsa FkhaA d{kk esa fdlh Nk=k
dks dksbZ loky u vkus ij ogh loky os eksgu ls iwNrs vkSj mudk vuqeku lgh
fudyrkA eksgu Bhd&Bhd mÙkj nsdj mUgsa larq"V dj nsrk vkSj rc os ml fiQlah
ckyd dks naM nsus dk Hkkj eksgu ij Mky nsrsA
^idM+ bldk dku] vkSj yxok blls nl mBd&cSBd]* os vkns'k ns nsrsA
èkujke Hkh mu vusd Nk=kksa esa ls ,d Fkk ftlus f=kyksd flag ekLVj osQ vkns'k
ij vius getksyh eksgu osQ gkFkksa dbZ ckj csar [kk, Fks ;k dku f[akpok, FksA eksgu
osQ izfr FkksM+h&cgqr bZ";kZ jgus ij Hkh èkujke izkjaHk ls gh mlosQ izfr Lusg vkSj
vknj dk Hkko j[krk FkkA bldk ,d dkj.k 'kk;n ;g Fkk fd cpiu ls gh eu
esa cSBk nh xbZ tkfrxr ghurk osQ dkj.k èkujke us dHkh eksgu dks viuk izfr}a}h
ugha le>k cfYd og bls eksgu dk vfèkdkj gh le>rk jgk FkkA chp&chp esa
f=kyksd flag ekLVj dk ;g dguk fd eksgu ,d fnu cgqr cM+k vkneh cudj
LowQy dk vkSj mudk uke Å¡pk djsxk] èkujke osQ fy, fdlh vkSj rjg ls lkspus
dh xqatkb'k gh ugha j[krk FkkA
vkSj èkujke! og xk¡o osQ nwljs [ksfrgj ;k e”knwj ifjokjksa osQ yM+dksa dh rjg
fdlh izdkj rhljs ntsZ rd gh LowQy dk eq¡g ns[k ik;k FkkA f=kyksd flag ekLVj
dHkh&dHkkj gh ml ij fo'ks"k è;ku nsrs FksA ,d fnu vpkud gh mUgksaus iwN
fy;k Fkk] ^èkuqok¡! rsjg dk igkM+k lquk rks!*
ckjg rd dk igkM+k rks mlus fdlh rjg ;kn dj fy;k Fkk ysfdu rsjg dk
gh igkM+k mlosQ fy, igkM+ gks x;k FkkA
^rsjS ,de rsjS
rsjS nw.kh pkSchl*
lVkd~! ,d laVh mldh fiaMfy;ksa ij ekLlkc us yxkbZ Fkh fd og VwV xbZA
xqLls esa mUgksaus vkns'k fn;k] ^tk! ukys ls ,d vPNh e”kcwr laVh rksM+dj yk]
fiQj rq>s rsjg dk igkM+k ;kn djkrk gw¡A*
© NCERT
not to be republished
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