NCERT Textbook - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : NCERT Textbook - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
25
Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and
the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution
1  The Age of Social Change
In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom
and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a
dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you
have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided
into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which
controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution,
it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including
Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who
controlled social power began to be discussed. In India, Raja
Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French
Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary
Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these
ideas of societal change.
Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation
of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some
change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who
wanted to restructure society radically. Some were ?conservatives?,
others were ?liberals? or ?radicals?. What did these terms really mean
in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics
and what linked them together? We must remember that these terms
do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times.
We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of
the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then
we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt
at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in
Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful
ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.
1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should
remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Chapter ll
Page 2


Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
25
Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and
the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution
1  The Age of Social Change
In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom
and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a
dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you
have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided
into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which
controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution,
it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including
Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who
controlled social power began to be discussed. In India, Raja
Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French
Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary
Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these
ideas of societal change.
Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation
of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some
change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who
wanted to restructure society radically. Some were ?conservatives?,
others were ?liberals? or ?radicals?. What did these terms really mean
in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics
and what linked them together? We must remember that these terms
do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times.
We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of
the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then
we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt
at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in
Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful
ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.
1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should
remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Chapter ll
India and the Contemporary World
26
favour of one religion or another (Britain favoured the Church of
England, Austria and Spain favoured the Catholic Church). Liberals
also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted
to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments. They
argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject
to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent
of rulers and officials. However, they were not ?democrats?. They
did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every
citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the
vote. They also did not want the vote for women.
In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based
on the majority of a country?s population. Many supported women?s
suffragette movements. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges
of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not
against the existence of private property but disliked concentration
of property in the hands of a few.
Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French
Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to
the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives
had been generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth
century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed
that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about
through a slow process.
Such differing ideas about societal change clashed during the social
and political turmoil that followed the French Revolution. The
various attempts at revolution and national transformation in the
nineteenth century helped define both the limits and potential of
these political tendencies.
1.2 Industrial Society and Social Change
These political trends were signs of a new time. It was a time of
profound social and economic changes. It was a time when new cities
came up and new industrialised regions developed,  railways expanded
and the Industrial Revolution occurred.
Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.  Work
hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was
common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing
rapidly. Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues.
New words
Suffragette movement ? A movement to
give women the right to vote.
Page 3


Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
25
Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and
the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution
1  The Age of Social Change
In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom
and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a
dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you
have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided
into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which
controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution,
it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including
Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who
controlled social power began to be discussed. In India, Raja
Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French
Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary
Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these
ideas of societal change.
Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation
of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some
change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who
wanted to restructure society radically. Some were ?conservatives?,
others were ?liberals? or ?radicals?. What did these terms really mean
in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics
and what linked them together? We must remember that these terms
do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times.
We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of
the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then
we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt
at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in
Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful
ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.
1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should
remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Chapter ll
India and the Contemporary World
26
favour of one religion or another (Britain favoured the Church of
England, Austria and Spain favoured the Catholic Church). Liberals
also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted
to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments. They
argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject
to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent
of rulers and officials. However, they were not ?democrats?. They
did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every
citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the
vote. They also did not want the vote for women.
In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based
on the majority of a country?s population. Many supported women?s
suffragette movements. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges
of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not
against the existence of private property but disliked concentration
of property in the hands of a few.
Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French
Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to
the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives
had been generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth
century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed
that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about
through a slow process.
Such differing ideas about societal change clashed during the social
and political turmoil that followed the French Revolution. The
various attempts at revolution and national transformation in the
nineteenth century helped define both the limits and potential of
these political tendencies.
1.2 Industrial Society and Social Change
These political trends were signs of a new time. It was a time of
profound social and economic changes. It was a time when new cities
came up and new industrialised regions developed,  railways expanded
and the Industrial Revolution occurred.
Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.  Work
hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was
common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing
rapidly. Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues.
New words
Suffragette movement ? A movement to
give women the right to vote.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
27
Almost all industries were the property of individuals.  Liberals and
radicals themselves were often property owners and employers.
Having made their wealth through trade or industrial ventures, they
felt that such effort should be encouraged ? that its benefits would
be achieved if the workforce in the economy was healthy and citizens
were educated. Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by
birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour
and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor
could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint,
they believed that societies would develop. Many working men and
women who wanted changes in the world rallied around liberal and
radical groups and parties in the early nineteenth century.
Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an
end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815. In
France, Italy, Germany and Russia, they became revolutionaries and
worked to overthrow existing monarchs. Nationalists talked of
revolutions that would create ?nations? where all citizens would have
Fig.1 ? The London poor in the mid-nineteenth century as seen by a
contemporary.
From: Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, 1861.
Page 4


Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
25
Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and
the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution
1  The Age of Social Change
In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom
and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a
dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you
have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided
into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which
controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution,
it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including
Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who
controlled social power began to be discussed. In India, Raja
Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French
Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary
Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these
ideas of societal change.
Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation
of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some
change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who
wanted to restructure society radically. Some were ?conservatives?,
others were ?liberals? or ?radicals?. What did these terms really mean
in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics
and what linked them together? We must remember that these terms
do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times.
We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of
the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then
we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt
at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in
Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful
ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.
1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should
remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Chapter ll
India and the Contemporary World
26
favour of one religion or another (Britain favoured the Church of
England, Austria and Spain favoured the Catholic Church). Liberals
also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted
to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments. They
argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject
to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent
of rulers and officials. However, they were not ?democrats?. They
did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every
citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the
vote. They also did not want the vote for women.
In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based
on the majority of a country?s population. Many supported women?s
suffragette movements. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges
of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not
against the existence of private property but disliked concentration
of property in the hands of a few.
Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French
Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to
the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives
had been generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth
century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed
that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about
through a slow process.
Such differing ideas about societal change clashed during the social
and political turmoil that followed the French Revolution. The
various attempts at revolution and national transformation in the
nineteenth century helped define both the limits and potential of
these political tendencies.
1.2 Industrial Society and Social Change
These political trends were signs of a new time. It was a time of
profound social and economic changes. It was a time when new cities
came up and new industrialised regions developed,  railways expanded
and the Industrial Revolution occurred.
Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.  Work
hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was
common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing
rapidly. Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues.
New words
Suffragette movement ? A movement to
give women the right to vote.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
27
Almost all industries were the property of individuals.  Liberals and
radicals themselves were often property owners and employers.
Having made their wealth through trade or industrial ventures, they
felt that such effort should be encouraged ? that its benefits would
be achieved if the workforce in the economy was healthy and citizens
were educated. Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by
birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour
and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor
could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint,
they believed that societies would develop. Many working men and
women who wanted changes in the world rallied around liberal and
radical groups and parties in the early nineteenth century.
Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an
end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815. In
France, Italy, Germany and Russia, they became revolutionaries and
worked to overthrow existing monarchs. Nationalists talked of
revolutions that would create ?nations? where all citizens would have
Fig.1 ? The London poor in the mid-nineteenth century as seen by a
contemporary.
From: Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, 1861.
India and the Contemporary World
28
Activity
equal rights. After 1815, Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist, conspired
with others to achieve this in Italy. Nationalists elsewhere ? including India
? read his writings.
1.3 The Coming of Socialism to Europe
Perhaps one of the most far-reaching visions of how society should be
structured was socialism. By the mid - nineteenth century in Europe, socialism
was a well-known body of ideas that attracted widespread attention.
Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills
of the time. Why? Individuals owned the property that gave employment
but the propertied were concerned only with  personal gain and not with
the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if society as a
whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention
would be paid to collective social interests. Socialists wanted this change and
campaigned for it.
How could a society without property operate? What would be the basis of
socialist society?
Socialists had different visions of the future. Some believed in the idea of
cooperatives. Robert Owen (1771-1858), a leading English manufacturer,
sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana
(USA). Other socialists felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide
scale only through individual initiative: they demanded that governments
encourage cooperatives. In France, for instance, Louis Blanc (1813-1882)
wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist
enterprises. These cooperatives were to be associations of people who
produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work
done by members.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) added other ideas
to this body of arguments. Marx argued that industrial society was ?capitalist?.
Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists
was produced by workers.  The conditions of workers could not improve
as long as this profit was accumulated by private capitalists. Workers had to
overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Marx believed that
to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a
radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This
would be a communist society. He was convinced that workers would
triumph in their conflict with capitalists. A communist society was the natural
society of the future.
List two differences between the capitalist
and socialist ideas of private property.
Page 5


Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
25
Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and Socialism in Europe and
the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution the Russian Revolution
1  The Age of Social Change
In the previous chapter you read about the powerful ideas of freedom
and equality that circulated in Europe after the French Revolution.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a
dramatic change in the way in which society was structured. As you
have read, before the eighteenth century society was broadly divided
into estates and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which
controlled economic and social power. Suddenly, after the revolution,
it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including
Europe and Asia, new ideas about individual rights and who
controlled social power began to be discussed. In India, Raja
Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French
Revolution, and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary
Europe. The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these
ideas of societal change.
Not everyone in Europe, however, wanted a complete transformation
of society. Responses varied from those who accepted that some
change was necessary but wished for a gradual shift, to those who
wanted to restructure society radically. Some were ?conservatives?,
others were ?liberals? or ?radicals?. What did these terms really mean
in the context of the time? What separated these strands of politics
and what linked them together? We must remember that these terms
do not mean the same thing in all contexts or at all times.
We will look briefly at some of the important political traditions of
the nineteenth century, and see how they influenced change. Then
we will focus on one historical event in which there was an attempt
at a radical transformation of society. Through the revolution in
Russia, socialism became one of the most significant and powerful
ideas to shape society in the twentieth century.
1.1 Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives
One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. We should
remember that at this time European states usually discriminated in Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Chapter ll
India and the Contemporary World
26
favour of one religion or another (Britain favoured the Church of
England, Austria and Spain favoured the Catholic Church). Liberals
also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted
to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments. They
argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject
to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent
of rulers and officials. However, they were not ?democrats?. They
did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every
citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the
vote. They also did not want the vote for women.
In contrast, radicals wanted a nation in which government was based
on the majority of a country?s population. Many supported women?s
suffragette movements. Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges
of great landowners and wealthy factory owners. They were not
against the existence of private property but disliked concentration
of property in the hands of a few.
Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French
Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to
the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives
had been generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth
century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed
that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about
through a slow process.
Such differing ideas about societal change clashed during the social
and political turmoil that followed the French Revolution. The
various attempts at revolution and national transformation in the
nineteenth century helped define both the limits and potential of
these political tendencies.
1.2 Industrial Society and Social Change
These political trends were signs of a new time. It was a time of
profound social and economic changes. It was a time when new cities
came up and new industrialised regions developed,  railways expanded
and the Industrial Revolution occurred.
Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories.  Work
hours were often long and wages were poor. Unemployment was
common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
Housing and sanitation were problems since towns were growing
rapidly. Liberals and radicals searched for solutions to these issues.
New words
Suffragette movement ? A movement to
give women the right to vote.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
27
Almost all industries were the property of individuals.  Liberals and
radicals themselves were often property owners and employers.
Having made their wealth through trade or industrial ventures, they
felt that such effort should be encouraged ? that its benefits would
be achieved if the workforce in the economy was healthy and citizens
were educated. Opposed to the privileges the old aristocracy had by
birth, they firmly believed in the value of individual effort, labour
and enterprise. If freedom of individuals was ensured, if the poor
could labour, and those with capital could operate without restraint,
they believed that societies would develop. Many working men and
women who wanted changes in the world rallied around liberal and
radical groups and parties in the early nineteenth century.
Some nationalists, liberals and radicals wanted revolutions to put an
end to the kind of governments established in Europe in 1815. In
France, Italy, Germany and Russia, they became revolutionaries and
worked to overthrow existing monarchs. Nationalists talked of
revolutions that would create ?nations? where all citizens would have
Fig.1 ? The London poor in the mid-nineteenth century as seen by a
contemporary.
From: Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor, 1861.
India and the Contemporary World
28
Activity
equal rights. After 1815, Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian nationalist, conspired
with others to achieve this in Italy. Nationalists elsewhere ? including India
? read his writings.
1.3 The Coming of Socialism to Europe
Perhaps one of the most far-reaching visions of how society should be
structured was socialism. By the mid - nineteenth century in Europe, socialism
was a well-known body of ideas that attracted widespread attention.
Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills
of the time. Why? Individuals owned the property that gave employment
but the propertied were concerned only with  personal gain and not with
the welfare of those who made the property productive. So if society as a
whole rather than single individuals controlled property, more attention
would be paid to collective social interests. Socialists wanted this change and
campaigned for it.
How could a society without property operate? What would be the basis of
socialist society?
Socialists had different visions of the future. Some believed in the idea of
cooperatives. Robert Owen (1771-1858), a leading English manufacturer,
sought to build a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana
(USA). Other socialists felt that cooperatives could not be built on a wide
scale only through individual initiative: they demanded that governments
encourage cooperatives. In France, for instance, Louis Blanc (1813-1882)
wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace capitalist
enterprises. These cooperatives were to be associations of people who
produced goods together and divided the profits according to the work
done by members.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) added other ideas
to this body of arguments. Marx argued that industrial society was ?capitalist?.
Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists
was produced by workers.  The conditions of workers could not improve
as long as this profit was accumulated by private capitalists. Workers had to
overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property. Marx believed that
to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a
radically socialist society where all property was socially controlled. This
would be a communist society. He was convinced that workers would
triumph in their conflict with capitalists. A communist society was the natural
society of the future.
List two differences between the capitalist
and socialist ideas of private property.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
29
Activity
1.4 Support for Socialism
By the 1870s, socialist ideas spread through Europe. To coordinate
their efforts, socialists formed an international body ? namely, the
Second International.
Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to
fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to
help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working
hours and the right to vote . In Germany , these associations w or ked c losely
with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and helped it win parliamentary
seats. By 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed a Labour Party in
Britain and a Socialist Party in France. However, till 1914, socialists never
succeeded in forming a government in Europe. Represented by strong
figures in parliamentary politics, their ideas did shape legislation, but
governments continued to be run by conservatives , liberals and radicals.
Imagine that a meeting has been called in
your area to discuss the socialist idea of
doing away with private property and
introducing collective ownership. Write the
speech you would make at the meeting if you
are:
! a poor labourer working in the fields
! a medium-level landowner
! a house owner
Fig.2 ? This is a painting of the Paris Commune of 1871 (From Illustrated London News, 1871). It portrays a scene from the
popular uprising in Paris between March and May 1871. This was a period when the town council (commune) of Paris was
taken over by a ?peoples? government? consisting of workers, ordinary people, professionals, political activists and others.
The uprising emerged against a background of growing discontent against the policies of the French state. The ?Paris
Commune? was ultimately crushed by government troops but it was celebrated by Socialists the world over as a prelude to a
socialist revolution.The Paris Commune  is also popularly remembered for two important legacies: one, for its association with
the workers? red flag ? that was the flag adopted by the communards ( revolutionaries) in Paris; two, for the ?Marseillaise?,
originally written as a war song in 1792, it became a symbol of the Commune and of the struggle for liberty.
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