NCERT Textbook - Suryakant Tripathi Nirala Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Suryakant Tripathi Nirala Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk*
tUe % lu~ 1899] efg"kkny] (caxky osQ esfnuhiqj f”kys esa)
ikfjokfjd xk¡o&x<+kdksyk] (mÂko] mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] csyk] u, iÙks]
vf.kek] rqylhnkl] oqQoqQjeqÙkk (dfork laxzg)_ prqjh pekj]
izHkkorh] fcYyslqj cdfjgk] pksVh dh idM+] dkys dkjukes
(x|)_ vkB [kaMksa esa ^fujkyk jpukoyh* izdkf'krA leUo;]
erokyk if=kdk dk laiknu
fuèku % lu~ 1961] (bykgkckn esa)
uo xfr uo y; rky Nan uo @ uoy oaQB uo tyn ean jo @
uo uHk osQ uo fogx o`an dks @ uo ij uo Loj nsA
dfork dks u;k Loj nsus okys fujkyk Nk;kokn osQ ,sls dfo gSa tks ,d vksj dchj
dh ijaijk ls tqM+rs gSa rks nwljh vksj ledkyhu dfo;ksa osQ izsj.kk lzksr Hkh gSaA mudk ;g
foLr`r dkO;&lalkj vius Hkhrj la?k"kZ vkSj thou] Økafr vkSj fuekZ.k] vkst vkSj ekèkq;Z]
vk'kk vkSj fujk'kk osQ }a} dks oqQN bl rjg lesVs gq, gS fd og fdlh lhek esa c¡èk ugha
ikrkA mudk ;g fuc±èk vkSj mnkÙk dkO;&O;fDrRo dfork vkSj thou esa iQk¡d ugha j[krkA
os vkil esa ?kqys&feys gSaA mYykl&'kksd] jkx&fojkx] mRFkku&iru] vaèkdkj&izdk'k dk
ltho dksykt gS mudh dforkA tc os eqDr Nan dh ckr djrs gSa rks osQoy Nan] :f<+;ksa
vkfn osQ caèku dks gh ugha rksM+rs cfYd dkO; fo"k; vkSj ;qx dh lhekvksa dks Hkh
vfrØfer djrs gSaA
fo"k;ksa vkSj Hkkoksa dh rjg Hkk"kk dh n`f"V ls Hkh fujkyk dh dfork osQ dbZ jax gSaA
,d rjI
+
kQ rRle lkekfld inkoyh vkSj èoU;kRed ¯ccksa ls ;qDr jke dh 'kfDr iwtk
vkSj dfBu Nan&lk/uk dk izfreku rqylhnkl gS] rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ns'kh VVosQ 'kCnksa dk
lksaèkkiu fy, oqQoqQjeqÙkk] jkuh vkSj dkuh] eg¡xw eg¡xk jgk tSlh dfork,¡ gSaA
7
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lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk*
tUe % lu~ 1899] efg"kkny] (caxky osQ esfnuhiqj f”kys esa)
ikfjokfjd xk¡o&x<+kdksyk] (mÂko] mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] csyk] u, iÙks]
vf.kek] rqylhnkl] oqQoqQjeqÙkk (dfork laxzg)_ prqjh pekj]
izHkkorh] fcYyslqj cdfjgk] pksVh dh idM+] dkys dkjukes
(x|)_ vkB [kaMksa esa ^fujkyk jpukoyh* izdkf'krA leUo;]
erokyk if=kdk dk laiknu
fuèku % lu~ 1961] (bykgkckn esa)
uo xfr uo y; rky Nan uo @ uoy oaQB uo tyn ean jo @
uo uHk osQ uo fogx o`an dks @ uo ij uo Loj nsA
dfork dks u;k Loj nsus okys fujkyk Nk;kokn osQ ,sls dfo gSa tks ,d vksj dchj
dh ijaijk ls tqM+rs gSa rks nwljh vksj ledkyhu dfo;ksa osQ izsj.kk lzksr Hkh gSaA mudk ;g
foLr`r dkO;&lalkj vius Hkhrj la?k"kZ vkSj thou] Økafr vkSj fuekZ.k] vkst vkSj ekèkq;Z]
vk'kk vkSj fujk'kk osQ }a} dks oqQN bl rjg lesVs gq, gS fd og fdlh lhek esa c¡èk ugha
ikrkA mudk ;g fuc±èk vkSj mnkÙk dkO;&O;fDrRo dfork vkSj thou esa iQk¡d ugha j[krkA
os vkil esa ?kqys&feys gSaA mYykl&'kksd] jkx&fojkx] mRFkku&iru] vaèkdkj&izdk'k dk
ltho dksykt gS mudh dforkA tc os eqDr Nan dh ckr djrs gSa rks osQoy Nan] :f<+;ksa
vkfn osQ caèku dks gh ugha rksM+rs cfYd dkO; fo"k; vkSj ;qx dh lhekvksa dks Hkh
vfrØfer djrs gSaA
fo"k;ksa vkSj Hkkoksa dh rjg Hkk"kk dh n`f"V ls Hkh fujkyk dh dfork osQ dbZ jax gSaA
,d rjI
+
kQ rRle lkekfld inkoyh vkSj èoU;kRed ¯ccksa ls ;qDr jke dh 'kfDr iwtk
vkSj dfBu Nan&lk/uk dk izfreku rqylhnkl gS] rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ns'kh VVosQ 'kCnksa dk
lksaèkkiu fy, oqQoqQjeqÙkk] jkuh vkSj dkuh] eg¡xw eg¡xk jgk tSlh dfork,¡ gSaA
7
vkjksg
40
fèko~Q thou tks @ ikrk gh vk;k fojksèk] dgus okys fujkyk mRdV vkRe'kfDr vkSj
vn~Hkqr ftthfo"kk osQ dfo gaS] tks gkj ugha ekurs vkSj fujk'kk osQ {k.kksa esa 'kfDr dh ekSfyd
dYiuk dj 'kfDr dk lkèku tqVkrs gSaA
blhfy, bl 'kfDrlkè; dfo fujkyk dks o"kkZ ½rq vfèkd vko`Q"V djrh gS_ D;ksafd
ckny osQ Hkhrj l`tu vkSj èoal dh rkdr ,d lkFk lekfgr gSA ckny mUgsa fiz; gS
D;ksafd Lo;a mudk O;fDrRo ckny osQ LoHkko osQ djhc gSA ckny fdlku osQ fy,
mYykl ,oa fuekZ.k dk rks e”knwj osQ lanHkZ esa Økafr ,oa cnyko dk vxznwr gSA
ckny jkx dfork vukfedk esa Ng [kaMksa esa izdkf'kr gSA ;gk¡ mldk NBk [kaM fy;k x;k
gSA y?kqekuo (vke vkneh) osQ nq[k ls =kLr dfo ;gk¡ ckny dk vkàku Økafr osQ :i eas dj
jgk gS D;ksafd foIyo jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA fdlku e”knwj dh vkdka{kk,¡ ckny dks
uo&fuekZ.k osQ jkx osQ :i iqdkj jgh gSaA
Økafr ges'kk oafprksa dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSµ bl vFkZ esa Hkh NksVs dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
v^ ^ ^ ^ ^kfydk ugha gS js esa Hkh oafprksa dh i{kèkjrk dh vuqxw¡t Li"V gSA
cknyksa osQ vax&vax esa fctfy;k¡ lksbZ gSa] otzikr ls muosQ 'kjhj vkgr Hkh gksa rks Hkh fgEer
ugha gkjrs] ckj&ckj fxjdj mBrs gSaA xxu LIk'khZ] Li¼kZ&èkhj ;s ckny njvly ohjksa dk ,d
izeÙk ny fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA pw¡fd ;s foIyo osQ ckny gSa] blfy, xtZu&rtZu veks?k gSaA
xjeh ls rih&>qylh èkjrh ij Økafr osQ lans'k dh rjg ckny vk, gSaA gj rjI
+
kQ lc oqQN
:[kk&lw[kk vkSj eqj>k;k&lk gSA vdky dh ¯prk ls O;koqQy fdlku ^gkM+&ek=k* gh jg x, gSaµ
th.kZ 'kjhj] =kLr u;ueq[k A iwjh èkjrh dk ân; nXèk gSµ,sls esa ckny dk izdV gksuk] izo`Qfr
esa vkSj txr esa] oSQls ifjorZu ?kfVr dj jgk gSµdfork bu fcacksa osQ ekè;e ls bldk vR;ar lty
vkSj O;atd laosQr djrh gSA
èkjrh osQ Hkhrj lks, vaoqQj uothou dh vk'kk esa flj m¡Qpk djosQ ckny dh mifLFkfr ntZ
dj jgs gSaA Økafr tks gfj;kyh yk,xh] mlosQ lcls mRiqQYy èkkjd u, ikSèks] NksVs cPps gh gksaxsA
lehj&lkxj osQ fojkV fcac ls fujkyk dh dfork 'kq: gksrh gSA ;g bdykSrk ¯cc bruk
fojkV vkSj O;atd gS fd fujkyk dk iwjk dkO;&O;fDrRo blesa meM+rk&?kqeM+rk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
bl rjg ;g dfork y?kqekuo dh [kq'kgkyh dk jkx cu xbZ gSA blhfy, ckny jkx ,d vksj
thou fuekZ.k osQ u, jkx dk lwpd gS rks nwljh vksj ml HkSjo laxhr dk] tks uo fuekZ.k dk dkj.k
curk gSA
Page 3


lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk*
tUe % lu~ 1899] efg"kkny] (caxky osQ esfnuhiqj f”kys esa)
ikfjokfjd xk¡o&x<+kdksyk] (mÂko] mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] csyk] u, iÙks]
vf.kek] rqylhnkl] oqQoqQjeqÙkk (dfork laxzg)_ prqjh pekj]
izHkkorh] fcYyslqj cdfjgk] pksVh dh idM+] dkys dkjukes
(x|)_ vkB [kaMksa esa ^fujkyk jpukoyh* izdkf'krA leUo;]
erokyk if=kdk dk laiknu
fuèku % lu~ 1961] (bykgkckn esa)
uo xfr uo y; rky Nan uo @ uoy oaQB uo tyn ean jo @
uo uHk osQ uo fogx o`an dks @ uo ij uo Loj nsA
dfork dks u;k Loj nsus okys fujkyk Nk;kokn osQ ,sls dfo gSa tks ,d vksj dchj
dh ijaijk ls tqM+rs gSa rks nwljh vksj ledkyhu dfo;ksa osQ izsj.kk lzksr Hkh gSaA mudk ;g
foLr`r dkO;&lalkj vius Hkhrj la?k"kZ vkSj thou] Økafr vkSj fuekZ.k] vkst vkSj ekèkq;Z]
vk'kk vkSj fujk'kk osQ }a} dks oqQN bl rjg lesVs gq, gS fd og fdlh lhek esa c¡èk ugha
ikrkA mudk ;g fuc±èk vkSj mnkÙk dkO;&O;fDrRo dfork vkSj thou esa iQk¡d ugha j[krkA
os vkil esa ?kqys&feys gSaA mYykl&'kksd] jkx&fojkx] mRFkku&iru] vaèkdkj&izdk'k dk
ltho dksykt gS mudh dforkA tc os eqDr Nan dh ckr djrs gSa rks osQoy Nan] :f<+;ksa
vkfn osQ caèku dks gh ugha rksM+rs cfYd dkO; fo"k; vkSj ;qx dh lhekvksa dks Hkh
vfrØfer djrs gSaA
fo"k;ksa vkSj Hkkoksa dh rjg Hkk"kk dh n`f"V ls Hkh fujkyk dh dfork osQ dbZ jax gSaA
,d rjI
+
kQ rRle lkekfld inkoyh vkSj èoU;kRed ¯ccksa ls ;qDr jke dh 'kfDr iwtk
vkSj dfBu Nan&lk/uk dk izfreku rqylhnkl gS] rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ns'kh VVosQ 'kCnksa dk
lksaèkkiu fy, oqQoqQjeqÙkk] jkuh vkSj dkuh] eg¡xw eg¡xk jgk tSlh dfork,¡ gSaA
7
vkjksg
40
fèko~Q thou tks @ ikrk gh vk;k fojksèk] dgus okys fujkyk mRdV vkRe'kfDr vkSj
vn~Hkqr ftthfo"kk osQ dfo gaS] tks gkj ugha ekurs vkSj fujk'kk osQ {k.kksa esa 'kfDr dh ekSfyd
dYiuk dj 'kfDr dk lkèku tqVkrs gSaA
blhfy, bl 'kfDrlkè; dfo fujkyk dks o"kkZ ½rq vfèkd vko`Q"V djrh gS_ D;ksafd
ckny osQ Hkhrj l`tu vkSj èoal dh rkdr ,d lkFk lekfgr gSA ckny mUgsa fiz; gS
D;ksafd Lo;a mudk O;fDrRo ckny osQ LoHkko osQ djhc gSA ckny fdlku osQ fy,
mYykl ,oa fuekZ.k dk rks e”knwj osQ lanHkZ esa Økafr ,oa cnyko dk vxznwr gSA
ckny jkx dfork vukfedk esa Ng [kaMksa esa izdkf'kr gSA ;gk¡ mldk NBk [kaM fy;k x;k
gSA y?kqekuo (vke vkneh) osQ nq[k ls =kLr dfo ;gk¡ ckny dk vkàku Økafr osQ :i eas dj
jgk gS D;ksafd foIyo jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA fdlku e”knwj dh vkdka{kk,¡ ckny dks
uo&fuekZ.k osQ jkx osQ :i iqdkj jgh gSaA
Økafr ges'kk oafprksa dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSµ bl vFkZ esa Hkh NksVs dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
v^ ^ ^ ^ ^kfydk ugha gS js esa Hkh oafprksa dh i{kèkjrk dh vuqxw¡t Li"V gSA
cknyksa osQ vax&vax esa fctfy;k¡ lksbZ gSa] otzikr ls muosQ 'kjhj vkgr Hkh gksa rks Hkh fgEer
ugha gkjrs] ckj&ckj fxjdj mBrs gSaA xxu LIk'khZ] Li¼kZ&èkhj ;s ckny njvly ohjksa dk ,d
izeÙk ny fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA pw¡fd ;s foIyo osQ ckny gSa] blfy, xtZu&rtZu veks?k gSaA
xjeh ls rih&>qylh èkjrh ij Økafr osQ lans'k dh rjg ckny vk, gSaA gj rjI
+
kQ lc oqQN
:[kk&lw[kk vkSj eqj>k;k&lk gSA vdky dh ¯prk ls O;koqQy fdlku ^gkM+&ek=k* gh jg x, gSaµ
th.kZ 'kjhj] =kLr u;ueq[k A iwjh èkjrh dk ân; nXèk gSµ,sls esa ckny dk izdV gksuk] izo`Qfr
esa vkSj txr esa] oSQls ifjorZu ?kfVr dj jgk gSµdfork bu fcacksa osQ ekè;e ls bldk vR;ar lty
vkSj O;atd laosQr djrh gSA
èkjrh osQ Hkhrj lks, vaoqQj uothou dh vk'kk esa flj m¡Qpk djosQ ckny dh mifLFkfr ntZ
dj jgs gSaA Økafr tks gfj;kyh yk,xh] mlosQ lcls mRiqQYy èkkjd u, ikSèks] NksVs cPps gh gksaxsA
lehj&lkxj osQ fojkV fcac ls fujkyk dh dfork 'kq: gksrh gSA ;g bdykSrk ¯cc bruk
fojkV vkSj O;atd gS fd fujkyk dk iwjk dkO;&O;fDrRo blesa meM+rk&?kqeM+rk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
bl rjg ;g dfork y?kqekuo dh [kq'kgkyh dk jkx cu xbZ gSA blhfy, ckny jkx ,d vksj
thou fuekZ.k osQ u, jkx dk lwpd gS rks nwljh vksj ml HkSjo laxhr dk] tks uo fuekZ.k dk dkj.k
curk gSA
ckny jkx
41
ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx
frjrh gS lehj&lkxj ij
vfLFkj lq[k ij nq[k dh Nk;kµ
tx osQ nXèk ân; ij
funZ; foIyo dh Iykfor ek;kµ
;g rsjh j.k&rjh
Hkjh vkdka{kkvksa ls]
?ku] Hksjh&xtZu ls ltx lqIr vaoqQj
mj esa i`Foh osQ] vk'kkvksa ls
uothou dh] m¡Qpk dj flj]
rkd jgs gSa] ,s foIyo osQ ckny!
fiQj&fiQj
ckj&ckj xtZu
o"kZ.k gS ewlyèkkj]
ân; Fkke ysrk lalkj]
lqu&lqu ?kksj otz&gaqdkjA
v'kfu&ikr ls 'kkfir mÂr 'kr&'kr ohj]
{kr&fo{kr gr vpy&'kjhj]
xxu&Li'khZ Li¼kZ èkhjA
g¡lrs gSa NksVs ikSèks y?kqHkkjµ
'kL; vikj]
fgy&fgy
f[ky&f[ky]
gkFk fgykrs]
rq>s cqykrs]
foIyo&jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA
Page 4


lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk*
tUe % lu~ 1899] efg"kkny] (caxky osQ esfnuhiqj f”kys esa)
ikfjokfjd xk¡o&x<+kdksyk] (mÂko] mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] csyk] u, iÙks]
vf.kek] rqylhnkl] oqQoqQjeqÙkk (dfork laxzg)_ prqjh pekj]
izHkkorh] fcYyslqj cdfjgk] pksVh dh idM+] dkys dkjukes
(x|)_ vkB [kaMksa esa ^fujkyk jpukoyh* izdkf'krA leUo;]
erokyk if=kdk dk laiknu
fuèku % lu~ 1961] (bykgkckn esa)
uo xfr uo y; rky Nan uo @ uoy oaQB uo tyn ean jo @
uo uHk osQ uo fogx o`an dks @ uo ij uo Loj nsA
dfork dks u;k Loj nsus okys fujkyk Nk;kokn osQ ,sls dfo gSa tks ,d vksj dchj
dh ijaijk ls tqM+rs gSa rks nwljh vksj ledkyhu dfo;ksa osQ izsj.kk lzksr Hkh gSaA mudk ;g
foLr`r dkO;&lalkj vius Hkhrj la?k"kZ vkSj thou] Økafr vkSj fuekZ.k] vkst vkSj ekèkq;Z]
vk'kk vkSj fujk'kk osQ }a} dks oqQN bl rjg lesVs gq, gS fd og fdlh lhek esa c¡èk ugha
ikrkA mudk ;g fuc±èk vkSj mnkÙk dkO;&O;fDrRo dfork vkSj thou esa iQk¡d ugha j[krkA
os vkil esa ?kqys&feys gSaA mYykl&'kksd] jkx&fojkx] mRFkku&iru] vaèkdkj&izdk'k dk
ltho dksykt gS mudh dforkA tc os eqDr Nan dh ckr djrs gSa rks osQoy Nan] :f<+;ksa
vkfn osQ caèku dks gh ugha rksM+rs cfYd dkO; fo"k; vkSj ;qx dh lhekvksa dks Hkh
vfrØfer djrs gSaA
fo"k;ksa vkSj Hkkoksa dh rjg Hkk"kk dh n`f"V ls Hkh fujkyk dh dfork osQ dbZ jax gSaA
,d rjI
+
kQ rRle lkekfld inkoyh vkSj èoU;kRed ¯ccksa ls ;qDr jke dh 'kfDr iwtk
vkSj dfBu Nan&lk/uk dk izfreku rqylhnkl gS] rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ns'kh VVosQ 'kCnksa dk
lksaèkkiu fy, oqQoqQjeqÙkk] jkuh vkSj dkuh] eg¡xw eg¡xk jgk tSlh dfork,¡ gSaA
7
vkjksg
40
fèko~Q thou tks @ ikrk gh vk;k fojksèk] dgus okys fujkyk mRdV vkRe'kfDr vkSj
vn~Hkqr ftthfo"kk osQ dfo gaS] tks gkj ugha ekurs vkSj fujk'kk osQ {k.kksa esa 'kfDr dh ekSfyd
dYiuk dj 'kfDr dk lkèku tqVkrs gSaA
blhfy, bl 'kfDrlkè; dfo fujkyk dks o"kkZ ½rq vfèkd vko`Q"V djrh gS_ D;ksafd
ckny osQ Hkhrj l`tu vkSj èoal dh rkdr ,d lkFk lekfgr gSA ckny mUgsa fiz; gS
D;ksafd Lo;a mudk O;fDrRo ckny osQ LoHkko osQ djhc gSA ckny fdlku osQ fy,
mYykl ,oa fuekZ.k dk rks e”knwj osQ lanHkZ esa Økafr ,oa cnyko dk vxznwr gSA
ckny jkx dfork vukfedk esa Ng [kaMksa esa izdkf'kr gSA ;gk¡ mldk NBk [kaM fy;k x;k
gSA y?kqekuo (vke vkneh) osQ nq[k ls =kLr dfo ;gk¡ ckny dk vkàku Økafr osQ :i eas dj
jgk gS D;ksafd foIyo jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA fdlku e”knwj dh vkdka{kk,¡ ckny dks
uo&fuekZ.k osQ jkx osQ :i iqdkj jgh gSaA
Økafr ges'kk oafprksa dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSµ bl vFkZ esa Hkh NksVs dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
v^ ^ ^ ^ ^kfydk ugha gS js esa Hkh oafprksa dh i{kèkjrk dh vuqxw¡t Li"V gSA
cknyksa osQ vax&vax esa fctfy;k¡ lksbZ gSa] otzikr ls muosQ 'kjhj vkgr Hkh gksa rks Hkh fgEer
ugha gkjrs] ckj&ckj fxjdj mBrs gSaA xxu LIk'khZ] Li¼kZ&èkhj ;s ckny njvly ohjksa dk ,d
izeÙk ny fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA pw¡fd ;s foIyo osQ ckny gSa] blfy, xtZu&rtZu veks?k gSaA
xjeh ls rih&>qylh èkjrh ij Økafr osQ lans'k dh rjg ckny vk, gSaA gj rjI
+
kQ lc oqQN
:[kk&lw[kk vkSj eqj>k;k&lk gSA vdky dh ¯prk ls O;koqQy fdlku ^gkM+&ek=k* gh jg x, gSaµ
th.kZ 'kjhj] =kLr u;ueq[k A iwjh èkjrh dk ân; nXèk gSµ,sls esa ckny dk izdV gksuk] izo`Qfr
esa vkSj txr esa] oSQls ifjorZu ?kfVr dj jgk gSµdfork bu fcacksa osQ ekè;e ls bldk vR;ar lty
vkSj O;atd laosQr djrh gSA
èkjrh osQ Hkhrj lks, vaoqQj uothou dh vk'kk esa flj m¡Qpk djosQ ckny dh mifLFkfr ntZ
dj jgs gSaA Økafr tks gfj;kyh yk,xh] mlosQ lcls mRiqQYy èkkjd u, ikSèks] NksVs cPps gh gksaxsA
lehj&lkxj osQ fojkV fcac ls fujkyk dh dfork 'kq: gksrh gSA ;g bdykSrk ¯cc bruk
fojkV vkSj O;atd gS fd fujkyk dk iwjk dkO;&O;fDrRo blesa meM+rk&?kqeM+rk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
bl rjg ;g dfork y?kqekuo dh [kq'kgkyh dk jkx cu xbZ gSA blhfy, ckny jkx ,d vksj
thou fuekZ.k osQ u, jkx dk lwpd gS rks nwljh vksj ml HkSjo laxhr dk] tks uo fuekZ.k dk dkj.k
curk gSA
ckny jkx
41
ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx
frjrh gS lehj&lkxj ij
vfLFkj lq[k ij nq[k dh Nk;kµ
tx osQ nXèk ân; ij
funZ; foIyo dh Iykfor ek;kµ
;g rsjh j.k&rjh
Hkjh vkdka{kkvksa ls]
?ku] Hksjh&xtZu ls ltx lqIr vaoqQj
mj esa i`Foh osQ] vk'kkvksa ls
uothou dh] m¡Qpk dj flj]
rkd jgs gSa] ,s foIyo osQ ckny!
fiQj&fiQj
ckj&ckj xtZu
o"kZ.k gS ewlyèkkj]
ân; Fkke ysrk lalkj]
lqu&lqu ?kksj otz&gaqdkjA
v'kfu&ikr ls 'kkfir mÂr 'kr&'kr ohj]
{kr&fo{kr gr vpy&'kjhj]
xxu&Li'khZ Li¼kZ èkhjA
g¡lrs gSa NksVs ikSèks y?kqHkkjµ
'kL; vikj]
fgy&fgy
f[ky&f[ky]
gkFk fgykrs]
rq>s cqykrs]
foIyo&jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA
vkjksg
42
v^kfydk ugha gS js
vkrad&Hkou
lnk iad ij gh gksrk
ty&foIyo&Iykou]
{kqnz iziqQYy tyt ls
lnk Nydrk uhj]
jksx&'kksd esa Hkh g¡lrk gS
'kS'ko dk lqoqQekj 'kjhjA
jQ¼ dks"k gS] {kqCèk rks"k
Page 5


lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk* lw;Zdkar f=ikBh ^fujkyk*
tUe % lu~ 1899] efg"kkny] (caxky osQ esfnuhiqj f”kys esa)
ikfjokfjd xk¡o&x<+kdksyk] (mÂko] mÙkj izns'k)
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % vukfedk] ifjey] xhfrdk] csyk] u, iÙks]
vf.kek] rqylhnkl] oqQoqQjeqÙkk (dfork laxzg)_ prqjh pekj]
izHkkorh] fcYyslqj cdfjgk] pksVh dh idM+] dkys dkjukes
(x|)_ vkB [kaMksa esa ^fujkyk jpukoyh* izdkf'krA leUo;]
erokyk if=kdk dk laiknu
fuèku % lu~ 1961] (bykgkckn esa)
uo xfr uo y; rky Nan uo @ uoy oaQB uo tyn ean jo @
uo uHk osQ uo fogx o`an dks @ uo ij uo Loj nsA
dfork dks u;k Loj nsus okys fujkyk Nk;kokn osQ ,sls dfo gSa tks ,d vksj dchj
dh ijaijk ls tqM+rs gSa rks nwljh vksj ledkyhu dfo;ksa osQ izsj.kk lzksr Hkh gSaA mudk ;g
foLr`r dkO;&lalkj vius Hkhrj la?k"kZ vkSj thou] Økafr vkSj fuekZ.k] vkst vkSj ekèkq;Z]
vk'kk vkSj fujk'kk osQ }a} dks oqQN bl rjg lesVs gq, gS fd og fdlh lhek esa c¡èk ugha
ikrkA mudk ;g fuc±èk vkSj mnkÙk dkO;&O;fDrRo dfork vkSj thou esa iQk¡d ugha j[krkA
os vkil esa ?kqys&feys gSaA mYykl&'kksd] jkx&fojkx] mRFkku&iru] vaèkdkj&izdk'k dk
ltho dksykt gS mudh dforkA tc os eqDr Nan dh ckr djrs gSa rks osQoy Nan] :f<+;ksa
vkfn osQ caèku dks gh ugha rksM+rs cfYd dkO; fo"k; vkSj ;qx dh lhekvksa dks Hkh
vfrØfer djrs gSaA
fo"k;ksa vkSj Hkkoksa dh rjg Hkk"kk dh n`f"V ls Hkh fujkyk dh dfork osQ dbZ jax gSaA
,d rjI
+
kQ rRle lkekfld inkoyh vkSj èoU;kRed ¯ccksa ls ;qDr jke dh 'kfDr iwtk
vkSj dfBu Nan&lk/uk dk izfreku rqylhnkl gS] rks nwljh rjI
+
kQ ns'kh VVosQ 'kCnksa dk
lksaèkkiu fy, oqQoqQjeqÙkk] jkuh vkSj dkuh] eg¡xw eg¡xk jgk tSlh dfork,¡ gSaA
7
vkjksg
40
fèko~Q thou tks @ ikrk gh vk;k fojksèk] dgus okys fujkyk mRdV vkRe'kfDr vkSj
vn~Hkqr ftthfo"kk osQ dfo gaS] tks gkj ugha ekurs vkSj fujk'kk osQ {k.kksa esa 'kfDr dh ekSfyd
dYiuk dj 'kfDr dk lkèku tqVkrs gSaA
blhfy, bl 'kfDrlkè; dfo fujkyk dks o"kkZ ½rq vfèkd vko`Q"V djrh gS_ D;ksafd
ckny osQ Hkhrj l`tu vkSj èoal dh rkdr ,d lkFk lekfgr gSA ckny mUgsa fiz; gS
D;ksafd Lo;a mudk O;fDrRo ckny osQ LoHkko osQ djhc gSA ckny fdlku osQ fy,
mYykl ,oa fuekZ.k dk rks e”knwj osQ lanHkZ esa Økafr ,oa cnyko dk vxznwr gSA
ckny jkx dfork vukfedk esa Ng [kaMksa esa izdkf'kr gSA ;gk¡ mldk NBk [kaM fy;k x;k
gSA y?kqekuo (vke vkneh) osQ nq[k ls =kLr dfo ;gk¡ ckny dk vkàku Økafr osQ :i eas dj
jgk gS D;ksafd foIyo jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA fdlku e”knwj dh vkdka{kk,¡ ckny dks
uo&fuekZ.k osQ jkx osQ :i iqdkj jgh gSaA
Økafr ges'kk oafprksa dk izfrfuf/Ro djrh gSµ bl vFkZ esa Hkh NksVs dks ns[kk tk ldrk gSA
v^ ^ ^ ^ ^kfydk ugha gS js esa Hkh oafprksa dh i{kèkjrk dh vuqxw¡t Li"V gSA
cknyksa osQ vax&vax esa fctfy;k¡ lksbZ gSa] otzikr ls muosQ 'kjhj vkgr Hkh gksa rks Hkh fgEer
ugha gkjrs] ckj&ckj fxjdj mBrs gSaA xxu LIk'khZ] Li¼kZ&èkhj ;s ckny njvly ohjksa dk ,d
izeÙk ny fn[kkbZ nsrs gSaA pw¡fd ;s foIyo osQ ckny gSa] blfy, xtZu&rtZu veks?k gSaA
xjeh ls rih&>qylh èkjrh ij Økafr osQ lans'k dh rjg ckny vk, gSaA gj rjI
+
kQ lc oqQN
:[kk&lw[kk vkSj eqj>k;k&lk gSA vdky dh ¯prk ls O;koqQy fdlku ^gkM+&ek=k* gh jg x, gSaµ
th.kZ 'kjhj] =kLr u;ueq[k A iwjh èkjrh dk ân; nXèk gSµ,sls esa ckny dk izdV gksuk] izo`Qfr
esa vkSj txr esa] oSQls ifjorZu ?kfVr dj jgk gSµdfork bu fcacksa osQ ekè;e ls bldk vR;ar lty
vkSj O;atd laosQr djrh gSA
èkjrh osQ Hkhrj lks, vaoqQj uothou dh vk'kk esa flj m¡Qpk djosQ ckny dh mifLFkfr ntZ
dj jgs gSaA Økafr tks gfj;kyh yk,xh] mlosQ lcls mRiqQYy èkkjd u, ikSèks] NksVs cPps gh gksaxsA
lehj&lkxj osQ fojkV fcac ls fujkyk dh dfork 'kq: gksrh gSA ;g bdykSrk ¯cc bruk
fojkV vkSj O;atd gS fd fujkyk dk iwjk dkO;&O;fDrRo blesa meM+rk&?kqeM+rk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA
bl rjg ;g dfork y?kqekuo dh [kq'kgkyh dk jkx cu xbZ gSA blhfy, ckny jkx ,d vksj
thou fuekZ.k osQ u, jkx dk lwpd gS rks nwljh vksj ml HkSjo laxhr dk] tks uo fuekZ.k dk dkj.k
curk gSA
ckny jkx
41
ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx ckny jkx
frjrh gS lehj&lkxj ij
vfLFkj lq[k ij nq[k dh Nk;kµ
tx osQ nXèk ân; ij
funZ; foIyo dh Iykfor ek;kµ
;g rsjh j.k&rjh
Hkjh vkdka{kkvksa ls]
?ku] Hksjh&xtZu ls ltx lqIr vaoqQj
mj esa i`Foh osQ] vk'kkvksa ls
uothou dh] m¡Qpk dj flj]
rkd jgs gSa] ,s foIyo osQ ckny!
fiQj&fiQj
ckj&ckj xtZu
o"kZ.k gS ewlyèkkj]
ân; Fkke ysrk lalkj]
lqu&lqu ?kksj otz&gaqdkjA
v'kfu&ikr ls 'kkfir mÂr 'kr&'kr ohj]
{kr&fo{kr gr vpy&'kjhj]
xxu&Li'khZ Li¼kZ èkhjA
g¡lrs gSa NksVs ikSèks y?kqHkkjµ
'kL; vikj]
fgy&fgy
f[ky&f[ky]
gkFk fgykrs]
rq>s cqykrs]
foIyo&jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrsA
vkjksg
42
v^kfydk ugha gS js
vkrad&Hkou
lnk iad ij gh gksrk
ty&foIyo&Iykou]
{kqnz iziqQYy tyt ls
lnk Nydrk uhj]
jksx&'kksd esa Hkh g¡lrk gS
'kS'ko dk lqoqQekj 'kjhjA
jQ¼ dks"k gS] {kqCèk rks"k
ckny jkx
43
vaxuk&vax ls fyiVs Hkh
vkrad vad ij dk¡i jgs gSaA
èkuh] otz&xtZu ls ckny!
=kLrµu;u eq[k <k¡i jgs gSaA
th.kZ ckgq] gS 'kh.kZ 'kjhj]
rq>s cqykrk o`Q"kd vèkhj]
,s foIyo osQ ohj!
pwl fy;k gS mldk lkj]
gkM+&ek=k gh gS vkèkkj]
,s thou osQ ikjkokj!
vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- vfLFkj lq[k ij nq[k dh Nk;k iafDr esa nq[k dh Nk;k fdls dgk x;k gS vkSj D;ksa\
2- v'kfu&ikr ls 'kkfir mÂr 'kr&'kr ohj iafDr esa fdldh vksj laosQr fd;k x;k gS\
3- foIyo&jo ls NksVs gh gSa 'kksHkk ikrs iafDr esa foIyo&jo ls D;k rkRi;Z gS\ NksVs gh gSa
'kksHkk ikrs ,slk D;ksa dgk x;k gS\
4- cknyksa osQ vkxeu ls izo`Qfr esa gksus okys fdu&fdu ifjorZuksa dks dfork js[kkafdr djrh gS\
O;k[;k dhft,
1- frjrh gS lehj&lkxj ij
vfLFkj lq[k ij nq[k dh Nk;kµ
tx osQ nXèk ân; ij
funZ; foIyo dh Iykfor ek;kµ
2- v^kfydk ugha gS js
vkrad&Hkou
lnk iad ij gh gksrk
ty&foIyo&Iykou
Read More
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