NCERT Textbook - Syed Raza Haider Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 11

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - Syed Raza Haider Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


118/vkjksg
dykdeZ ,d fofp=k mUekn gSA bls fo'okl ls lgstuk gSµ
laiw.kZrk ls] igkM+ksa osQ èkS;Z osQ leku] ekSu izrh{kk esa] vosQys ghA
(vkRek dk rki)
lS;n gSnj j”kk
tUe% lu~ 1922] ckcfj;k xk¡o (e-iz-)
lEeku% ^xzsM vkWo vkWfI
+
kQlj vkWo n vkWMZj vkWo
vkV~lZ ,saM ysVlZ*
j”kk us fp=kdyk dh f'k{kk ukxiqj LowQy vkWI
+
kQ
vkVZ o lj ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ] eqacbZ ls
izkIr dhA Hkkjr esa vusd izn'kZfu;k¡ vk;ksftr
djus osQ ckn lu~ 1950 esa os IkzQkalhlh ljdkj
dh Nk=ko`fÙk ij IkzQkal x, vkSj vè;;u fd;kA
vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fp=kdyk oQks ftu
dykdkjksa us u;k vkSj vk/qfud eqgkojk fn;k]
muesa lS;n gSnj j”kk dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA j”kk flI
+
kZQ blh otg ls dyk dh
nqfu;k esa lEekU; ugha gSa cfYd] ftu dykdkjksa us vkèkqfud Hkkjrh; dyk dks
varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izfrf"Br fd;k muesa gqlSu vkSj lw”kk osQ lkFk j”kk dk uke
vxyh iafDr esa vkrk gSA
 buesa gqlSu lcls ”;knk ?kqeDdM+ jgs] ysfdu mudk osaQnz Hkkjr gh jgkA
lw”kk U;w;koZQ pys x, vkSj j”kk isfjl esa tkdj cl x,A bl rjg j”kk dh dyk
esa Hkkjrh; vkSj if'peh dyk n`f"V;ksa dk esy gqvkA yacs le; rd if'pe esa
jgus vkSj ogk¡ dh dyk dh ckjhfd;ksa ls izHkkfor gksus osQ ckotwn j”kk BsB :i
ls Hkkjrh; dykdkj gSaA fcanq mudh dyk&jpuk osQ osaQnz esa gSA mudh dbZ
Page 2


118/vkjksg
dykdeZ ,d fofp=k mUekn gSA bls fo'okl ls lgstuk gSµ
laiw.kZrk ls] igkM+ksa osQ èkS;Z osQ leku] ekSu izrh{kk esa] vosQys ghA
(vkRek dk rki)
lS;n gSnj j”kk
tUe% lu~ 1922] ckcfj;k xk¡o (e-iz-)
lEeku% ^xzsM vkWo vkWfI
+
kQlj vkWo n vkWMZj vkWo
vkV~lZ ,saM ysVlZ*
j”kk us fp=kdyk dh f'k{kk ukxiqj LowQy vkWI
+
kQ
vkVZ o lj ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ] eqacbZ ls
izkIr dhA Hkkjr esa vusd izn'kZfu;k¡ vk;ksftr
djus osQ ckn lu~ 1950 esa os IkzQkalhlh ljdkj
dh Nk=ko`fÙk ij IkzQkal x, vkSj vè;;u fd;kA
vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fp=kdyk oQks ftu
dykdkjksa us u;k vkSj vk/qfud eqgkojk fn;k]
muesa lS;n gSnj j”kk dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA j”kk flI
+
kZQ blh otg ls dyk dh
nqfu;k esa lEekU; ugha gSa cfYd] ftu dykdkjksa us vkèkqfud Hkkjrh; dyk dks
varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izfrf"Br fd;k muesa gqlSu vkSj lw”kk osQ lkFk j”kk dk uke
vxyh iafDr esa vkrk gSA
 buesa gqlSu lcls ”;knk ?kqeDdM+ jgs] ysfdu mudk osaQnz Hkkjr gh jgkA
lw”kk U;w;koZQ pys x, vkSj j”kk isfjl esa tkdj cl x,A bl rjg j”kk dh dyk
esa Hkkjrh; vkSj if'peh dyk n`f"V;ksa dk esy gqvkA yacs le; rd if'pe esa
jgus vkSj ogk¡ dh dyk dh ckjhfd;ksa ls izHkkfor gksus osQ ckotwn j”kk BsB :i
ls Hkkjrh; dykdkj gSaA fcanq mudh dyk&jpuk osQ osaQnz esa gSA mudh dbZ
vkRek dk rki/119
dykÑfr;k¡ fcanq dk :ikdkj gSaA ;g fcanq osQoy :ikdkj ugha gS] cfYd
ikjaifjd Hkkjrh; fparu dk osaQnz&fcanq Hkh gSA ;gk¡ ;g Hkh xkSjryc gS fd fcanq
dh rjI
+
kQ mudk >qdko muosQ LowQyh f'k{kd uanyky >fj;k us djk;k FkkA
j”kk dh dyk vkSj O;fDrRo esa mnkÙkrk gSA mudh dyk esa jaxksa dh O;kidrk
vkSj vè;kRe dh xgjkbZ gSA mudh dyk dks Hkkjr vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa dkI
+
kQh
ljkgk x;k gSA #MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu] fi;js xksfncs;j] xhfr lsu] tkd yklsa] fe'ksy
,acs;j vkfn us j”kk ij eksuksxzkI
+
kQ fy[ks gSaA
;gk¡ fn;k x;k ikB lS;n gSnj j”kk dh vkRedFkkRed iqLrd vkRek dk rki
dk ,d vè;k; gSA bldk vaxzs”kh ls fganh vuqokn e/q ch- tks'kh us fd;k gSA
;gk¡ j”kk us fp=kdyk osQ {ks=k esa vius vkjafHkd la?k"kks± vkSj liQyrkvksa osQ ckjs
esa crk;k gSA ,d dykdkj dk thou&la?k"kZ vkSj dyk&la?k"kZ] mldh ltZukRed
cspSuh] viuh jpuk esa loZLo >ksad nsus dk mldk tquwu–;s lkjh ph”ksa blesa cgqr
jkspd o lgt 'kSyh esa mHkjdj vkbZ gSaA
lS;n gSnj j”kk/119
Page 3


118/vkjksg
dykdeZ ,d fofp=k mUekn gSA bls fo'okl ls lgstuk gSµ
laiw.kZrk ls] igkM+ksa osQ èkS;Z osQ leku] ekSu izrh{kk esa] vosQys ghA
(vkRek dk rki)
lS;n gSnj j”kk
tUe% lu~ 1922] ckcfj;k xk¡o (e-iz-)
lEeku% ^xzsM vkWo vkWfI
+
kQlj vkWo n vkWMZj vkWo
vkV~lZ ,saM ysVlZ*
j”kk us fp=kdyk dh f'k{kk ukxiqj LowQy vkWI
+
kQ
vkVZ o lj ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ] eqacbZ ls
izkIr dhA Hkkjr esa vusd izn'kZfu;k¡ vk;ksftr
djus osQ ckn lu~ 1950 esa os IkzQkalhlh ljdkj
dh Nk=ko`fÙk ij IkzQkal x, vkSj vè;;u fd;kA
vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fp=kdyk oQks ftu
dykdkjksa us u;k vkSj vk/qfud eqgkojk fn;k]
muesa lS;n gSnj j”kk dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA j”kk flI
+
kZQ blh otg ls dyk dh
nqfu;k esa lEekU; ugha gSa cfYd] ftu dykdkjksa us vkèkqfud Hkkjrh; dyk dks
varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izfrf"Br fd;k muesa gqlSu vkSj lw”kk osQ lkFk j”kk dk uke
vxyh iafDr esa vkrk gSA
 buesa gqlSu lcls ”;knk ?kqeDdM+ jgs] ysfdu mudk osaQnz Hkkjr gh jgkA
lw”kk U;w;koZQ pys x, vkSj j”kk isfjl esa tkdj cl x,A bl rjg j”kk dh dyk
esa Hkkjrh; vkSj if'peh dyk n`f"V;ksa dk esy gqvkA yacs le; rd if'pe esa
jgus vkSj ogk¡ dh dyk dh ckjhfd;ksa ls izHkkfor gksus osQ ckotwn j”kk BsB :i
ls Hkkjrh; dykdkj gSaA fcanq mudh dyk&jpuk osQ osaQnz esa gSA mudh dbZ
vkRek dk rki/119
dykÑfr;k¡ fcanq dk :ikdkj gSaA ;g fcanq osQoy :ikdkj ugha gS] cfYd
ikjaifjd Hkkjrh; fparu dk osaQnz&fcanq Hkh gSA ;gk¡ ;g Hkh xkSjryc gS fd fcanq
dh rjI
+
kQ mudk >qdko muosQ LowQyh f'k{kd uanyky >fj;k us djk;k FkkA
j”kk dh dyk vkSj O;fDrRo esa mnkÙkrk gSA mudh dyk esa jaxksa dh O;kidrk
vkSj vè;kRe dh xgjkbZ gSA mudh dyk dks Hkkjr vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa dkI
+
kQh
ljkgk x;k gSA #MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu] fi;js xksfncs;j] xhfr lsu] tkd yklsa] fe'ksy
,acs;j vkfn us j”kk ij eksuksxzkI
+
kQ fy[ks gSaA
;gk¡ fn;k x;k ikB lS;n gSnj j”kk dh vkRedFkkRed iqLrd vkRek dk rki
dk ,d vè;k; gSA bldk vaxzs”kh ls fganh vuqokn e/q ch- tks'kh us fd;k gSA
;gk¡ j”kk us fp=kdyk osQ {ks=k esa vius vkjafHkd la?k"kks± vkSj liQyrkvksa osQ ckjs
esa crk;k gSA ,d dykdkj dk thou&la?k"kZ vkSj dyk&la?k"kZ] mldh ltZukRed
cspSuh] viuh jpuk esa loZLo >ksad nsus dk mldk tquwu–;s lkjh ph”ksa blesa cgqr
jkspd o lgt 'kSyh esa mHkjdj vkbZ gSaA
lS;n gSnj j”kk/119 120/vkjksg
vkRek dk rki
ukxiqj LowQy dh ijh{kk esa eSa d{kk esa izFke vk;k] nl esa ls ukS fo"k;ksa esa eq>s
fo'ks"k ;ksX;rk izkIr gqbZA blls eq>s cM+h enn feyhA firk th fjVk;j gks pqosQ FksA
vc eq>s ukSdjh <w¡<+uh FkhA eSa xksafn;k
1
 esa Mªkbax dk vè;kid cu x;kA eghus&Hkj
esa gh eq>s cacbZ esa ^ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ* esa vè;;u osQ fy, eè; izkar dh
ljdkjh Nk=ko`fÙk feyhA ;g flracj 1943 dh ckr gSA eSaus vejkorh
2
 osQ xouZesaV
ukWeZy LowQy ls R;kxi=k ns fn;kA tc rd eSa cacbZ igq¡pk rc rd ts-ts- LowQy
esa nkf[kyk can gks pqdk FkkA nkf[kyk gks Hkh tkrk rks mifLFkfr dk izfr'kr iwjk u
gks ikrkA Nk=ko`fÙk okil ys yh xbZA ljdkj us eq>s vdksyk
3
 esa Mªkbax vè;kid
dh ukSdjh nsus dh is'kd'k dhA eSaus r; fd;k fd eSa ykSV¡wxk ugha] cacbZ esa gh
vè;;u d:¡xkA eq>s 'kgj ilan vk;k] okrkoj.k ilan vk;k] xSyfj;k¡ vkSj 'kgjksa
esa vius igys fe=k ilan vk,A vkSj Hkh vPNh ckr ;g gqbZ fd eq>s ,Dlizsl
CykWd LVwfM;ks esa fM”kkbuj dh ukSdjh fey xbZA ;g LVwfM;ks I
+
kQhjks”k'kkg esgrk jksM
ij FkkA ,d ckj fiQj dM+h esgur dk nkSj pykA djhc lky&Hkj esa gh LVwfM;ks
osQ ekfyd Jh tyhy vkSj eSustj Jh gqlSu us eq>s eq[; fM”kkbuj cuk fn;kA
lqcg nl cts ls 'kke Ng cts rd eSa nÝ
+
rj esa dke djrkA fiQj eSa vè;;u osQ
fy, eksgu vkVZ Dyc tkrk vkSj fiQj tsdc loZQy tgk¡ HkkbZ osQ ifjfpr ,d
VSDlh Mªkboj us eq>s jgus dh txg ns j[kh FkhA mlus dgk fd eSa rks VSDlh jkr
1] 2] 3 µ egkjk"Vª esa fLFkr
Page 4


118/vkjksg
dykdeZ ,d fofp=k mUekn gSA bls fo'okl ls lgstuk gSµ
laiw.kZrk ls] igkM+ksa osQ èkS;Z osQ leku] ekSu izrh{kk esa] vosQys ghA
(vkRek dk rki)
lS;n gSnj j”kk
tUe% lu~ 1922] ckcfj;k xk¡o (e-iz-)
lEeku% ^xzsM vkWo vkWfI
+
kQlj vkWo n vkWMZj vkWo
vkV~lZ ,saM ysVlZ*
j”kk us fp=kdyk dh f'k{kk ukxiqj LowQy vkWI
+
kQ
vkVZ o lj ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ] eqacbZ ls
izkIr dhA Hkkjr esa vusd izn'kZfu;k¡ vk;ksftr
djus osQ ckn lu~ 1950 esa os IkzQkalhlh ljdkj
dh Nk=ko`fÙk ij IkzQkal x, vkSj vè;;u fd;kA
vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fp=kdyk oQks ftu
dykdkjksa us u;k vkSj vk/qfud eqgkojk fn;k]
muesa lS;n gSnj j”kk dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA j”kk flI
+
kZQ blh otg ls dyk dh
nqfu;k esa lEekU; ugha gSa cfYd] ftu dykdkjksa us vkèkqfud Hkkjrh; dyk dks
varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izfrf"Br fd;k muesa gqlSu vkSj lw”kk osQ lkFk j”kk dk uke
vxyh iafDr esa vkrk gSA
 buesa gqlSu lcls ”;knk ?kqeDdM+ jgs] ysfdu mudk osaQnz Hkkjr gh jgkA
lw”kk U;w;koZQ pys x, vkSj j”kk isfjl esa tkdj cl x,A bl rjg j”kk dh dyk
esa Hkkjrh; vkSj if'peh dyk n`f"V;ksa dk esy gqvkA yacs le; rd if'pe esa
jgus vkSj ogk¡ dh dyk dh ckjhfd;ksa ls izHkkfor gksus osQ ckotwn j”kk BsB :i
ls Hkkjrh; dykdkj gSaA fcanq mudh dyk&jpuk osQ osaQnz esa gSA mudh dbZ
vkRek dk rki/119
dykÑfr;k¡ fcanq dk :ikdkj gSaA ;g fcanq osQoy :ikdkj ugha gS] cfYd
ikjaifjd Hkkjrh; fparu dk osaQnz&fcanq Hkh gSA ;gk¡ ;g Hkh xkSjryc gS fd fcanq
dh rjI
+
kQ mudk >qdko muosQ LowQyh f'k{kd uanyky >fj;k us djk;k FkkA
j”kk dh dyk vkSj O;fDrRo esa mnkÙkrk gSA mudh dyk esa jaxksa dh O;kidrk
vkSj vè;kRe dh xgjkbZ gSA mudh dyk dks Hkkjr vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa dkI
+
kQh
ljkgk x;k gSA #MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu] fi;js xksfncs;j] xhfr lsu] tkd yklsa] fe'ksy
,acs;j vkfn us j”kk ij eksuksxzkI
+
kQ fy[ks gSaA
;gk¡ fn;k x;k ikB lS;n gSnj j”kk dh vkRedFkkRed iqLrd vkRek dk rki
dk ,d vè;k; gSA bldk vaxzs”kh ls fganh vuqokn e/q ch- tks'kh us fd;k gSA
;gk¡ j”kk us fp=kdyk osQ {ks=k esa vius vkjafHkd la?k"kks± vkSj liQyrkvksa osQ ckjs
esa crk;k gSA ,d dykdkj dk thou&la?k"kZ vkSj dyk&la?k"kZ] mldh ltZukRed
cspSuh] viuh jpuk esa loZLo >ksad nsus dk mldk tquwu–;s lkjh ph”ksa blesa cgqr
jkspd o lgt 'kSyh esa mHkjdj vkbZ gSaA
lS;n gSnj j”kk/119 120/vkjksg
vkRek dk rki
ukxiqj LowQy dh ijh{kk esa eSa d{kk esa izFke vk;k] nl esa ls ukS fo"k;ksa esa eq>s
fo'ks"k ;ksX;rk izkIr gqbZA blls eq>s cM+h enn feyhA firk th fjVk;j gks pqosQ FksA
vc eq>s ukSdjh <w¡<+uh FkhA eSa xksafn;k
1
 esa Mªkbax dk vè;kid cu x;kA eghus&Hkj
esa gh eq>s cacbZ esa ^ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ* esa vè;;u osQ fy, eè; izkar dh
ljdkjh Nk=ko`fÙk feyhA ;g flracj 1943 dh ckr gSA eSaus vejkorh
2
 osQ xouZesaV
ukWeZy LowQy ls R;kxi=k ns fn;kA tc rd eSa cacbZ igq¡pk rc rd ts-ts- LowQy
esa nkf[kyk can gks pqdk FkkA nkf[kyk gks Hkh tkrk rks mifLFkfr dk izfr'kr iwjk u
gks ikrkA Nk=ko`fÙk okil ys yh xbZA ljdkj us eq>s vdksyk
3
 esa Mªkbax vè;kid
dh ukSdjh nsus dh is'kd'k dhA eSaus r; fd;k fd eSa ykSV¡wxk ugha] cacbZ esa gh
vè;;u d:¡xkA eq>s 'kgj ilan vk;k] okrkoj.k ilan vk;k] xSyfj;k¡ vkSj 'kgjksa
esa vius igys fe=k ilan vk,A vkSj Hkh vPNh ckr ;g gqbZ fd eq>s ,Dlizsl
CykWd LVwfM;ks esa fM”kkbuj dh ukSdjh fey xbZA ;g LVwfM;ks I
+
kQhjks”k'kkg esgrk jksM
ij FkkA ,d ckj fiQj dM+h esgur dk nkSj pykA djhc lky&Hkj esa gh LVwfM;ks
osQ ekfyd Jh tyhy vkSj eSustj Jh gqlSu us eq>s eq[; fM”kkbuj cuk fn;kA
lqcg nl cts ls 'kke Ng cts rd eSa nÝ
+
rj esa dke djrkA fiQj eSa vè;;u osQ
fy, eksgu vkVZ Dyc tkrk vkSj fiQj tsdc loZQy tgk¡ HkkbZ osQ ifjfpr ,d
VSDlh Mªkboj us eq>s jgus dh txg ns j[kh FkhA mlus dgk fd eSa rks VSDlh jkr
1] 2] 3 µ egkjk"Vª esa fLFkr
vkRek dk rki/121
dks gh pykrk gw¡ rks rqe ogk¡ lks ldrs gksA og fnu esa dejs ij ykSVrkA ;g
NksVk&lk dejk tsdc loZQy lkr jkLrk esa igyh eaf”ky ij FkkA ,d jkr tc
lk<+s ukS cts eSa dejs ij igq¡pk rks gekjs njok”ks ij ,d iqfylokyk [kM+k FkkA
mlus dgk fd rqe vanj ugha tk ldrs] ;gk¡ gR;k dh okjnkr gqbZ gSA geyksx
dHkh Hkh jktuhfr ;k fdlh Hkh rjg dh lafnXèk xfrfofèk;ksa esa 'kkfey ugha gq,
FksA esjh rks vDy xqe gks xbZA eSa rqjar iqfyl LVs'ku tkdj dfe'uj ls feykA mUgsa
crk;k fd eSa ,d fo|kFkhZ gw¡] tsdc loZQy esa jgrk gw¡] esjs dejs osQ ckgj
iqfylokyk [kM+k gS vkSj eq>s vanj ugha tkus ns jgk gSA mUgksaus crk;k fd esjs VSDlh
Mªkboj fe=k jkYI
+
kQ ij ;k eq> ij 'kd ugha gSA jkYI
+
kQ dh VSDlh esa fdlh us ,d
lokjh dh Nqjk ekjdj gR;k dj nh FkhA vxys fnu eSaus tyhy lkgc dks
jkedgkuh lqukbZ rks mUgksaus eq>s vkVZ fMikVZesaV esa dejk ns fn;kA eSa I
+
kQ'kZ ij lksrkA
os eq>ss jkr X;kjg&ckjg cts rd xfy;ksa osQ fp=k ;k vkSj rjg&rjg osQ LosQp
cukrs ns[krsA dHkh&dHkh os dgrs fd rqe cgqr nsj rd dke djrs jg x,] vc
lks tkvksA oqQN eghus ckn mUgksaus eq>s ,d cgqr 'kkunkj fBdkuk nsus dh
is'kd'k dhµmuosQ ppsjs HkkbZ osQ NBh eaf”ky osQ Ý
+
ySV dk ,d dejkA mlesa nks
iyax iM+s FksA mudh ;kstuk ;g Fkh fd vxj eSa muosQ ;gk¡ dke djrk jgk rks
eq>s dyk foHkkx dk izeq[k cuk fn;k tk,A eSa tsdc loZQy dk lkr jkLrs okyk
?kj vkSj mldk xyh”k okrkoj.k NksM+dj u, fBdkus ij vk x;k vkSj iwjh rjg
vius dke esa Mwc x;kA bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd pkj cjl esa] 1948 esa]
ckWEcs vkV~lZ lkslkbVh dk Lo.kZ ind eq>s feykA bl lEeku dks ikus okyk
eSa lcls de vk;q dk dykdkj FkkA nks cjl ckn eq>s izQkal ljdkj dh Nk=ko`fÙk
fey xbZA eSaus [kqn dks ;kn fnyk;k% Hkxoku osQ ?kj nsj gS] vaèksj ughaA esjs
igys nks fp=k uoacj 1943 esa vkV~lZ lkslkbVh vkWI
+
kQ bafM;k dh izn'kZuh esa iznf'kZr
gq,A mn~?kkVu esa eq>s vkeaf=kr ugha fd;k x;k] D;ksafd eSa tkuk&ekuk uke ugha FkkA
vxys fnu eSaus ^n VkbEl vkWWI
+
kQ bafM;k* esa izn'kZuh dh leh{kk i<+hA dyk&leh{kd
Page 5


118/vkjksg
dykdeZ ,d fofp=k mUekn gSA bls fo'okl ls lgstuk gSµ
laiw.kZrk ls] igkM+ksa osQ èkS;Z osQ leku] ekSu izrh{kk esa] vosQys ghA
(vkRek dk rki)
lS;n gSnj j”kk
tUe% lu~ 1922] ckcfj;k xk¡o (e-iz-)
lEeku% ^xzsM vkWo vkWfI
+
kQlj vkWo n vkWMZj vkWo
vkV~lZ ,saM ysVlZ*
j”kk us fp=kdyk dh f'k{kk ukxiqj LowQy vkWI
+
kQ
vkVZ o lj ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ] eqacbZ ls
izkIr dhA Hkkjr esa vusd izn'kZfu;k¡ vk;ksftr
djus osQ ckn lu~ 1950 esa os IkzQkalhlh ljdkj
dh Nk=ko`fÙk ij IkzQkal x, vkSj vè;;u fd;kA
vk/qfud Hkkjrh; fp=kdyk oQks ftu
dykdkjksa us u;k vkSj vk/qfud eqgkojk fn;k]
muesa lS;n gSnj j”kk dk uke egRoiw.kZ gSA j”kk flI
+
kZQ blh otg ls dyk dh
nqfu;k esa lEekU; ugha gSa cfYd] ftu dykdkjksa us vkèkqfud Hkkjrh; dyk dks
varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij izfrf"Br fd;k muesa gqlSu vkSj lw”kk osQ lkFk j”kk dk uke
vxyh iafDr esa vkrk gSA
 buesa gqlSu lcls ”;knk ?kqeDdM+ jgs] ysfdu mudk osaQnz Hkkjr gh jgkA
lw”kk U;w;koZQ pys x, vkSj j”kk isfjl esa tkdj cl x,A bl rjg j”kk dh dyk
esa Hkkjrh; vkSj if'peh dyk n`f"V;ksa dk esy gqvkA yacs le; rd if'pe esa
jgus vkSj ogk¡ dh dyk dh ckjhfd;ksa ls izHkkfor gksus osQ ckotwn j”kk BsB :i
ls Hkkjrh; dykdkj gSaA fcanq mudh dyk&jpuk osQ osaQnz esa gSA mudh dbZ
vkRek dk rki/119
dykÑfr;k¡ fcanq dk :ikdkj gSaA ;g fcanq osQoy :ikdkj ugha gS] cfYd
ikjaifjd Hkkjrh; fparu dk osaQnz&fcanq Hkh gSA ;gk¡ ;g Hkh xkSjryc gS fd fcanq
dh rjI
+
kQ mudk >qdko muosQ LowQyh f'k{kd uanyky >fj;k us djk;k FkkA
j”kk dh dyk vkSj O;fDrRo esa mnkÙkrk gSA mudh dyk esa jaxksa dh O;kidrk
vkSj vè;kRe dh xgjkbZ gSA mudh dyk dks Hkkjr vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa dkI
+
kQh
ljkgk x;k gSA #MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu] fi;js xksfncs;j] xhfr lsu] tkd yklsa] fe'ksy
,acs;j vkfn us j”kk ij eksuksxzkI
+
kQ fy[ks gSaA
;gk¡ fn;k x;k ikB lS;n gSnj j”kk dh vkRedFkkRed iqLrd vkRek dk rki
dk ,d vè;k; gSA bldk vaxzs”kh ls fganh vuqokn e/q ch- tks'kh us fd;k gSA
;gk¡ j”kk us fp=kdyk osQ {ks=k esa vius vkjafHkd la?k"kks± vkSj liQyrkvksa osQ ckjs
esa crk;k gSA ,d dykdkj dk thou&la?k"kZ vkSj dyk&la?k"kZ] mldh ltZukRed
cspSuh] viuh jpuk esa loZLo >ksad nsus dk mldk tquwu–;s lkjh ph”ksa blesa cgqr
jkspd o lgt 'kSyh esa mHkjdj vkbZ gSaA
lS;n gSnj j”kk/119 120/vkjksg
vkRek dk rki
ukxiqj LowQy dh ijh{kk esa eSa d{kk esa izFke vk;k] nl esa ls ukS fo"k;ksa esa eq>s
fo'ks"k ;ksX;rk izkIr gqbZA blls eq>s cM+h enn feyhA firk th fjVk;j gks pqosQ FksA
vc eq>s ukSdjh <w¡<+uh FkhA eSa xksafn;k
1
 esa Mªkbax dk vè;kid cu x;kA eghus&Hkj
esa gh eq>s cacbZ esa ^ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ* esa vè;;u osQ fy, eè; izkar dh
ljdkjh Nk=ko`fÙk feyhA ;g flracj 1943 dh ckr gSA eSaus vejkorh
2
 osQ xouZesaV
ukWeZy LowQy ls R;kxi=k ns fn;kA tc rd eSa cacbZ igq¡pk rc rd ts-ts- LowQy
esa nkf[kyk can gks pqdk FkkA nkf[kyk gks Hkh tkrk rks mifLFkfr dk izfr'kr iwjk u
gks ikrkA Nk=ko`fÙk okil ys yh xbZA ljdkj us eq>s vdksyk
3
 esa Mªkbax vè;kid
dh ukSdjh nsus dh is'kd'k dhA eSaus r; fd;k fd eSa ykSV¡wxk ugha] cacbZ esa gh
vè;;u d:¡xkA eq>s 'kgj ilan vk;k] okrkoj.k ilan vk;k] xSyfj;k¡ vkSj 'kgjksa
esa vius igys fe=k ilan vk,A vkSj Hkh vPNh ckr ;g gqbZ fd eq>s ,Dlizsl
CykWd LVwfM;ks esa fM”kkbuj dh ukSdjh fey xbZA ;g LVwfM;ks I
+
kQhjks”k'kkg esgrk jksM
ij FkkA ,d ckj fiQj dM+h esgur dk nkSj pykA djhc lky&Hkj esa gh LVwfM;ks
osQ ekfyd Jh tyhy vkSj eSustj Jh gqlSu us eq>s eq[; fM”kkbuj cuk fn;kA
lqcg nl cts ls 'kke Ng cts rd eSa nÝ
+
rj esa dke djrkA fiQj eSa vè;;u osQ
fy, eksgu vkVZ Dyc tkrk vkSj fiQj tsdc loZQy tgk¡ HkkbZ osQ ifjfpr ,d
VSDlh Mªkboj us eq>s jgus dh txg ns j[kh FkhA mlus dgk fd eSa rks VSDlh jkr
1] 2] 3 µ egkjk"Vª esa fLFkr
vkRek dk rki/121
dks gh pykrk gw¡ rks rqe ogk¡ lks ldrs gksA og fnu esa dejs ij ykSVrkA ;g
NksVk&lk dejk tsdc loZQy lkr jkLrk esa igyh eaf”ky ij FkkA ,d jkr tc
lk<+s ukS cts eSa dejs ij igq¡pk rks gekjs njok”ks ij ,d iqfylokyk [kM+k FkkA
mlus dgk fd rqe vanj ugha tk ldrs] ;gk¡ gR;k dh okjnkr gqbZ gSA geyksx
dHkh Hkh jktuhfr ;k fdlh Hkh rjg dh lafnXèk xfrfofèk;ksa esa 'kkfey ugha gq,
FksA esjh rks vDy xqe gks xbZA eSa rqjar iqfyl LVs'ku tkdj dfe'uj ls feykA mUgsa
crk;k fd eSa ,d fo|kFkhZ gw¡] tsdc loZQy esa jgrk gw¡] esjs dejs osQ ckgj
iqfylokyk [kM+k gS vkSj eq>s vanj ugha tkus ns jgk gSA mUgksaus crk;k fd esjs VSDlh
Mªkboj fe=k jkYI
+
kQ ij ;k eq> ij 'kd ugha gSA jkYI
+
kQ dh VSDlh esa fdlh us ,d
lokjh dh Nqjk ekjdj gR;k dj nh FkhA vxys fnu eSaus tyhy lkgc dks
jkedgkuh lqukbZ rks mUgksaus eq>s vkVZ fMikVZesaV esa dejk ns fn;kA eSa I
+
kQ'kZ ij lksrkA
os eq>ss jkr X;kjg&ckjg cts rd xfy;ksa osQ fp=k ;k vkSj rjg&rjg osQ LosQp
cukrs ns[krsA dHkh&dHkh os dgrs fd rqe cgqr nsj rd dke djrs jg x,] vc
lks tkvksA oqQN eghus ckn mUgksaus eq>s ,d cgqr 'kkunkj fBdkuk nsus dh
is'kd'k dhµmuosQ ppsjs HkkbZ osQ NBh eaf”ky osQ Ý
+
ySV dk ,d dejkA mlesa nks
iyax iM+s FksA mudh ;kstuk ;g Fkh fd vxj eSa muosQ ;gk¡ dke djrk jgk rks
eq>s dyk foHkkx dk izeq[k cuk fn;k tk,A eSa tsdc loZQy dk lkr jkLrs okyk
?kj vkSj mldk xyh”k okrkoj.k NksM+dj u, fBdkus ij vk x;k vkSj iwjh rjg
vius dke esa Mwc x;kA bldk ifj.kke ;g gqvk fd pkj cjl esa] 1948 esa]
ckWEcs vkV~lZ lkslkbVh dk Lo.kZ ind eq>s feykA bl lEeku dks ikus okyk
eSa lcls de vk;q dk dykdkj FkkA nks cjl ckn eq>s izQkal ljdkj dh Nk=ko`fÙk
fey xbZA eSaus [kqn dks ;kn fnyk;k% Hkxoku osQ ?kj nsj gS] vaèksj ughaA esjs
igys nks fp=k uoacj 1943 esa vkV~lZ lkslkbVh vkWI
+
kQ bafM;k dh izn'kZuh esa iznf'kZr
gq,A mn~?kkVu esa eq>s vkeaf=kr ugha fd;k x;k] D;ksafd eSa tkuk&ekuk uke ugha FkkA
vxys fnu eSaus ^n VkbEl vkWWI
+
kQ bafM;k* esa izn'kZuh dh leh{kk i<+hA dyk&leh{kd
122/vkjksg
#MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu us essjs fp=kksa dh dkI
+
kQh rkjhI
+
kQ dh FkhA mldk igyk okD; eq>s
vkt Hkh ;kn gS] ^^buesa ls dbZ fp=k igys Hkh izn£'kr gks pqosQ gSa] vkSj u;ksa esa
dksbZ ubZ izfrHkk ugha fn[khA gk¡] ,l-,p- j”kk osQ uke osQ Nk=k osQ ,d&nks tyjax
yqHkkous gSaA muesa la;kstu vkSj jaxksa osQ n{k iz;ksx dh ”kcjnLr le>nkjh fn[krh
gSA** nksuksa fp=k 40&40 #i;s esa fcd x,A ,Dlizsl CykWd LVwfM;ks”k esa vkB&nl
?kaVk jks”k dke djus osQ ckn Hkh eghus&Hkj esa eq>s brus #i;s ugha fey ikrs FksA
osful vdkneh osQ izksI
+
ksQlj okYVj ySaxgSej ls HksaV gqbZ rks mUgksaus teZu mPpkj.kokyh
vaxsz”kh esa dgk] ^^vkbZ yÝM ;wvj LVWI
+
kQ] feLVj jR”kk** (j”kk lkgc] eq>s vkidk
dke ilan vk;k)A #MkWYI
+
kQ okWu ysMsu Hkh Ñik cuk, j[krs FksA blosQ ckn fo;uk
osQ ,d dyk&laxzkgd ,Eesuq,y 'ySflaxj esjs dke osQ iz'kald cus] ;g esjh
cgqewY; miyfCèk FkhA le; osQ lkFk&lkFk ph”ksa gksrh pyh xb±A izksI
+
ksQlj ySaxgSej
us dke djus osQ fy, viuk LVwfM;ks ns fn;kA os ^n VkbEl vkWI
+
kQ bafM;k* esa vkVZ
Mk;jsDVj FksA eSa fnu esa muosQ LVwfM;ks esa fp=k cukrk] 'kke dks fp=k mUgsa fn[kkrk
rks os ckjhdh ls mudk fo'ys"k.k djrsA esjs dke esa mudh #fp c<+rh xbZA esjk
dke fu[kjrk x;kA os esjs fp=k [kjhnus yxs vkSj vkf[kj esjs fy, ukSdjh NksM+dj
dyk osQ vè;;u esa tqV ikuk laHko gks ldkA 1947 esa eSa ts-ts- LowQy vkWI
+
kQ vkVZ
dk fu;fer Nk=k cu x;k] D;ksafd vc eSa ukSdjh fd, fcuk Hkh viuh I
+
kQhl vkSj
jgus dk [kpkZ mBk ldrk FkkA
Hkys gh 1947 vkSj 1948 esa egRoiw.kZ ?kVuk,¡ ?kVh gksa] esjs fy, os dfBu
cjl FksA igys rks dY;k.k okys ?kj esa esjs ikl jgrs esjh ek¡ dk nsgkar gks x;kA
firk th esjs ikl gh FksA os eaMyk ykSV x,A ebZ 1948 esa os Hkh ugha jgsA foHkktu
dh =kklnh osQ ckotwn Hkkjr Lora=k FkkA mRlkg Fkk] mnklh Hkh FkhA thou ij
vpkud f”kEesnkfj;ksa dk cks> vk iM+kA ge ;qok FksA eSa iPphl cjl dk Fkk]
ys[kdksa] dfo;ksa] fp=kdkjksa dh laxr FkhA gesa yxrk Fkk fd ge igkM+ fgyk ldrs
gSaA vkSj lHkh vius&vius {ks=kksa esa] vius ekè;e esa lkeF;Z Hkj&cf<+;k dke djus
Read More
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