NCERT Textbook - उमाशंकर जोशी Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Hindi Class 12

Humanities/Arts : NCERT Textbook - उमाशंकर जोशी Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


vkjksg
62
mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh
tUe % lu~ 1911] xqtjkr esa
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % fo'o 'kkafr] xaxks=kh] fu'khFk] izkphuk]
vkfrF;] olar o"kkZ] egkizLFkku] vfHkKk (,dkadh)_ lkiukHkkjk]
'kghn (dgkuh)_Jko.kh es.kks] folkeks (miU;kl)_
ikjdkat.;k (fucaèk)_ xks"Bh] m?kkM+hckjh] Dykardfo]
EgkjklkWusV] LoIuiz;k.k (laiknu)
lu~ 1947 ls laLo`Qfr if=kdk dk laiknu
fu/u % lu~ 1988
rax vk x;k gw¡ @ cM+ksa dh vYirk ls @ th jgk gw¡ @ ns[k dj NksVksa dh cM+kbZ
chloha lnh dh xqtjkrh dfork vkSj lkfgR; dks u;h Hkafxek vkSj u;k Loj nsusokys
mek'kadj tks'kh dk lkfgfR;d vonku iwjs Hkkjrh; lkfgR; osQ fy, Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gSA mudks
ijaijk dk xgjk Kku FkkA dkfynkl osQ vfHkKku 'kkoqaQrye~ vkSj HkoHkwfr osQ mÙkjjkepfjr
dk mUgksaus xqtjkrh esa vuqokn fd;kA ,sls vuqokn xqtjkrh lkfgR; dh vfHkO;fDr {kerk
dks c<+kus okys FksA crkSj dfo mek'kadj th us xqtjkrh dfork dks izo`Qfr ls tksM+k] vke
f”kanxh osQ vuqHko ls ifjfpr djk;k vkSj u;h 'kSyh nhA thou osQ lkekU; izlaxksa ij
lkekU; cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa dfork fy[kus okys Hkkjrh; vkèkqfudrkokfn;ksa esa vU;re
gSa tks'kh thA dfork osQ lkFk&lkFk lkfgR; dh nwljh foèkkvksa esa Hkh mudk ;ksxnku cgqewY;
gS] [kkldj lkfgR; dh vkykspuk esaaA fucaèkdkj osQ :i esa xqtjkrh lkfgR; esa cstksM+ ekus
tkrs gaSA mek'kadj tks'kh mu lkfgfR;d O;fDrRo esa gSas ftudk Hkkjr dh vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ
ls fj'rk jgkA vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ osQ nkSjku os tsy Hkh x,A
10
Page 2


vkjksg
62
mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh
tUe % lu~ 1911] xqtjkr esa
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % fo'o 'kkafr] xaxks=kh] fu'khFk] izkphuk]
vkfrF;] olar o"kkZ] egkizLFkku] vfHkKk (,dkadh)_ lkiukHkkjk]
'kghn (dgkuh)_Jko.kh es.kks] folkeks (miU;kl)_
ikjdkat.;k (fucaèk)_ xks"Bh] m?kkM+hckjh] Dykardfo]
EgkjklkWusV] LoIuiz;k.k (laiknu)
lu~ 1947 ls laLo`Qfr if=kdk dk laiknu
fu/u % lu~ 1988
rax vk x;k gw¡ @ cM+ksa dh vYirk ls @ th jgk gw¡ @ ns[k dj NksVksa dh cM+kbZ
chloha lnh dh xqtjkrh dfork vkSj lkfgR; dks u;h Hkafxek vkSj u;k Loj nsusokys
mek'kadj tks'kh dk lkfgfR;d vonku iwjs Hkkjrh; lkfgR; osQ fy, Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gSA mudks
ijaijk dk xgjk Kku FkkA dkfynkl osQ vfHkKku 'kkoqaQrye~ vkSj HkoHkwfr osQ mÙkjjkepfjr
dk mUgksaus xqtjkrh esa vuqokn fd;kA ,sls vuqokn xqtjkrh lkfgR; dh vfHkO;fDr {kerk
dks c<+kus okys FksA crkSj dfo mek'kadj th us xqtjkrh dfork dks izo`Qfr ls tksM+k] vke
f”kanxh osQ vuqHko ls ifjfpr djk;k vkSj u;h 'kSyh nhA thou osQ lkekU; izlaxksa ij
lkekU; cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa dfork fy[kus okys Hkkjrh; vkèkqfudrkokfn;ksa esa vU;re
gSa tks'kh thA dfork osQ lkFk&lkFk lkfgR; dh nwljh foèkkvksa esa Hkh mudk ;ksxnku cgqewY;
gS] [kkldj lkfgR; dh vkykspuk esaaA fucaèkdkj osQ :i esa xqtjkrh lkfgR; esa cstksM+ ekus
tkrs gaSA mek'kadj tks'kh mu lkfgfR;d O;fDrRo esa gSas ftudk Hkkjr dh vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ
ls fj'rk jgkA vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ osQ nkSjku os tsy Hkh x,A
10
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas d ia[k
s
63
;gk¡ izLrqr dfork NksVk esjk [ksr [ksrh osQ :id esa dfo&deZ osQ gj pj.k dks
ck¡èkus dh dksf'k'k osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA dkx”k dk iUuk] ftl ij jpuk 'kCnc¼
gksrh gS] dfo dks ,d pkSdksj [ksr dh rjg yxrk gSA bl [ksr esa fdlh vaèkM+ (vk'k;
HkkoukRed vk¡èkh ls gksxk) osQ izHkko ls fdlh {k.k ,d cht cks;k tkrk gSA ;g cht&jpuk
fopkj vkSj vfHkO;fDr dk gks ldrk gSA ;g ewy :i dYiuk dk lgkjk ysdj fodflr
gksrk gS vkSj bl izfØ;k esa Lo;a foxfyr gks tkrk gSA mlls 'kCnksa osQ vaoqQj fudyrs gSa vkSj
varr% o`Qfr ,d iw.kZ Lo:i xzg.k djrh gS] tks o`Qf"k&deZ osQ fygk”k ls iqf"ir&iYyfor
gksus dh fLFkfr gSA lkfgfR;d o`Qfr ls tks vykSfdd jl&èkkjk iwQVrh gS] og {k.k esa gksus
okyh jksikbZ dk gh ifj.kke gSA ij ;g jl&èkkjk vuar dky rd pyus okyh dVkbZ (mÙke
lkfgR; dkyt;h gksrk gS vkSj vla[; ikBdksa }kjk vla[; ckj i<+k tkrk gS) ls Hkh de
ugha gksrh gSA [ksr esa iSnk gksus okyk v oqQN le; osQ ckn lekIr gks tkrk gS] foaQrq lkfgR;
dk jl dHkh pqdrk ughaA
cxqyksa osQ ia[k dfork ,d lqanj n`'; dh dfork gSA lkSan;Z dk visf{kr izHkko mRiÂ
djus osQ fy, dfo;ksa us dbZ ;qfDr;k¡ viukbZ gSa] ftlesa ls lcls izpfyr ;qfDr gSµlkSan;Z
osQ C;kSjksa osQ fp=kkRed o.kZu osQ lkFk vius eu ij iM+us okys mlosQ izHkko dk o.kZuA
oLrqxr vkSj vkRexr osQ la;ksx dh ;g ;qfDr ikBd dks ml ewy lkSan;Z osQ dkI
+
kQh fudV
ys tkrh gSA tks'kh th dh bl dfork esa ,slk gh gSA dfo dkys cknyksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k esa
iafDr cukdj mM+rs lI
+
ksQn cxqyksa dks ns[krk gSA os dtjkjs cknyksa osQ mQij rSjrh lk¡> dh
'osr dk;k osQ leku izrhr gkssrs gSaA ;g n`'; bruk u;ukfHkjke gS fd dfo vkSj lc oqQN
Hkwydj mlh esa vVdk&lk jg tkrk gSA og bl ek;k ls vius dks cpkus dh xqgkj yxkrk
gSA D;k ;g lkSan;Z ls ck¡èkus vkSj fcaèkus dh pje fLFkfr dks O;Dr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS\ izLrqr nksuksa dforkvksa dk xqtjkrh ls ¯gnh :ikarj.k j?kqohj pkS/jh vkSj HkksykHkkbZ iVsy
us fd;k gSA
mek'kadj tks'kh
Page 3


vkjksg
62
mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh
tUe % lu~ 1911] xqtjkr esa
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % fo'o 'kkafr] xaxks=kh] fu'khFk] izkphuk]
vkfrF;] olar o"kkZ] egkizLFkku] vfHkKk (,dkadh)_ lkiukHkkjk]
'kghn (dgkuh)_Jko.kh es.kks] folkeks (miU;kl)_
ikjdkat.;k (fucaèk)_ xks"Bh] m?kkM+hckjh] Dykardfo]
EgkjklkWusV] LoIuiz;k.k (laiknu)
lu~ 1947 ls laLo`Qfr if=kdk dk laiknu
fu/u % lu~ 1988
rax vk x;k gw¡ @ cM+ksa dh vYirk ls @ th jgk gw¡ @ ns[k dj NksVksa dh cM+kbZ
chloha lnh dh xqtjkrh dfork vkSj lkfgR; dks u;h Hkafxek vkSj u;k Loj nsusokys
mek'kadj tks'kh dk lkfgfR;d vonku iwjs Hkkjrh; lkfgR; osQ fy, Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gSA mudks
ijaijk dk xgjk Kku FkkA dkfynkl osQ vfHkKku 'kkoqaQrye~ vkSj HkoHkwfr osQ mÙkjjkepfjr
dk mUgksaus xqtjkrh esa vuqokn fd;kA ,sls vuqokn xqtjkrh lkfgR; dh vfHkO;fDr {kerk
dks c<+kus okys FksA crkSj dfo mek'kadj th us xqtjkrh dfork dks izo`Qfr ls tksM+k] vke
f”kanxh osQ vuqHko ls ifjfpr djk;k vkSj u;h 'kSyh nhA thou osQ lkekU; izlaxksa ij
lkekU; cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa dfork fy[kus okys Hkkjrh; vkèkqfudrkokfn;ksa esa vU;re
gSa tks'kh thA dfork osQ lkFk&lkFk lkfgR; dh nwljh foèkkvksa esa Hkh mudk ;ksxnku cgqewY;
gS] [kkldj lkfgR; dh vkykspuk esaaA fucaèkdkj osQ :i esa xqtjkrh lkfgR; esa cstksM+ ekus
tkrs gaSA mek'kadj tks'kh mu lkfgfR;d O;fDrRo esa gSas ftudk Hkkjr dh vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ
ls fj'rk jgkA vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ osQ nkSjku os tsy Hkh x,A
10
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas d ia[k
s
63
;gk¡ izLrqr dfork NksVk esjk [ksr [ksrh osQ :id esa dfo&deZ osQ gj pj.k dks
ck¡èkus dh dksf'k'k osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA dkx”k dk iUuk] ftl ij jpuk 'kCnc¼
gksrh gS] dfo dks ,d pkSdksj [ksr dh rjg yxrk gSA bl [ksr esa fdlh vaèkM+ (vk'k;
HkkoukRed vk¡èkh ls gksxk) osQ izHkko ls fdlh {k.k ,d cht cks;k tkrk gSA ;g cht&jpuk
fopkj vkSj vfHkO;fDr dk gks ldrk gSA ;g ewy :i dYiuk dk lgkjk ysdj fodflr
gksrk gS vkSj bl izfØ;k esa Lo;a foxfyr gks tkrk gSA mlls 'kCnksa osQ vaoqQj fudyrs gSa vkSj
varr% o`Qfr ,d iw.kZ Lo:i xzg.k djrh gS] tks o`Qf"k&deZ osQ fygk”k ls iqf"ir&iYyfor
gksus dh fLFkfr gSA lkfgfR;d o`Qfr ls tks vykSfdd jl&èkkjk iwQVrh gS] og {k.k esa gksus
okyh jksikbZ dk gh ifj.kke gSA ij ;g jl&èkkjk vuar dky rd pyus okyh dVkbZ (mÙke
lkfgR; dkyt;h gksrk gS vkSj vla[; ikBdksa }kjk vla[; ckj i<+k tkrk gS) ls Hkh de
ugha gksrh gSA [ksr esa iSnk gksus okyk v oqQN le; osQ ckn lekIr gks tkrk gS] foaQrq lkfgR;
dk jl dHkh pqdrk ughaA
cxqyksa osQ ia[k dfork ,d lqanj n`'; dh dfork gSA lkSan;Z dk visf{kr izHkko mRiÂ
djus osQ fy, dfo;ksa us dbZ ;qfDr;k¡ viukbZ gSa] ftlesa ls lcls izpfyr ;qfDr gSµlkSan;Z
osQ C;kSjksa osQ fp=kkRed o.kZu osQ lkFk vius eu ij iM+us okys mlosQ izHkko dk o.kZuA
oLrqxr vkSj vkRexr osQ la;ksx dh ;g ;qfDr ikBd dks ml ewy lkSan;Z osQ dkI
+
kQh fudV
ys tkrh gSA tks'kh th dh bl dfork esa ,slk gh gSA dfo dkys cknyksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k esa
iafDr cukdj mM+rs lI
+
ksQn cxqyksa dks ns[krk gSA os dtjkjs cknyksa osQ mQij rSjrh lk¡> dh
'osr dk;k osQ leku izrhr gkssrs gSaA ;g n`'; bruk u;ukfHkjke gS fd dfo vkSj lc oqQN
Hkwydj mlh esa vVdk&lk jg tkrk gSA og bl ek;k ls vius dks cpkus dh xqgkj yxkrk
gSA D;k ;g lkSan;Z ls ck¡èkus vkSj fcaèkus dh pje fLFkfr dks O;Dr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS\ izLrqr nksuksa dforkvksa dk xqtjkrh ls ¯gnh :ikarj.k j?kqohj pkS/jh vkSj HkksykHkkbZ iVsy
us fd;k gSA
mek'kadj tks'kh
NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksuk
dkx”k dk ,d iÂk]
dksbZ vaèkM+ dgha ls vk;k
{k.k dk cht ogk¡ cks;k x;kA
dYiuk osQ jlk;uksa dks ih
cht xy x;k fu%'ks"k_
'kCn osQ vaoqQj iwQVs]
iYyo&iq"iksa ls ufer gqvk fo'ks"kA
>weus yxs iQy]
jl vykSfdd]
ve`r èkkjk,¡ iwQVrha
jksikbZ {k.k dh]
dVkbZ vuarrk dh
yqVrs jgus ls tjk Hkh ugha de gksrhA
jl dk v{k; ik=k lnk dk
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksukA
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vkjksg
62
mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh
tUe % lu~ 1911] xqtjkr esa
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % fo'o 'kkafr] xaxks=kh] fu'khFk] izkphuk]
vkfrF;] olar o"kkZ] egkizLFkku] vfHkKk (,dkadh)_ lkiukHkkjk]
'kghn (dgkuh)_Jko.kh es.kks] folkeks (miU;kl)_
ikjdkat.;k (fucaèk)_ xks"Bh] m?kkM+hckjh] Dykardfo]
EgkjklkWusV] LoIuiz;k.k (laiknu)
lu~ 1947 ls laLo`Qfr if=kdk dk laiknu
fu/u % lu~ 1988
rax vk x;k gw¡ @ cM+ksa dh vYirk ls @ th jgk gw¡ @ ns[k dj NksVksa dh cM+kbZ
chloha lnh dh xqtjkrh dfork vkSj lkfgR; dks u;h Hkafxek vkSj u;k Loj nsusokys
mek'kadj tks'kh dk lkfgfR;d vonku iwjs Hkkjrh; lkfgR; osQ fy, Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gSA mudks
ijaijk dk xgjk Kku FkkA dkfynkl osQ vfHkKku 'kkoqaQrye~ vkSj HkoHkwfr osQ mÙkjjkepfjr
dk mUgksaus xqtjkrh esa vuqokn fd;kA ,sls vuqokn xqtjkrh lkfgR; dh vfHkO;fDr {kerk
dks c<+kus okys FksA crkSj dfo mek'kadj th us xqtjkrh dfork dks izo`Qfr ls tksM+k] vke
f”kanxh osQ vuqHko ls ifjfpr djk;k vkSj u;h 'kSyh nhA thou osQ lkekU; izlaxksa ij
lkekU; cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa dfork fy[kus okys Hkkjrh; vkèkqfudrkokfn;ksa esa vU;re
gSa tks'kh thA dfork osQ lkFk&lkFk lkfgR; dh nwljh foèkkvksa esa Hkh mudk ;ksxnku cgqewY;
gS] [kkldj lkfgR; dh vkykspuk esaaA fucaèkdkj osQ :i esa xqtjkrh lkfgR; esa cstksM+ ekus
tkrs gaSA mek'kadj tks'kh mu lkfgfR;d O;fDrRo esa gSas ftudk Hkkjr dh vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ
ls fj'rk jgkA vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ osQ nkSjku os tsy Hkh x,A
10
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas d ia[k
s
63
;gk¡ izLrqr dfork NksVk esjk [ksr [ksrh osQ :id esa dfo&deZ osQ gj pj.k dks
ck¡èkus dh dksf'k'k osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA dkx”k dk iUuk] ftl ij jpuk 'kCnc¼
gksrh gS] dfo dks ,d pkSdksj [ksr dh rjg yxrk gSA bl [ksr esa fdlh vaèkM+ (vk'k;
HkkoukRed vk¡èkh ls gksxk) osQ izHkko ls fdlh {k.k ,d cht cks;k tkrk gSA ;g cht&jpuk
fopkj vkSj vfHkO;fDr dk gks ldrk gSA ;g ewy :i dYiuk dk lgkjk ysdj fodflr
gksrk gS vkSj bl izfØ;k esa Lo;a foxfyr gks tkrk gSA mlls 'kCnksa osQ vaoqQj fudyrs gSa vkSj
varr% o`Qfr ,d iw.kZ Lo:i xzg.k djrh gS] tks o`Qf"k&deZ osQ fygk”k ls iqf"ir&iYyfor
gksus dh fLFkfr gSA lkfgfR;d o`Qfr ls tks vykSfdd jl&èkkjk iwQVrh gS] og {k.k esa gksus
okyh jksikbZ dk gh ifj.kke gSA ij ;g jl&èkkjk vuar dky rd pyus okyh dVkbZ (mÙke
lkfgR; dkyt;h gksrk gS vkSj vla[; ikBdksa }kjk vla[; ckj i<+k tkrk gS) ls Hkh de
ugha gksrh gSA [ksr esa iSnk gksus okyk v oqQN le; osQ ckn lekIr gks tkrk gS] foaQrq lkfgR;
dk jl dHkh pqdrk ughaA
cxqyksa osQ ia[k dfork ,d lqanj n`'; dh dfork gSA lkSan;Z dk visf{kr izHkko mRiÂ
djus osQ fy, dfo;ksa us dbZ ;qfDr;k¡ viukbZ gSa] ftlesa ls lcls izpfyr ;qfDr gSµlkSan;Z
osQ C;kSjksa osQ fp=kkRed o.kZu osQ lkFk vius eu ij iM+us okys mlosQ izHkko dk o.kZuA
oLrqxr vkSj vkRexr osQ la;ksx dh ;g ;qfDr ikBd dks ml ewy lkSan;Z osQ dkI
+
kQh fudV
ys tkrh gSA tks'kh th dh bl dfork esa ,slk gh gSA dfo dkys cknyksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k esa
iafDr cukdj mM+rs lI
+
ksQn cxqyksa dks ns[krk gSA os dtjkjs cknyksa osQ mQij rSjrh lk¡> dh
'osr dk;k osQ leku izrhr gkssrs gSaA ;g n`'; bruk u;ukfHkjke gS fd dfo vkSj lc oqQN
Hkwydj mlh esa vVdk&lk jg tkrk gSA og bl ek;k ls vius dks cpkus dh xqgkj yxkrk
gSA D;k ;g lkSan;Z ls ck¡èkus vkSj fcaèkus dh pje fLFkfr dks O;Dr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS\ izLrqr nksuksa dforkvksa dk xqtjkrh ls ¯gnh :ikarj.k j?kqohj pkS/jh vkSj HkksykHkkbZ iVsy
us fd;k gSA
mek'kadj tks'kh
NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksuk
dkx”k dk ,d iÂk]
dksbZ vaèkM+ dgha ls vk;k
{k.k dk cht ogk¡ cks;k x;kA
dYiuk osQ jlk;uksa dks ih
cht xy x;k fu%'ks"k_
'kCn osQ vaoqQj iwQVs]
iYyo&iq"iksa ls ufer gqvk fo'ks"kA
>weus yxs iQy]
jl vykSfdd]
ve`r èkkjk,¡ iwQVrha
jksikbZ {k.k dh]
dVkbZ vuarrk dh
yqVrs jgus ls tjk Hkh ugha de gksrhA
jl dk v{k; ik=k lnk dk
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksukA
sssss
cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k
uHk  esa  ik¡rh&c¡èks  cxqyksa  osQ ia[k]
pqjk, fy, tkrha os esjh vk¡[ksaA
dtjkjs  cknyksa  dh NkbZ  uHk  Nk;k]
rSjrh  lk¡>  dh lrst  'osr  dk;kA
gkSys gkSys tkrh eq>s ck¡èk fut ek;k lsA
mls  dksbZ   rfud   jksd  jD[kksA
og  rks  pqjk,  fy, tkrh esjh vk¡[ksa
uHk esa  ik¡rh&c¡èkh  cxqyksa dh ik¡[ksaA
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas ds ia[k
65
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vkjksg
62
mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh mek'kadj tks'kh
tUe % lu~ 1911] xqtjkr esa
izeq[k jpuk,¡ % fo'o 'kkafr] xaxks=kh] fu'khFk] izkphuk]
vkfrF;] olar o"kkZ] egkizLFkku] vfHkKk (,dkadh)_ lkiukHkkjk]
'kghn (dgkuh)_Jko.kh es.kks] folkeks (miU;kl)_
ikjdkat.;k (fucaèk)_ xks"Bh] m?kkM+hckjh] Dykardfo]
EgkjklkWusV] LoIuiz;k.k (laiknu)
lu~ 1947 ls laLo`Qfr if=kdk dk laiknu
fu/u % lu~ 1988
rax vk x;k gw¡ @ cM+ksa dh vYirk ls @ th jgk gw¡ @ ns[k dj NksVksa dh cM+kbZ
chloha lnh dh xqtjkrh dfork vkSj lkfgR; dks u;h Hkafxek vkSj u;k Loj nsusokys
mek'kadj tks'kh dk lkfgfR;d vonku iwjs Hkkjrh; lkfgR; osQ fy, Hkh egÙoiw.kZ gSA mudks
ijaijk dk xgjk Kku FkkA dkfynkl osQ vfHkKku 'kkoqaQrye~ vkSj HkoHkwfr osQ mÙkjjkepfjr
dk mUgksaus xqtjkrh esa vuqokn fd;kA ,sls vuqokn xqtjkrh lkfgR; dh vfHkO;fDr {kerk
dks c<+kus okys FksA crkSj dfo mek'kadj th us xqtjkrh dfork dks izo`Qfr ls tksM+k] vke
f”kanxh osQ vuqHko ls ifjfpr djk;k vkSj u;h 'kSyh nhA thou osQ lkekU; izlaxksa ij
lkekU; cksypky dh Hkk"kk esa dfork fy[kus okys Hkkjrh; vkèkqfudrkokfn;ksa esa vU;re
gSa tks'kh thA dfork osQ lkFk&lkFk lkfgR; dh nwljh foèkkvksa esa Hkh mudk ;ksxnku cgqewY;
gS] [kkldj lkfgR; dh vkykspuk esaaA fucaèkdkj osQ :i esa xqtjkrh lkfgR; esa cstksM+ ekus
tkrs gaSA mek'kadj tks'kh mu lkfgfR;d O;fDrRo esa gSas ftudk Hkkjr dh vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ
ls fj'rk jgkA vk”kknh dh yM+kbZ osQ nkSjku os tsy Hkh x,A
10
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas d ia[k
s
63
;gk¡ izLrqr dfork NksVk esjk [ksr [ksrh osQ :id esa dfo&deZ osQ gj pj.k dks
ck¡èkus dh dksf'k'k osQ :i esa i<+h tk ldrh gSA dkx”k dk iUuk] ftl ij jpuk 'kCnc¼
gksrh gS] dfo dks ,d pkSdksj [ksr dh rjg yxrk gSA bl [ksr esa fdlh vaèkM+ (vk'k;
HkkoukRed vk¡èkh ls gksxk) osQ izHkko ls fdlh {k.k ,d cht cks;k tkrk gSA ;g cht&jpuk
fopkj vkSj vfHkO;fDr dk gks ldrk gSA ;g ewy :i dYiuk dk lgkjk ysdj fodflr
gksrk gS vkSj bl izfØ;k esa Lo;a foxfyr gks tkrk gSA mlls 'kCnksa osQ vaoqQj fudyrs gSa vkSj
varr% o`Qfr ,d iw.kZ Lo:i xzg.k djrh gS] tks o`Qf"k&deZ osQ fygk”k ls iqf"ir&iYyfor
gksus dh fLFkfr gSA lkfgfR;d o`Qfr ls tks vykSfdd jl&èkkjk iwQVrh gS] og {k.k esa gksus
okyh jksikbZ dk gh ifj.kke gSA ij ;g jl&èkkjk vuar dky rd pyus okyh dVkbZ (mÙke
lkfgR; dkyt;h gksrk gS vkSj vla[; ikBdksa }kjk vla[; ckj i<+k tkrk gS) ls Hkh de
ugha gksrh gSA [ksr esa iSnk gksus okyk v oqQN le; osQ ckn lekIr gks tkrk gS] foaQrq lkfgR;
dk jl dHkh pqdrk ughaA
cxqyksa osQ ia[k dfork ,d lqanj n`'; dh dfork gSA lkSan;Z dk visf{kr izHkko mRiÂ
djus osQ fy, dfo;ksa us dbZ ;qfDr;k¡ viukbZ gSa] ftlesa ls lcls izpfyr ;qfDr gSµlkSan;Z
osQ C;kSjksa osQ fp=kkRed o.kZu osQ lkFk vius eu ij iM+us okys mlosQ izHkko dk o.kZuA
oLrqxr vkSj vkRexr osQ la;ksx dh ;g ;qfDr ikBd dks ml ewy lkSan;Z osQ dkI
+
kQh fudV
ys tkrh gSA tks'kh th dh bl dfork esa ,slk gh gSA dfo dkys cknyksa ls Hkjs vkdk'k esa
iafDr cukdj mM+rs lI
+
ksQn cxqyksa dks ns[krk gSA os dtjkjs cknyksa osQ mQij rSjrh lk¡> dh
'osr dk;k osQ leku izrhr gkssrs gSaA ;g n`'; bruk u;ukfHkjke gS fd dfo vkSj lc oqQN
Hkwydj mlh esa vVdk&lk jg tkrk gSA og bl ek;k ls vius dks cpkus dh xqgkj yxkrk
gSA D;k ;g lkSan;Z ls ck¡èkus vkSj fcaèkus dh pje fLFkfr dks O;Dr djus dk ,d rjhdk
gS\ izLrqr nksuksa dforkvksa dk xqtjkrh ls ¯gnh :ikarj.k j?kqohj pkS/jh vkSj HkksykHkkbZ iVsy
us fd;k gSA
mek'kadj tks'kh
NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr NksVk esjk [ksr
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksuk
dkx”k dk ,d iÂk]
dksbZ vaèkM+ dgha ls vk;k
{k.k dk cht ogk¡ cks;k x;kA
dYiuk osQ jlk;uksa dks ih
cht xy x;k fu%'ks"k_
'kCn osQ vaoqQj iwQVs]
iYyo&iq"iksa ls ufer gqvk fo'ks"kA
>weus yxs iQy]
jl vykSfdd]
ve`r èkkjk,¡ iwQVrha
jksikbZ {k.k dh]
dVkbZ vuarrk dh
yqVrs jgus ls tjk Hkh ugha de gksrhA
jl dk v{k; ik=k lnk dk
NksVk esjk [ksr pkSdksukA
sssss
cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k cxqyksa d ia[k
uHk  esa  ik¡rh&c¡èks  cxqyksa  osQ ia[k]
pqjk, fy, tkrha os esjh vk¡[ksaA
dtjkjs  cknyksa  dh NkbZ  uHk  Nk;k]
rSjrh  lk¡>  dh lrst  'osr  dk;kA
gkSys gkSys tkrh eq>s ck¡èk fut ek;k lsA
mls  dksbZ   rfud   jksd  jD[kksA
og  rks  pqjk,  fy, tkrh esjh vk¡[ksa
uHk esa  ik¡rh&c¡èkh  cxqyksa dh ik¡[ksaA
NksVk esjk [ksr@cxqykas ds ia[k
65
vkjksg
66
vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl vH;kl
dfork osQ lkFk
1- NksVs pkSdksus [ksr dks dkx”k dk iUuk dgus esa D;k vFkZ fufgr gS\
2- jpuk osQ lanHkZ esa vaèkM+ vkSj cht D;k gSa\
3- jl dk v{k;ik=k ls dfo us jpukdeZ dh fdu fo'ks"krkvksa dh vksj bafxr fd;k gS\
4- O;k[;k djsa&
1- 'kCn osQ vaoqQj iwQVs]
iYyo&iq"iksa ls ufer gqvk fo'ks"kA
2- jksikbZ {k.k dh]
dVkbZ vuarrk dh
yqVrs jgus ls ”kjk Hkh ugha de gksrhA
dfork osQ vklikl
1- 'kCnksa osQ ekè;e ls tc dfo n`';ksa] fp=kksa] èofu&;kstuk vFkok :i&jl&xaèk dks gekjs ,sfUnzd
vuqHkoksa esa lkdkj dj nsrk gS rks fcac dk fuekZ.k gksrk gSA bl vkèkkj ij izLrqr dfork ls fcac
dh [kkst djsaA
2- tgk¡ mies; esa mieku dk vkjksi gks] :id dgykrk gSA bl dfork esa ls :id dk pquko djsaA
dYkk dh ckr
• cxqyksa osQ ia[k dfork dks i<+us ij vkiosQ eu esa oSQls fp=k mHkjrs gSa\ mudh fdlh Hkh vU;
dyk ekè;e esa vfHkO;fDr djsaA
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