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Q.1. Which of the following is incorrectly matched? (NEET 2022)
(a) Porphyra - Floridian Starch
(b) Volvox - Starch
(c) Ectocarpus - Fucoxanthin
(d) Ulothrix - Mannitol
- Ulothrix belongs to green algae and has starch as the reserve food.
- Porphyra has Floridian starch as its reserve food as its red alga.
- Volvox have chlorophyll-a, b and reserve food as starch. This is a Chlorophyceae member.
- Fucoxanthin is found in brown algae Ectocarpus is a brown alga
Q.2. Hydrocolloid carrageen is obtained from: (NEET 2022)
(a) Rhodophyceae only
(b) Phaeophyceae only
(c) Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae
(d) Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae
- Carrageenan is a polysaccharide obtained from the cell wall of Chondrus crispus (Irish moss).
- It is used in the stabilization of emulsions in paints and cosmetics and in the alcohol and sugar industry.
- Hydrocolloid carrageen is obtained from Rhodophyceae.
Q.3. Given below are two statements: (NEET 2022)
Statement I: Mycoplasma can pass through less than 1 micron filter size.
Statement II : Mycoplasma are bacteria with cell wall.
In the light of the above statements, choose the most appropriate answer from the options given below:
(a) Statement I is correct but Statement II is incorrect
(b) Statement I is incorrect but Statement II is correct
(c) Both Statement I and Statement II are correct
(d) Both Statement I and Statement II are incorrect
- Mycoplasma can pass through less than 1 micron filter size.
- Mycoplasma are bacteria without a cell wall, so statement 2 is incorrect.
Q.4. Identify the asexual reproductive structure associated with Penicillium: (NEET 2022)
- The ascomycetes are commonly known as sac-fungi. They are mostly multicellular, e.g., Penicillium, or rarely unicellular, e.g., yeast (Saccharomyces).
- The asexual spores produced by them are called as conidia. They are produced exogenously on the special mycelium named as conidiophores.
- Conidia on germination produce mycelium.
Q.5. Which of the following is a correct statement? (NEET 2022)
(a) Slime moulds are saprophytic organisms classified under Kingdom Monera.
(b) Mycoplasma have DNA, Ribosome and cell wall.
(c) Cyanobacteria are a group of autotrophic organisms classified under Kingdom Monera.
(d) Bacteria are exclusively heterotrophic organisms.
Cyanobacteria or BGA are the members of kingdom Monera which show the following characteristic features:
- Cell wall is present.
- Chlorophyll-a is present and they are photoautotrophic.
- Heterocysts are present in some forms for nitrogen fixation.
- They lack membrane bound organelles.
Q.6. Which of the following statements is correct? (NEET 2021)
(a) Organisms that depend on living plants are called saprophytes.
(b) Some of the organisms can fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialized cells called sheath cells.
(c) The fusion of two cells is called Karyogamy.
(d) Fusion of protoplasms between two motile on non-motile gametes is called plasmogamy.
- Some of these organisms can fix atmospheric nitrogen in specialised cells called heterocysts, e.g., Nostoc and Anabaena.
- Most fungi are heterotrophic and absorb soluble organic matter from dead substrates and hence are called saprophytes.
- (i) Fusion of protoplasms between two motile or non-motile gametes called plasmogamy.
- (ii) Fusion of two nuclei called karyogamy.
Q.7. Which of the following is correct about viroids? (NEET 2020)
(a) They have DNA with protein coat.
(b) They have free DNA without protein coat.
(c) They have RNA with protein coat.
(d) They have free RNA without protein coat.
Viroids have free RNA without protein coat. Potato spindle tuber disease is a disease caused by viroids.
Q.8. Which of the following statements is incorrect? (NEET 2019)
(a) Yeasts have filamentous bodies with Iong thread-like hyphae.
(b) Morels and truffles are edible delicacies.
(c) Claviceps is a source of many alkaloid and LSD.
(d) Conidia are produced exogenously and ascospores endogenously.
Yeast is a non-mycelial unicellular ascomycetes fungus. It lacks filamentous structure or hyphae.Yeast Structure
Q.9. Match Column-I with Column-II. (NEET 2019)
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:
Saprophytes: Decomposition of dead organic materials.
Parasites: Grow on/in living plants and animals.
Lichens: Symbiotic association of algae and fungi.
Mycorrhiza: Symbiotic association of fungi with plant roots.
Q.10. Which of the following statements is incorrect? (NEET 2019)
(a) Prions consist of abnormally folded proteins.
(b) Viroids lack a protein coat.
(c) Viruses are obligate parasites.
(d) Infective constituent in viruses is the protein coat.
Infective constituent in viruses is the genetic material, i.e., either DNA or RNA.
Q.11. Match the organisms in column-I with habitats in column-II. (NEET 2019)
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
(a) A-(iv), B-(i), C-(iii), D-(ii)
(b) A-(i), B-(ii), C-(iii), D-(iv)
(c) A-(iii), B-(iv), C-(ii), D-(i)
(d) A-(ii), B(iv), C-(iii), D-(i)
- Halophiles can be found in hypersaline environments which are widely distributed in various geographical areas on Earth, such as saline lakes, salt pans, salt marshes, or saline soils.
- Thermoacidophiles can be found in hot springs and solfataric environments, within deep-sea vents, or in other environments of geothermal activity. These are microorganisms that are both thermophilic and acidophilic, i.e., they can grow under conditions of high temperature and low pH.
- Methanogens are a group of microorganisms that can produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism. They hold an important place in the digestive system of ruminants.
- Cyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae, are microscopic organisms found naturally in all types of water. These single-celled organisms live in fresh, brackish (combined salt and fresh water), and marine water.
Q.12. Which among the following is not a prokaryote? (NEET 2018)
Saccharomyces, i.e., yeast is an eukaryote unicellular fungus. Prokaryotes include bacteria (Mycobacterium), cyanobacteria (Nostoc and Oscillatorica), mycoplasma and archaebacteria.
Q.13. Select the wrong statement. (NEET 2018)
(a) Cell wall is present in members of fungi and plantae.
(b) Mushrooms belong to basidiomycetes.
(c) Pseudopodia are locomotory and feeding structures in sporozoans.
(d) Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell in all kingdoms except monera.
- In sporozoans, locomotory organelles (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia etc.) are absent like in Plasmodium.Plasmodium
- Pseudopodia is the locomotory organ in amoeboid protozoans like in Amoeba. Flagellated protozoans possess flagella for locomotion like in Trypanosoma.
- Ciliated protozoans possess cilia as locomotory organelles like in Paramecium.
Q.14. After karyogamy followed by meiosis, spores are produced exogenously in ______. (NEET 2018)
- In Agaricus, (member of Basidiomycetes), basidium commonly produces four microspores or basidiospores exogenously.
- Neurospora (member of Ascomycetes) produces ascospores, endogenously inside the fruiting body, ascus. Alternaria (member of Deuteromycetes) does not produce any sexual spores. Saccharomyces (member of Ascomycetes) produces ascospores endogenously.
Q.15. Oxygen is not produced during photosynthesis by ______. (NEET 2018)
(a) Green sulphur bacteria
Green sulphur bacteria do not have the ability to use water as an electron donor (or cannot oxidise water), instead, they perform photosynthesis using sulfide. Therefore, they do not evolve oxygen during photosynthesis.
Q.16. Which of the following organisms are known as chief producers in the oceans? (NEET 2018)
Diatoms are the most common form of phytoplankton in the ocean. They have the pigment chlorophyll which helps in photosynthesis. Since they are the primary producers of the aquatic chain and the marine ecosystem depends on them. They are called chief producers in the oceans.
Q.17. Ciliates differ from all other protozoans in: (NEET 2018)
(a) Using flagella for locomotion.
(b) Having a contractile vacuole for removing excess water.
(c) Using pseudopodia for capturing prey.
(d) Having two types of nuclei.
Ciliates differ from other protozoans in having two types of nuclei. They are macronucleus and micronucleus (nuclear dimorphism).
Example: Paramecium has a macronucleus which controls metabolic activities as well as growth and a micronucleus that takes part in reproduction.
Q.18. Which of the following are found in extreme saline conditions? (NEET 2017)
Halophiles, a type of archaebacteria, usually occur in extreme saline conditions like salt pans, salt beds and salt marshes.
Q.19. Viroids differ from viruses in having: (NEET 2017)
(a) DNA molecules without protein coat
(b) RNA molecules with protein coat
(c) RNA molecules without protein coat
(d) DNA molecules with protein coat
Viroids are free RNA particles that lack protein coat. They are infectious agents smaller than viruses.
Q.20. Which among the following are the smallest living cells, known without a definite cell wall, pathogenic to plants as well as animals and can survive without oxygen? (NEET 2017)
Mycoplasmas are the smallest living cells, known without a definite cell wall. They are pathogenic to both plants and animals and can survive without oxygen.
Q.21. Which of the following components provides a sticky character to the bacterial cell? (NEET 2017)
(a) Nuclear membrane
(b) Plasma membrane
(d) Cell wall
Glycocalyx is the outermost mucilage layer of the cell envelope which consists of non-cellulosic polysaccharides with or without proteins. It gives a sticky character to the cell.
Q.22. DNA replication in bacteria occurs: (NEET 2017)
(a) Within nucleolus
(b) Prior to fission
(c) Just before transcription
(d) During the S phase
DNA replicates in bacteria just before they divide by fission.
Q.23. Which one of the following is wrong for fungi? (NEET 2016)
(a) They are eukaryotic.
(b) All fungi possess a purely cellulosic cell wall.
(c) They are heterotrophic.
(d) They are both unicellular and multicellular.
The cell wall in fungi is composed of chitin, a polysaccharide comprising N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (a derivative of glucose).
Q.24. Methanogens belong to ______. (NEET 2016)
(d) Slime moulds
- Methanogens belong to archaebacteria. They include methane-producing genera such as Methanobacillus and Methanothrix.
- Methanogens are obligate anaerobes found in oxygen-deficient environments, such as marshes, swamps, sludge (formed during sewage treatment) and the digestive systems of ruminants.
- Mostly they obtain their energy by reducing carbon dioxide and oxidising hydrogen, with the production of methane.
Q.25. Select the wrong statement. (NEET 2016)
(a) The walls of diatoms are easily destructible.
(b) ‘Diatomaceous earth’ is formed by the cell walls of diatoms.
(c) Diatoms are chief producers in the oceans.
(d) Diatoms are microscopic and float passively in water.
Diatoms are marine or freshwater unicellular organisms that have cell walls (frustules) composed of pectin impregnated with silica and consisting of two halves, one overlapping the other. The siliceous frustules of diatoms do not decay easily.
Q.26. The primitive prokaryotes responsible for the production of biogas from the dung of ruminant animals include the ______. (NEET 2016)
Methanogens are present in the gut of several ruminant animals such as cows and buffaloes and they are responsible for the production of methane (biogas) from the dung of these animals.
Q.27. Which one of the following statements is wrong? (NEET 2016)
(a) Eubacteria are also called false bacteria.
(b) Phycomycetes are also called algal fungi.
(c) Cyanobacteria are also called blue-green algae.
(d) Golden algae are also called desmids.
Eubacteria are also called true bacteria.
Q.28. Which of the following statements is wrong for viroids? (NEET 2016)
(a) They cause infections.
(b) Their RNA is of high molecular weight.
(c) They lack a protein coat.
(d) They are smaller than viruses.
RNA of viroid has a low molecular weight.
Q.29. One of the major components of the cell wall of most fungi is: (NEET 2016)
The fungal cell wall contains chitin or fungal cellulose along with other polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and a number of other substances.
Q.30. Chrysophytes, Euglenoids, Dinoflagellates and Slime moulds are included in the Kingdom ______. (NEET 2016)
Protista is a kingdom of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. It includes photosynthetic protists (dinoflagellates, chrysophytes and euglenoids), consumer-decomposer protists (slime moulds) and protozoan protists.