|Table of contents|
|Introduction of Pronouns|
|Types of Pronouns|
|Rules for Pronouns|
|Function of Pronouns|
|Spotting Errors (Pronoun)|
Pronouns are words that replace or refer to a noun or a noun phrase. They are used to avoid the repetition of the same noun in a sentence or conversation, making communication more efficient and less redundant. Pronouns help provide variety and clarity in our writing and speech.
1. Personal pronouns: These pronouns replace names of people or things in a sentence. They can be divided into different categories such as subject pronouns, object pronouns, and possessive pronouns.
Subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
Object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them
Possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs
2. Demonstrative pronouns: These pronouns point to specific objects, people, or places. They are: this, that, these, those.
3. Interrogative pronouns: These pronouns are used to ask questions. They are: who, whom, which, what, whose.
4. Indefinite pronouns: These pronouns do not refer to a specific person, thing, or place. They are: all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, other, several, some, somebody, someone.
5. Reflexive pronouns: These pronouns refer back to the subject of the sentence or clause. They are: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
6. Intensive pronouns: These pronouns are used to emphasize the subject or another noun in the sentence. They are the same words as reflexive pronouns but serve a different function.
7. Reciprocal pronouns: These pronouns are used to indicate a mutual action or relationship between the subjects. The most common reciprocal pronoun is "each other."
8. Relative pronouns: These pronouns introduce relative clauses, which provide additional information about a noun in the sentence. They are: who, whom, whose, which, that.
Pronouns are words that take the place of a noun or another pronoun in a sentence. They help avoid repetition and make sentences more concise. Here are some basic rules for using pronouns:
1. Agreement in number: A pronoun must agree in number with the noun it replaces. If the noun is singular, use a singular pronoun. If the noun is plural, use a plural pronoun.
2. Agreement in gender: A pronoun must agree in gender with the noun it replaces. If the noun is masculine, use a masculine pronoun. If the noun is feminine, use a feminine pronoun. If the noun is neuter, use a neuter pronoun.
3. Clear antecedent: A pronoun must have a clear noun (antecedent) to which it refers. Avoid using pronouns without a clear antecedent.
4. Consistency: Maintain consistency in using pronouns throughout a sentence or paragraph.
5. Subject pronouns: Use subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they) when the pronoun is the subject of the verb.
6. Object pronouns: Use object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) when the pronoun is the object of a verb or preposition.
7. Reflexive pronouns: Use reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) when the subject and object of the verb are the same person or thing.
8. Possessive pronouns: Use possessive pronouns (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) to show ownership or possession.
Example: This is her book.
Ex.1. Read the following sentences and identify the correct pronoun to complete each sentence:
Sarah is going to the park. _______ loves to play on the swings.
She loves to play on the swings.
Explanation: The pronoun "she" is used to refer to Sarah, who was mentioned earlier in the sentence.
The cat is sleeping. _______ is curled up on the couch.
It is curled up on the couch.
Explanation: The pronoun "it" is used to refer to the cat, which was mentioned earlier in the sentence.
We went to the beach and built sandcastles. _______ were so much fun to make.
They were so much fun to make.
Explanation: The pronoun "they" is used to refer to sandcastles, which were mentioned earlier in the sentence.
Ex.2. Identifying Pronouns
In the following sentences, identify the pronouns and their antecedents.
(i) Jane loves her dog, and she takes him for a walk every day.
Pronouns: she, her, him
Antecedents: Jane, Jane, dog
(ii) The boys left their bikes outside, so we moved them to the garage.
Pronouns: their, them, we
Antecedents: boys, bikes, (referring to the speaker and someone else)
(iii) If you see Tom, tell him I said hello.
Pronoun: him, you
Antecedent: Tom, (referring to the listener)
Ex.3. Rewrite the following sentences by using pronouns to avoid repetition:
The book is on the shelf. The book is thick and heavy.
The book is on the shelf. It is thick and heavy.
Explanation: The pronoun "it" is used to replace the second mention of the book.
Jack went to the store. Jack bought groceries for dinner.
Jack went to the store. He bought groceries for dinner.
Explanation: The pronoun "he" is used to replace the second mention of Jack.
Ex.1. Incorrect: The CEO and myself attended the conference.
Correct: The CEO and I attended the conference.
The pronoun "myself" is reflexive, and it should only be used when the subject and object of the sentence refer to the same person. In this case, "myself" is used incorrectly, and the correct pronoun to use is "I" as it is the subject of the sentence along with "the CEO."
Ex.2. Incorrect: Neither of the candidates had filled out their forms correctly.
Correct: Neither of the candidates had filled out his or her form correctly.
Similar to the first exercise, the pronoun "their" is plural, but it is being used to refer to a singular noun "neither candidate." To ensure clarity and agreement, we can use the phrase "his or her" to indicate possession for each candidate individually.
Ex.3. Incorrect: The company requested all employees to submit their reports by Friday.
Correct: The company requested all employees to submit their reports by the deadline.
The use of "their" suggests that each employee has multiple reports to submit. However, if the intention is for each employee to submit a single report, it is more appropriate to use "the deadline" to indicate the specified time for submission.
Ex.4. Incorrect: The team members had to cast their votes before the deadline.
Correct: The team members had to cast their vote before the deadline.
The noun "vote" is singular, so the pronoun used should also be singular. Instead of using "their," which is plural, we can use "their vote" to refer to the individual vote of each team member.