PPT - Air Pollution (Causes, Effects, and Solutions) Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

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Computer Science Engineering (CSE) : PPT - Air Pollution (Causes, Effects, and Solutions) Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Air Pollution Air Pollution
Causes, Effects, and Solutions Causes, Effects, and Solutions
Page 2


Air Pollution Air Pollution
Causes, Effects, and Solutions Causes, Effects, and Solutions
Terms to be familiar with… Terms to be familiar with…
§§ CAA CAA – – Clean Air Act Clean Air Act
§§ CO CO – – carbon monoxide carbon monoxide
§§ NOx NOx – – nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides
§§ PM PM – – Particulate Matter Particulate Matter
§§ SOx SOx – – Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides
§§ VOC’s VOC’s – – Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds
Page 3


Air Pollution Air Pollution
Causes, Effects, and Solutions Causes, Effects, and Solutions
Terms to be familiar with… Terms to be familiar with…
§§ CAA CAA – – Clean Air Act Clean Air Act
§§ CO CO – – carbon monoxide carbon monoxide
§§ NOx NOx – – nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides
§§ PM PM – – Particulate Matter Particulate Matter
§§ SOx SOx – – Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides
§§ VOC’s VOC’s – – Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds
Our Atmospheric Composition Our Atmospheric Composition
Composition of
dry atmosphere, by volume
ppmv: parts per million by volume
Gas Volume
Nitrogen (N
2
) 78.084% (780,840 ppmv)
Oxygen (O
2
) 20.946% (209,460 ppmv)
Argon (Ar) 0.9340% (9,340 ppmv)
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) 375 ppmv
Neon (Ne) 18.18 ppmv
Helium (He) 5.24 ppmv
Methane (CH
4
) 1.745 ppmv
Krypton (Kr) 1.14 ppmv
Hydrogen (H
2
) 0.55 ppmv
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor (highly variable) typically 1%
Page 4


Air Pollution Air Pollution
Causes, Effects, and Solutions Causes, Effects, and Solutions
Terms to be familiar with… Terms to be familiar with…
§§ CAA CAA – – Clean Air Act Clean Air Act
§§ CO CO – – carbon monoxide carbon monoxide
§§ NOx NOx – – nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides
§§ PM PM – – Particulate Matter Particulate Matter
§§ SOx SOx – – Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides
§§ VOC’s VOC’s – – Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds
Our Atmospheric Composition Our Atmospheric Composition
Composition of
dry atmosphere, by volume
ppmv: parts per million by volume
Gas Volume
Nitrogen (N
2
) 78.084% (780,840 ppmv)
Oxygen (O
2
) 20.946% (209,460 ppmv)
Argon (Ar) 0.9340% (9,340 ppmv)
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) 375 ppmv
Neon (Ne) 18.18 ppmv
Helium (He) 5.24 ppmv
Methane (CH
4
) 1.745 ppmv
Krypton (Kr) 1.14 ppmv
Hydrogen (H
2
) 0.55 ppmv
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor (highly variable) typically 1%
Air Pollution Air Pollution
Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 Air Pollution Control Act of 1955
1st federal air pollution law 1st federal air pollution law
1960s 1960s - - Clean Air Act of 1963 Clean Air Act of 1963
– – (Emissions standards set for stationary (Emissions standards set for stationary
sources such as power plants and steel mills) sources such as power plants and steel mills)
1970 1970 – – The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970 The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970
– – EPA was formed to enforce air pollution laws EPA was formed to enforce air pollution laws
(change in national policy from advisor to (change in national policy from advisor to
enforcer) enforcer) – – Six major air pollutant types Six major air pollutant types
1990 1990 – – The Clean Air Act of 1990 The Clean Air Act of 1990
–– Clean Air Act of 1970 is re Clean Air Act of 1970 is re- -written and new written and new
titles established titles established
Page 5


Air Pollution Air Pollution
Causes, Effects, and Solutions Causes, Effects, and Solutions
Terms to be familiar with… Terms to be familiar with…
§§ CAA CAA – – Clean Air Act Clean Air Act
§§ CO CO – – carbon monoxide carbon monoxide
§§ NOx NOx – – nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen oxides
§§ PM PM – – Particulate Matter Particulate Matter
§§ SOx SOx – – Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides Sulfur dioxide and sulfur oxides
§§ VOC’s VOC’s – – Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile Organic Compounds
Our Atmospheric Composition Our Atmospheric Composition
Composition of
dry atmosphere, by volume
ppmv: parts per million by volume
Gas Volume
Nitrogen (N
2
) 78.084% (780,840 ppmv)
Oxygen (O
2
) 20.946% (209,460 ppmv)
Argon (Ar) 0.9340% (9,340 ppmv)
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
) 375 ppmv
Neon (Ne) 18.18 ppmv
Helium (He) 5.24 ppmv
Methane (CH
4
) 1.745 ppmv
Krypton (Kr) 1.14 ppmv
Hydrogen (H
2
) 0.55 ppmv
Not included in above dry atmosphere:
Water vapor (highly variable) typically 1%
Air Pollution Air Pollution
Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 Air Pollution Control Act of 1955
1st federal air pollution law 1st federal air pollution law
1960s 1960s - - Clean Air Act of 1963 Clean Air Act of 1963
– – (Emissions standards set for stationary (Emissions standards set for stationary
sources such as power plants and steel mills) sources such as power plants and steel mills)
1970 1970 – – The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970 The Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1970
– – EPA was formed to enforce air pollution laws EPA was formed to enforce air pollution laws
(change in national policy from advisor to (change in national policy from advisor to
enforcer) enforcer) – – Six major air pollutant types Six major air pollutant types
1990 1990 – – The Clean Air Act of 1990 The Clean Air Act of 1990
–– Clean Air Act of 1970 is re Clean Air Act of 1970 is re- -written and new written and new
titles established titles established
Six Common Air Pollutants Six Common Air Pollutants
§§ Particulate Matter Particulate Matter
§§ Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide
§§ Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioxide
§§ Lower Troposphere OZONE producing activities Lower Troposphere OZONE producing activities
§§ Sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioxide
§§ Lead Lead
The EPA asked to Obama Administration to The EPA asked to Obama Administration to
consider Carbon dioxide as a new common air consider Carbon dioxide as a new common air
pollutant. pollutant.
Source:  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Source:  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency- - July 19, 2011 July 19, 2011
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