PPT: Hydraulic Machines Notes | EduRev

Fluid Mechanics

Civil Engineering (CE) : PPT: Hydraulic Machines Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


Turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most remarkable development
pertaining to the exploitation of water resources throughout
the world
• Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic turbines
which are hydraulic machines.
• Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-potential into
mechanical energy.
• Mechanical energy developed by turbines is used to run
electric generators coupled to the shaft of turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most cheapest source of power
generation.
12/31/2016 Mahesh Kumar(ME Deptt.) 15
Page 2


Turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most remarkable development
pertaining to the exploitation of water resources throughout
the world
• Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic turbines
which are hydraulic machines.
• Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-potential into
mechanical energy.
• Mechanical energy developed by turbines is used to run
electric generators coupled to the shaft of turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most cheapest source of power
generation.
12/31/2016 Mahesh Kumar(ME Deptt.) 15
Based on head and quantity of water
According to head and quantity of water available, the
turbines can be classified into:-
a) High head turbines
b) Medium head turbines
c) Low head turbines
a) High head turbines
High head turbines are the turbines which work under
heads more than 250m. The quantity of water needed in
case of high head turbines is usually small. The Pelton
turbines are the usual choice for high heads.
Classification of turbines
Page 3


Turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most remarkable development
pertaining to the exploitation of water resources throughout
the world
• Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic turbines
which are hydraulic machines.
• Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-potential into
mechanical energy.
• Mechanical energy developed by turbines is used to run
electric generators coupled to the shaft of turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most cheapest source of power
generation.
12/31/2016 Mahesh Kumar(ME Deptt.) 15
Based on head and quantity of water
According to head and quantity of water available, the
turbines can be classified into:-
a) High head turbines
b) Medium head turbines
c) Low head turbines
a) High head turbines
High head turbines are the turbines which work under
heads more than 250m. The quantity of water needed in
case of high head turbines is usually small. The Pelton
turbines are the usual choice for high heads.
Classification of turbines
Based on head and quantity of water
b) Medium head turbines
The turbines that work under a head of 45m to 250m are
called medium head turbines. It requires medium flow of
water. Francis turbines are used for medium heads.
c) Low head turbines
Turbines which work under a head of less than 45m are
called low head turbines. Owing to low head, large
quantity of water is required. Kaplan turbines are used for
low heads.
Classification of turbines
Page 4


Turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most remarkable development
pertaining to the exploitation of water resources throughout
the world
• Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic turbines
which are hydraulic machines.
• Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-potential into
mechanical energy.
• Mechanical energy developed by turbines is used to run
electric generators coupled to the shaft of turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most cheapest source of power
generation.
12/31/2016 Mahesh Kumar(ME Deptt.) 15
Based on head and quantity of water
According to head and quantity of water available, the
turbines can be classified into:-
a) High head turbines
b) Medium head turbines
c) Low head turbines
a) High head turbines
High head turbines are the turbines which work under
heads more than 250m. The quantity of water needed in
case of high head turbines is usually small. The Pelton
turbines are the usual choice for high heads.
Classification of turbines
Based on head and quantity of water
b) Medium head turbines
The turbines that work under a head of 45m to 250m are
called medium head turbines. It requires medium flow of
water. Francis turbines are used for medium heads.
c) Low head turbines
Turbines which work under a head of less than 45m are
called low head turbines. Owing to low head, large
quantity of water is required. Kaplan turbines are used for
low heads.
Classification of turbines
Based on hydraulic action of water
According to hydraulic action of water, turbines can be 
classified into
a) Impulse turbines
b) Reaction turbines
a) Impulse turbine: If the runner of a turbine rotates by the 
impact or impulse action of water, it is an impulse 
turbine.
b) Reaction turbine: These turbines work due to reaction of 
the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet 
of the runner.
Classification of turbines
Page 5


Turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most remarkable development
pertaining to the exploitation of water resources throughout
the world
• Hydroelectric power is developed by hydraulic turbines
which are hydraulic machines.
• Turbines convert hydraulic energy or hydro-potential into
mechanical energy.
• Mechanical energy developed by turbines is used to run
electric generators coupled to the shaft of turbines
• Hydro electric power is the most cheapest source of power
generation.
12/31/2016 Mahesh Kumar(ME Deptt.) 15
Based on head and quantity of water
According to head and quantity of water available, the
turbines can be classified into:-
a) High head turbines
b) Medium head turbines
c) Low head turbines
a) High head turbines
High head turbines are the turbines which work under
heads more than 250m. The quantity of water needed in
case of high head turbines is usually small. The Pelton
turbines are the usual choice for high heads.
Classification of turbines
Based on head and quantity of water
b) Medium head turbines
The turbines that work under a head of 45m to 250m are
called medium head turbines. It requires medium flow of
water. Francis turbines are used for medium heads.
c) Low head turbines
Turbines which work under a head of less than 45m are
called low head turbines. Owing to low head, large
quantity of water is required. Kaplan turbines are used for
low heads.
Classification of turbines
Based on hydraulic action of water
According to hydraulic action of water, turbines can be 
classified into
a) Impulse turbines
b) Reaction turbines
a) Impulse turbine: If the runner of a turbine rotates by the 
impact or impulse action of water, it is an impulse 
turbine.
b) Reaction turbine: These turbines work due to reaction of 
the pressure difference between the inlet and the outlet 
of the runner.
Classification of turbines
Based on direction of flow of water in the runner
Depending upon the direction of flow through the runner, 
following types of turbines are there
a) Tangential flow turbines
b) Radial flow turbines
c) Axial flow turbines
d) Mixed flow turbines
Classification of turbines
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