PPT - Indian Economy On The Eve Of Independence Commerce Notes | EduRev

Economics Class 12

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Commerce : PPT - Indian Economy On The Eve Of Independence Commerce Notes | EduRev

 Page 2


INTRODUCTION
Indian economy on the eve of independence deals with 
the Indian economy as we inherited it from the British in 
1947.
It focus on the following points.
State of agriculture and industrial sectors on 
the eve of independence.
India’s foreign trade under the British rule. 
• .
Page 3


INTRODUCTION
Indian economy on the eve of independence deals with 
the Indian economy as we inherited it from the British in 
1947.
It focus on the following points.
State of agriculture and industrial sectors on 
the eve of independence.
India’s foreign trade under the British rule. 
• .
AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR
INDUSTRIAL 
SECTOR
FOREIGN
TRADE
DEMOGRAPHIC 
CONDITION
OCCUPATIONAL
STRUCTURE
INFRASTRUCTURE
Page 4


INTRODUCTION
Indian economy on the eve of independence deals with 
the Indian economy as we inherited it from the British in 
1947.
It focus on the following points.
State of agriculture and industrial sectors on 
the eve of independence.
India’s foreign trade under the British rule. 
• .
AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR
INDUSTRIAL 
SECTOR
FOREIGN
TRADE
DEMOGRAPHIC 
CONDITION
OCCUPATIONAL
STRUCTURE
INFRASTRUCTURE
.
Indian agriculture became backward, stagnant and non-vibrant 
under the British rule.
1.Weak productive accumulation.
2.Unemployment and underemployment
3.Low levels of production and productivity.
4.Subdivision of landholdings.
Indian agriculture was primitive and stagnant. The main causes 
of stagnation of agriculture sector was as follows:                            
1.Land Tenure system
2.Zamindari system
3.Mahalwari system and
4.Ryotwari system
5.Commercialization of agriculture
6.Partition of the country
.
Page 5


INTRODUCTION
Indian economy on the eve of independence deals with 
the Indian economy as we inherited it from the British in 
1947.
It focus on the following points.
State of agriculture and industrial sectors on 
the eve of independence.
India’s foreign trade under the British rule. 
• .
AGRICULTURAL
SECTOR
INDUSTRIAL 
SECTOR
FOREIGN
TRADE
DEMOGRAPHIC 
CONDITION
OCCUPATIONAL
STRUCTURE
INFRASTRUCTURE
.
Indian agriculture became backward, stagnant and non-vibrant 
under the British rule.
1.Weak productive accumulation.
2.Unemployment and underemployment
3.Low levels of production and productivity.
4.Subdivision of landholdings.
Indian agriculture was primitive and stagnant. The main causes 
of stagnation of agriculture sector was as follows:                            
1.Land Tenure system
2.Zamindari system
3.Mahalwari system and
4.Ryotwari system
5.Commercialization of agriculture
6.Partition of the country
.
Agriculture plays an important part in economic development. It 
provides the food security to the country. Also, it’s a backbone for 
many industries.
At the time of independence, almost 85% of the total population was 
depended on the agriculture. India’s agriculture sector saw no growth 
during the colonial period. Productivity was stagnant. In fact, it was 
deteriorating. The total output increased by just 0.5% per annum 
before independence. Farm output from year 1891 to 1947 was not 
more than 0.11%.
Many reasons were behind that. But prominent were the land 
settlement and exploitation of Indian farming by the British India for 
their benefit. In the Zamidari system the real benefits of the agriculture 
went straight in the hands of Zamidar’s. Farmers end up getting 
nothing, even after toiling hard for it.
Lack of fertilizers, inferior quality of seeds and less use of modern 
technology were also responsible for the murky state of agriculture. 
Adding fuel on that was the commercialization of it.
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