PPT: Introduction to Central Processing Unit Notes | EduRev

Computer Architecture & Organisation (CAO)

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) : PPT: Introduction to Central Processing Unit Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


3.1 Introduction to CPU
 Central processing unit etched on
silicon chip called
microprocessor
 Contain tens of millions of tiny
transistors
 Key components:
– Central processing unit
– Registers
– System clock
Page 2


3.1 Introduction to CPU
 Central processing unit etched on
silicon chip called
microprocessor
 Contain tens of millions of tiny
transistors
 Key components:
– Central processing unit
– Registers
– System clock
Types of Chips
 Intel makes a family of processors
– Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs
– Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs
– Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and
network servers
 Other processors
– Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible
microprocessors
– PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh computers
– HP’s Alpha microprocessor used in high-end servers
Page 3


3.1 Introduction to CPU
 Central processing unit etched on
silicon chip called
microprocessor
 Contain tens of millions of tiny
transistors
 Key components:
– Central processing unit
– Registers
– System clock
Types of Chips
 Intel makes a family of processors
– Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs
– Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs
– Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and
network servers
 Other processors
– Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible
microprocessors
– PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh computers
– HP’s Alpha microprocessor used in high-end servers
Microprocessor Speeds
 Measure of system clock speed
– How many electronic pulses the clock produces per
second
– Usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz)
 Billions of machine cycles per second
 Some old PCs measured in megahertz (MHz)
 Comparison of clock speed only meaningful
between identical microprocessors
 CPU cycle time – inverse of clock rate
Page 4


3.1 Introduction to CPU
 Central processing unit etched on
silicon chip called
microprocessor
 Contain tens of millions of tiny
transistors
 Key components:
– Central processing unit
– Registers
– System clock
Types of Chips
 Intel makes a family of processors
– Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs
– Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs
– Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and
network servers
 Other processors
– Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible
microprocessors
– PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh computers
– HP’s Alpha microprocessor used in high-end servers
Microprocessor Speeds
 Measure of system clock speed
– How many electronic pulses the clock produces per
second
– Usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz)
 Billions of machine cycles per second
 Some old PCs measured in megahertz (MHz)
 Comparison of clock speed only meaningful
between identical microprocessors
 CPU cycle time – inverse of clock rate
Current Technology Capabilities and
Limitations
 Moore’s Law
– Rate of increase in transistor density on microchips
doubles every 18-24 months with no increase in unit
cost
 Rock’s Law
– Cost of fabrication facilities for chip generation doubles
every four years
 Increased packing density
 Electrical resistance
Page 5


3.1 Introduction to CPU
 Central processing unit etched on
silicon chip called
microprocessor
 Contain tens of millions of tiny
transistors
 Key components:
– Central processing unit
– Registers
– System clock
Types of Chips
 Intel makes a family of processors
– Pentium III and Pentium4 processors in most PCs
– Celeron processor sold for low-cost PCs
– Xeon and Itanium for high-end workstations and
network servers
 Other processors
– Cyrix and AMD make Intel-compatible
microprocessors
– PowerPC chips used primarily in Macintosh computers
– HP’s Alpha microprocessor used in high-end servers
Microprocessor Speeds
 Measure of system clock speed
– How many electronic pulses the clock produces per
second
– Usually expressed in gigahertz (GHz)
 Billions of machine cycles per second
 Some old PCs measured in megahertz (MHz)
 Comparison of clock speed only meaningful
between identical microprocessors
 CPU cycle time – inverse of clock rate
Current Technology Capabilities and
Limitations
 Moore’s Law
– Rate of increase in transistor density on microchips
doubles every 18-24 months with no increase in unit
cost
 Rock’s Law
– Cost of fabrication facilities for chip generation doubles
every four years
 Increased packing density
 Electrical resistance
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