Page 1 TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION TRANSFORMER EQUATION TRANSFORMER RATING PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER LOSSES TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER Page 2 TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION TRANSFORMER EQUATION TRANSFORMER RATING PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER LOSSES TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER Introduction Introduction ? Atransformer is a static static machines machines. ?? The The word word ‘transformer’ ‘transformer’comes comes form form the the word word ‘transform’ ‘transform’. . ? Transformer is not not an an energy energy conversion conversion device device, but is a device device that that changes changes AC AC electrical electrical power power at at one one voltage voltage level level into into AC AC electrical electrical power power at at another another voltage voltage level level through through the the action action of of magnetic magnetic field, field, without without a a change change in in frequency frequency. . ?? It Itcan can be be either either to to step step- -up up or or step step down down. . Generation Generation Station Station TX1 TX1 Distribution Distribution ss TX1 TX1 TTransmission ransmission System System 33/13.5k 33/13.5k VV 13.5/6.6kV 13.5/6.6kV 6.6kV/415 6.6kV/415 VV Consumer Consumer Page 3 TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION TRANSFORMER EQUATION TRANSFORMER RATING PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER LOSSES TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER Introduction Introduction ? Atransformer is a static static machines machines. ?? The The word word ‘transformer’ ‘transformer’comes comes form form the the word word ‘transform’ ‘transform’. . ? Transformer is not not an an energy energy conversion conversion device device, but is a device device that that changes changes AC AC electrical electrical power power at at one one voltage voltage level level into into AC AC electrical electrical power power at at another another voltage voltage level level through through the the action action of of magnetic magnetic field, field, without without a a change change in in frequency frequency. . ?? It Itcan can be be either either to to step step- -up up or or step step down down. . Generation Generation Station Station TX1 TX1 Distribution Distribution ss TX1 TX1 TTransmission ransmission System System 33/13.5k 33/13.5k VV 13.5/6.6kV 13.5/6.6kV 6.6kV/415 6.6kV/415 VV Consumer Consumer MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? Faraday’s Law states that, ? If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced in the turns of wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time. If we haveNN turns of wire, dt t d Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = dt t d N Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = Lenz’s Law Page 4 TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION TRANSFORMER EQUATION TRANSFORMER RATING PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER LOSSES TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER Introduction Introduction ? Atransformer is a static static machines machines. ?? The The word word ‘transformer’ ‘transformer’comes comes form form the the word word ‘transform’ ‘transform’. . ? Transformer is not not an an energy energy conversion conversion device device, but is a device device that that changes changes AC AC electrical electrical power power at at one one voltage voltage level level into into AC AC electrical electrical power power at at another another voltage voltage level level through through the the action action of of magnetic magnetic field, field, without without a a change change in in frequency frequency. . ?? It Itcan can be be either either to to step step- -up up or or step step down down. . Generation Generation Station Station TX1 TX1 Distribution Distribution ss TX1 TX1 TTransmission ransmission System System 33/13.5k 33/13.5k VV 13.5/6.6kV 13.5/6.6kV 6.6kV/415 6.6kV/415 VV Consumer Consumer MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? Faraday’s Law states that, ? If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced in the turns of wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time. If we haveNN turns of wire, dt t d Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = dt t d N Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = Lenz’s Law MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? For an ac sources, ? Let V(t) = V m sin wt i(t) = i m sin wt Since the flux is a sinusoidal function; Then: Therefore: Thus: t t m w sin ) ( F = F m m ind ind fN N Emf V F = F = = p w 2 (max) t N dt t d N Emf V m m ind ind w w w cos sin F - = F - = = m m m rms ind fN fN N Emf F = F = F = 44 . 4 2 2 2 ) ( p w Page 5 TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION TRANSFORMER EQUATION TRANSFORMER RATING PRACTICAL TRANSFORMER SINGLE PHASE TRANSFORMER TRANSFORMER LOSSES TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY VOLTAGE REGULATION THREE PHASE TRANSFORMER Introduction Introduction ? Atransformer is a static static machines machines. ?? The The word word ‘transformer’ ‘transformer’comes comes form form the the word word ‘transform’ ‘transform’. . ? Transformer is not not an an energy energy conversion conversion device device, but is a device device that that changes changes AC AC electrical electrical power power at at one one voltage voltage level level into into AC AC electrical electrical power power at at another another voltage voltage level level through through the the action action of of magnetic magnetic field, field, without without a a change change in in frequency frequency. . ?? It Itcan can be be either either to to step step- -up up or or step step down down. . Generation Generation Station Station TX1 TX1 Distribution Distribution ss TX1 TX1 TTransmission ransmission System System 33/13.5k 33/13.5k VV 13.5/6.6kV 13.5/6.6kV 6.6kV/415 6.6kV/415 VV Consumer Consumer MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? Faraday’s Law states that, ? If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be induced in the turns of wire. This voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time. If we haveNN turns of wire, dt t d Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = dt t d N Emf V ind ind ) ( F - = = Lenz’s Law MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? For an ac sources, ? Let V(t) = V m sin wt i(t) = i m sin wt Since the flux is a sinusoidal function; Then: Therefore: Thus: t t m w sin ) ( F = F m m ind ind fN N Emf V F = F = = p w 2 (max) t N dt t d N Emf V m m ind ind w w w cos sin F - = F - = = m m m rms ind fN fN N Emf F = F = F = 44 . 4 2 2 2 ) ( p w MZS FKEE, UMP Transformer Equation ? For an ideal transformer ? In the equilibrium condition, both the input power will be equaled to the output power, and this condition is said to ideal condition of a transformer. ? From the ideal transformer circuit, note that, ? Hence, substitute in (i) m m fN E fN E F == F == 2 2 1 1 44 . 4 44 . 4 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 cos cos I I V V I V I V power output power Input = \ = = q q ………………… (i) 2 2 1 1 V E and V E = =Read More

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