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Plant Tissue Culture Video Lecture | Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

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FAQs on Plant Tissue Culture Video Lecture - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

1. What is plant tissue culture?
Ans. Plant tissue culture is a technique used to grow and propagate plants in a sterile and controlled environment. It involves the isolation and culture of plant cells, tissues, or organs in an artificial medium supplemented with nutrients and hormones. This technique allows for the production of genetically identical plants and the rapid multiplication of rare or valuable plant species.
2. What are the advantages of plant tissue culture?
Ans. Plant tissue culture offers several advantages. Firstly, it allows for the production of a large number of plants from a small amount of plant material, which is particularly useful for rare or endangered species. Secondly, it provides a means to propagate plants without the risk of transmitting diseases or pests. Additionally, tissue culture enables the production of disease-free plants, the preservation of germplasm, and the genetic modification of plants for desired traits.
3. What are the steps involved in plant tissue culture?
Ans. The steps involved in plant tissue culture include: 1. Explant selection: Choosing a suitable part of the plant, such as a leaf or stem, to be used as the starting material. 2. Surface sterilization: Treating the explant with disinfectants to remove any microorganisms present on its surface. 3. Establishment of aseptic culture: Placing the sterilized explant onto a nutrient-rich agar medium supplemented with plant hormones. 4. Subculturing: Transferring the growing tissue to fresh media periodically to promote its growth and development. 5. Rooting and acclimatization: Inducing the formation of roots in the cultured tissue and gradually adapting the plants to normal growing conditions.
4. What are the applications of plant tissue culture?
Ans. Plant tissue culture has numerous applications in agriculture, horticulture, and research. Some common applications include: 1. Micropropagation: Mass production of plants with desirable traits, such as disease resistance or high yield. 2. Germplasm preservation: Long-term storage of plant genetic material for conservation and future use. 3. Genetic engineering: Introduction of foreign genes into plant tissue to create genetically modified plants. 4. Production of secondary metabolites: Culturing plant cells to produce valuable compounds like pharmaceuticals or flavors. 5. Plant breeding: Development of new plant varieties through the manipulation of tissue culture techniques.
5. What are the challenges in plant tissue culture?
Ans. Plant tissue culture can be challenging due to various factors. Contamination by microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, is a common problem that can hinder the success of tissue culture. Maintaining the appropriate nutrient balance and hormone concentrations in the culture medium is crucial for proper growth and development. Additionally, the process requires a sterile environment and specialized equipment, which can be costly and require technical expertise. Finally, some plant species may be difficult to culture or have low regeneration rates, posing additional challenges.
165 videos|338 docs|324 tests
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