Polyvinyl Chloride, Polycarbonate, Thermoset Resin (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Chemical Engineering : Polyvinyl Chloride, Polycarbonate, Thermoset Resin (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

The document Polyvinyl Chloride, Polycarbonate, Thermoset Resin (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev is a part of the Chemical Engineering Course Chemical Technology.
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Polyvinyl Chloride

Polyvinyl chloride is second largest (after polyethylene) and most versatile of all thermoplastics. Despite various environmental issues raised time to time PVC has enjoyed onstant growth in demand because of its unique properties which include durability, ease of processing and cost effectiveness . PVC has been facing innumerable challenges to its usage and growth. With use of suitable additives like stabilizer and plasticisers can be made rigid or flexible for a variety of end uses and can be processed by all types of processing methods .

It contains about 56.8percent chlorine and balance being hydrocarbon. A major portion of the chlorine produced in the world is used in the manufacture of PVC. The potential for growth in PVC consumption is enormous. With the addition of plasticizers, fillers, reinforcements, lubricants and stabilizer, PVC may be formulated into flexible, rigid, elastomer or foamed compound  

Global production and consumption of Polyvinyl Chloride PVC in 2010 was approx. 34 million metric tons. Global capacity utilization was 72percent in 2010 (SRI Consulting). Global per capita consumption of PVC is shown in Figure M-VIII 3.1. It is one of the most widely used thermoplastic polymers with a total world consumption of about 30 million tonnes. It contains about 56.8percent chlorine and balance being hydrocarbon. A major portion of the chlorine produced in the world is used in the manufacturing of PVC. Some of the Indian industries manufacture PVC is given in Table M-VIII 3.1. Table M.VIII 3.2 gives the details of PVC manufacturing technology used in India and the capacities of the industries. 

PVC has outstanding combination of durability, stability, flame retardancy, heat electrical insulation properties, recyclability excellent long term weather ability and lower price.

PVC Resin End Uses: The major end uses applications of PVC can be broadly classified in two groups: rigid PVC applications and Flexible PVC applications. Rigid PVC find applications in pipe fittings, conduits, films, bottles etc. Flexible PVC finds application in wire cable insulation, sheets, hoses tubes, footwear and other uses. Building, construction and agricultural sector (PVC pipes) are major consumer of PVC.

Polyvinyl Chloride, Polycarbonate, Thermoset Resin (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VIII 3.1: Per Capita Consumption PVC: India & World
Source: Indian Vinyls Industry: status & Business outlook chemical Weekly Jan 29, 2008

Table M-VIII 3.1: Industries Manufacture PVC in India

 

Company

Location

Year of startup

Capacit

y

(’000

tonnes)

Productio

n

(’000

tonnes)

Feedstock

and

Technolog

y

Reliance

Industries Ltd.

Hazira, Surat (Gujarat)

1991

300

274.4

Naphtha

Indian

Petrochemical Corp. Ltd.

(IPCL)

Vadodara

Gandhar

(Gujarat)

1984

2000

55

150

196.1

Naphtha

Finolex

Ratnagiri

(Maharashtra)

1993

130

117.00

Vinyl

chloride

NOCIL

Thane (Maharashtra)

1968

25

24

Naphtha

Chemiplast

Mettur

(Tamilnadu)

1967

60

58.0

Alcohol

DCW

Tuti coran (Tamil Nadu)

1972

60

45.0

Acetylene

DCM Shriram

Kota

(Rajasthan)

1964

33

24.7

Acetylene

Total

 

 

813.00

 

 

Table M-VIII 3.2: PVC India Technology & Capacities 1998-1999

 

Company

Technology

Location

1998

Capacity(MT)

DSCL

CaC2→Acetylene→VCM→ PVC

Kota Rajasthan

36,000

Chemplast

Molasses →Alcohol→C2H4→EDC→

VCM→ PVC →Imp EDC→VCM→PVC

Mettur, Tamil Nadu

40,000

DCW

Imported VCM→PVC

Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu

60,000

NOCIL

Naptha →C2 H4→EDC→ VCM→PVC

Bombay

Maharashtra

30,000

IPCL (Baroda)

Cl2}> Naptha →C2H4 →EDC

HCl}→ VCM→ PVC

Baroda

Gujarat

55,000

IPCL

(Gandhar)

Imp.C2H4 →EDC→ VCM→ PVC Captive Chlorine

Gandhar

Gujarat

150,000

Reliance

Imp.C2H4→EDC→ VCM→ PVC Imp.EDC

Hazira

Gujarat

30,000

Finolex

Imp.C2H4 →EDC→ VCM→ PVC Imp.EDC

Ratnagiri

Maharashtra

150,000

 
Process Technology for PVC  
 
The basic monomer for manufacture of PVC is vinyl chloride which is made from either acetylene or ethylene. However, ethylene is the chief source of vinyl chloride throughout world. Various sources of ethylene are naphtha gas cracking, acetylene route and alcohol route. Figure M-VIII 3.2 illustrates the process flow diagram of PVC manufacturing. Using a free radical initiator, PVC can be made with any of four general methods of polymerisation – suspension, emulsion, bulk and solution polymerises vinyl chloride monomer. However, bulk of PVC is made by suspension polymerisation. Most resins produced by the suspension polymerisation are in the range of 125 - 165 microns in diameter while those produced by bulk polymerisation process are in the range of 1 micron diameter . Suspension polymerization of PVC has significant advantages such as low investment, large reactor technology, clean reactor wall technology, low personal requirement, environmentally safe 
 
Vinyl chloride is copolymerized with other monomers to improve quality of the resin. When vinyl acetate is used as copolymer, polymer is more stable to light and heat than the homopolymer of vinyl chloride. With vinylidene chloride has a higher melting point than homopolymer and may be spun into a fibre 
 
Polyvinyl Chloride

Polyvinyl Chloride, Polycarbonate, Thermoset Resin (Part - 1) Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

Figure M-VIII 3.2: Flow Diagram for Manufacturing of PVC 

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