Polyvinyl chloride is second largest (after polyethylene) and most versatile of all thermoplastics. Despite various environmental issues raised time to time PVC has enjoyed onstant growth in demand because of its unique properties which include durability, ease of processing and cost effectiveness . PVC has been facing innumerable challenges to its usage and growth. With use of suitable additives like stabilizer and plasticisers can be made rigid or flexible for a variety of end uses and can be processed by all types of processing methods .
It contains about 56.8percent chlorine and balance being hydrocarbon. A major portion of the chlorine produced in the world is used in the manufacture of PVC. The potential for growth in PVC consumption is enormous. With the addition of plasticizers, fillers, reinforcements, lubricants and stabilizer, PVC may be formulated into flexible, rigid, elastomer or foamed compound
Global production and consumption of Polyvinyl Chloride PVC in 2010 was approx. 34 million metric tons. Global capacity utilization was 72percent in 2010 (SRI Consulting). Global per capita consumption of PVC is shown in Figure M-VIII 3.1. It is one of the most widely used thermoplastic polymers with a total world consumption of about 30 million tonnes. It contains about 56.8percent chlorine and balance being hydrocarbon. A major portion of the chlorine produced in the world is used in the manufacturing of PVC. Some of the Indian industries manufacture PVC is given in Table M-VIII 3.1. Table M.VIII 3.2 gives the details of PVC manufacturing technology used in India and the capacities of the industries.
PVC has outstanding combination of durability, stability, flame retardancy, heat electrical insulation properties, recyclability excellent long term weather ability and lower price.
PVC Resin End Uses: The major end uses applications of PVC can be broadly classified in two groups: rigid PVC applications and Flexible PVC applications. Rigid PVC find applications in pipe fittings, conduits, films, bottles etc. Flexible PVC finds application in wire cable insulation, sheets, hoses tubes, footwear and other uses. Building, construction and agricultural sector (PVC pipes) are major consumer of PVC.
Figure M-VIII 3.1: Per Capita Consumption PVC: India & World
Source: Indian Vinyls Industry: status & Business outlook chemical Weekly Jan 29, 2008
Table M-VIII 3.1: Industries Manufacture PVC in India
Year of startup
Hazira, Surat (Gujarat)
Petrochemical Corp. Ltd.
Tuti coran (Tamil Nadu)
Table M-VIII 3.2: PVC India Technology & Capacities 1998-1999
VCM→ PVC →Imp EDC→VCM→PVC
Mettur, Tamil Nadu
Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu
Naptha →C2 H4→EDC→ VCM→PVC
Cl2}> Naptha →C2H4 →EDC
HCl}→ VCM→ PVC
Imp.C2H4 →EDC→ VCM→ PVC Captive Chlorine
Imp.C2H4→EDC→ VCM→ PVC Imp.EDC
Imp.C2H4 →EDC→ VCM→ PVC Imp.EDC
Figure M-VIII 3.2: Flow Diagram for Manufacturing of PVC