Practical Organic Chemistry Tips (Lab Experiments) Class 11 Notes | EduRev

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Class 11 : Practical Organic Chemistry Tips (Lab Experiments) Class 11 Notes | EduRev

The document Practical Organic Chemistry Tips (Lab Experiments) Class 11 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 11 Course Chemistry for JEE.
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PRACICAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

(A) FUNCTIONAL GROUP ANALYSIS

1. Unsaturation : Alkenes & alkynes :

(a) Bayer's test : Cold dil alk. KMnO4 decolourisation test

       Purple colour to Colourless MnO2 (Brown ppt).

(b) Br2 water decolourisation test

      Violet colour of Br2 → Colourless

2. Terminal alkynes :

Confirmed by ppt. of Acetylide ion with NaNH2 or AgNO2 or Cu2Cl2NH4OH.

3. Alkyl halides :

(a) If they are capable of carbocation formation then they will give ppt with AgNO3.

(b) Beilstein's test : A green colour is imported to the flame if small amount of organic compound is taken on copper wire.

4. Alcohol :

(a) Cerric ammonium nitrate → Give red colour

(b) Boil with acetic acid & conc. H2SO→ fruity smell

(c) 2-alkanol & ethanol also give Iodoform test → Yellow ppt. of CH3I on reaction with I2  -OH

5. Aldehyde & ketones :

2,4-Dinitrophenyl hydrazize (or) Braddy's reagent give yellow, orange or red colour with ald. & Ketones (2, 4-DNP).

6. Aldehydes :

(a) Tollen's test   Silver mirror

(b) Fehling's test {except benzaldehyde} → Red colour

(c) Benedict's test →  Red colour

(d) Schiff's dye colour regeneration test →  Pink colour

(e) Gly ppt. with HgCl2.

7. Ketones :

(a) methyl ketones give haloform test

(b) a-hydroxy Ketones give Tollen's & Fehling test's too.

8. Carboxylic acids :

(a) Brisk effervescence with aq. NaHCO3 solution.

(b) HCOOH alone gives silver mirror test with Tollen's reagent.

(c) Blue litmus →  red

(d) give fruity smell of reaction with alcohols.

9. Phenols :

(a) Violet colouration with neural FeCl3

(b) Liebermann test

(c) White ppt. with Br2 water

(d) Brisk effervescence with aq. NaHCO3 is observed in case of Nitrophenols.

10. Primary amines :

(a) Carbylamine reaction →  Isonitriles have very distinctive foul odours.

(b) Hoffmann mustard oil reaction →  Oily liquid with mustard like smell.

11. Aromatic 1º amine →  diazo test

12. Amide boil with NaOH →  NH3

13. Nitrobenzene →  Mullikqn Baker test: Treat it with ZnNH4Cl then boil with Tollen's reagent →  Silver mirror will appear

14. Proteins :

(a) Biuret test : Also used for urea →  Alkaline solution of protein treated with a drop of aq CuSO4 when bluish violet colour is obtained.

(b) Ninhydrin test: Protein treated with a pyridine solution of ninhydrin give colour ranging from deep blue to violet pink.

DIFFERENTATION TEST

D1. 1º, 2º & 3º alcohols :

(a) Luca's test : Lucas reagent is conc. HCl ZnCl2

(b) Victor Meyer's test (RBC test)

(i) 1º Alcohol →  Blood red colour

(ii) 2º Alcohol →  Blue

(iii) 3º Alcohol →  Colourless

D2. 1º, 2º & 3º amines :

(a) Hinsberg's reagent:

(i) 1º Amine yield a clear solution from which upon acidification an insoluble material separated.

(ii) 2º Amine yield an insoluble compound which is unaffected by acid.

(iii) 3º Amine yield insoluble compound.

(b) Reaction with HNO2.

SOME IMPORTANT PRACTICAL QUESTIONS:

1. Natural rubber is a polymer of

(1) Chloroprene (2) Isoprene (3) 1,3-Butadiene (4) None

2. Hydroylsis of sucrose is called

(1) saponification (2) Inversion (3) Esterification (2) Hydration

3. In vulcanization of rubber

(1) Sulphur reacts to form a new compound

(2) Sulphur cross-links are introduced

(3) Sulphur forms a very thin protective layer over rubber.

(4) All statements are correct.

4. Which of the following belong to the class of natural polymers ?

(1) Proteins (2) Cellulose (3) Rubber (4) All of the above

5. The reaction of glucose and red P HI is called

(1) Sandmeyer's reaction (2) Reformatsky reaction

(3) Gattermann's reaction (4) Reduction

6. The reagent used in Ruff degradation is :

(1) Baeyer's reagent (2) Tollen's reagent

(3) Fenton's reagent (4) Benedict's reagent

7. Number of possible isomers of glucose is:

(1) 10 (2) 14 (3) 16 (4) 20

8. Glucose reacts with acetic anhydride to form

(1) Monoacetate (2) Tetra acetate

(3) Penta acetate (4) Hexa acetate

9. Glucose or aldohexose contains

(1) One CHO group

(2) Five OH groups

(3) One primary alcoholic group and four secondary alcoholic groups

(4) All are correct

10. When glucose is heated with nitric acid, the product is

(1) Gluconic acid (2) Glucaric acid

(3) Glycolic acid (4) Oxalic acid

11. Cane sugar is made of

(1) 5 membered glucose ring and 5 membered fructose ring

(2) 6 membered glucose ring and 6 membered fructose ring

(3) 6 membered glucose ring and 5 membered fructose ring

(4) 6 membered galactose ring and 6 membered fructose ring

 

(A) ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS

Lassaigne Method (Detection of Elements)

Element Sodium Extract (S.E.) Confirmed Test Reactions

 

S.E. FeSO4,  NaOH, FeSO4  2NaOH Fe(OH)2  Na2SO4

Nitrogen Na C N NaCN(S.E.) boil and cool, Fe(OH)2  6NaOH Na4[Fe(CN)6] 2NaOH

FeCl3  conc. HCl Na4[Fe(CN)6] FeCl3 Fe4[Fe(CN)6 ]3  3NaCl

Blue or green colour Prussian blue

(i) S.E. sodium nitro

prusside (A) (i) Na2S Na2[Fe(CN)5NO] Na4[Fe(CN)5NOS]

A deep violet colour (A) deep violet

Sulphur 2Na S Na2S(S.E.) (ii) S.E. CH3COOH (ii) Na2S (CH3COO)2Pb PbS ¯ 2CH3COONa

(CH3COO)2 Pb black ppt.

A black ppt.

S.E. HNO3  AgNO3

(i) White ppt. soluble

in aq. NH3 confirms Cl NaX AgNO3 AgX ¯

(ii) Yellow ppt. ppt.

Halogen Na Cl NaCl(S.E.) partially soluble in

aq. NH3 confirm Br

(iii) Yellow ppt. AgCl 2NH3(aq)[Ag(NH3)2]Cl

in soluble in aq. NHwhite ppt. soluble

confirms I

As in test for nitrogen;

instead of green or blue
 

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