Scientists recently discovered that Emperor Penguins—one of Antarctica’s most celebrated species—employ a particularly unusual technique for surviving the daily chill. As detailed in an article published today in the journal Biology Letters, the birds minimize heat loss by keeping the outer surface of their plumage below the temperature of the surrounding air. At the same time, the penguins’ thick plumage insulates their body and keeps it toasty. . . .
The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Overall, nearly the entire outer surface of the penguins’ bodies was below freezing at all times, except for their eyes and beaks. The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body - and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them. The key to their trick is the difference between two different types of heat transfer: radiation and convection.
The penguins do lose internal body heat to the surrounding air through thermal radiation, just as our bodies do on a cold day. Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food. The penguins, though, have an additional strategy. Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.
Most of this heat, the researchers note, probably doesn’t make it all the way through the plumage and back to the penguins’ bodies, but it could make a slight difference. At the very least, the method by which a penguin’s plumage wicks heat from the bitterly cold air that surrounds it helps to cancel out some of the heat that’s radiating from its interior. And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial.
1. Which of the following can be responsible for Emperor Penguins losing body heat?
(A) Food metabolism.
(C) Reproduction process.
(D) Thermal convection.
Option A: It has been mentioned that food metabolism is used to maintain body temperature. But it cannot be inferred that heat is lost due to food metabolism.
Option B: The colder temperature of plumage results in slight heat gain from the surrounding air. Hence this option is incorrect.
Option C: In the last paragraph of the passage, it has been mentioned that heat is very important for the breeding of Emperor Penguins.
So it can be inferred that this conserved heat might be used in the reproductive process of Emperor Penguins. Hence C is the answer.
Option D: Consider the line: "Since their outer plumage is..........................thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air)." It is clear that the process of thermal convection is responsible for heat gain and not heat loss. Hence D is incorrect.
2. All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:
(A) the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation.
(B) the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.
(C) the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were -10 degrees Fahrenheit.
(D) the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively.
The primary findings of the study conclude that Emperor Penguins reduce the heat loss by keeping the temperature of the outer surface of their plumage lower than the surrounding air. In fact, they gain a little heat from the surrounding air through thermal convection.
Option A: If the plumage did not allow thermal convection, it would contradict the findings of the study. Hence A is not the answer.
Option B: Since the transfer of heat takes place through the plumage, variation in the average temperature of feet will not affect the conclusions of the study. Hence B is the answer.
Option C: The average temperature of plumage should be lower than that of the air. It has been mentioned in the passage that the temperatures of the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. If the temperature of the air is -10 degrees Fahrenheit, Penguins would not be able to gain the heat. Hence, this will negate the study findings.
Option D: All the temperatures mentioned in this option are higher than the temperature of the air, but the study assumes the surrounding air temperature to be higher. This option will also negate the study findings.
3. Which of the following best explains the purpose of the word “paradoxically” as used by the author?
(A) Keeping their body colder helps penguins keep their plumage warmer.
(B) Heat gain through radiation happens despite the heat loss through convection.
(C) Heat loss through radiation happens despite the heat gain through convection.
(D) Keeping a part of their body colder helps penguins keep their bodies warmer.
The word "paradoxically" has been used by the author to indicate the two contradictory characteristics mentioned in the statement.
Option A: This option states the exact opposite conclusion mentioned in the passage. As per the passage, penguins keep their plumage colder to keep their body warmer. Hence A is incorrect.
Option B: It has been mentioned that the penguins lose heat through radiation and gain heat through convection. Hence B is incorrect.
Option C: Although this statement is true, it does not contain self-contradictory parts. It has been mentioned that the heat loss and heat gain happen through the given processes but one has no relation to the other. Hence C is not the answer.
Option D: This statement combines two contradictory qualities. The penguins are keeping their plumage colder, which is responsible for the heat gain from the surrounding air and making their body warmer. Hence D is the answer.
4. In the last sentence of paragraph 3, “slightly warmer air” and “at a slightly colder temperature” refer to ______ AND ______ respectively:
(A) the cold Antarctic air whose temperature is higher than that of the plumage AND the fall in temperature of the Antarctic air after it has transmitted some heat to the plumage.
(B) the cold Antarctic air which becomes warmer because of the heat radiated out from penguins’ bodies AND the fall in temperature of the surrounding air after thermal convection.
(C) the air trapped in the plumage which is warmer than the Antarctic air AND the fall in temperature of the trapped plumage air after it radiates out some heat.
(D) the air inside penguins’ bodies kept warm because of metabolism of food AND the fall in temperature of the body air after it transfers some heat to the plumage.
Option A: Consider the sentence: "As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature." It has been mentioned in the passage that the plumage temperature is lower than the surrounding air temperature. Hence, "slightly warmer air" refers to the Antarctica air that surrounds the plumage and "at a slightly colder temperature" refers to the fall in temperature due to heat loss.
Option B: The process of convections and not radiation is involved in this case. Hence the first part of the option is incorrect. B is not the answer.
Option C: The passage does not mention air trapped in plumage. Hence this option is rejected.
Option D: "slightly warmer air" refers to the Antarctica air and not the air inside the penguins' bodies. Hence D is incorrect.
Contemporary internet shopping conjures a perfect storm of choice anxiety. Research has consistently held that people who are presented with a few options make better, easier decisions than those presented with many. . . . Helping consumers figure out what to buy amid an endless sea of choice online has become a cottage industry unto itself. Many brands and retailers now wield marketing buzzwords such as curation, differentiation, and discovery as they attempt to sell an assortment of stuff targeted to their ideal customer.
Companies find such shoppers through the data gold mine of digital advertising, which can catalog people by gender, income level, personal interests, and more. Since Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume of the consumer choices available to them, a ghost now has to be in the retail machine, whether it’s an algorithm, an influencer, or some snazzy ad tech to help a product follow you around the internet. Indeed, choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram— the relentlessly chic young moms and perpetually vacationing 20-somethings—who present an aspirational worldview, and then recommend the products and services that help achieve it. . . .
For a relatively new class of consumer-products start-ups, th ere’s another method entirely. Instead of making sense of a sea of existing stuff, these companies claim to disrupt stuff as Americans know it. Casper (mattresses), Glossier (makeup), Away (suitcases), and many others have sprouted up to offer consumers freedom from choice: The companies have a few aesthetically pleasing and supposedly highly functional options, usually at mid-range prices. They’re selling nice things, but maybe more importantly, they’re selling a confidence in those things, and an ability to opt out of the stuff rat race. . . .
One-thousand-dollar mattresses and $300 suitcases might solve choice anxiety for a certain tier of consumer, but the companies that sell them, along with those that attempt to massage the larger stuff economy into something navigable, are still just working within a consumer market that’s broken in systemic ways. The presence of so much stuff in America might be more valuable if it were more evenly distributed, but stuff’s creators tend to focus their energy on those who already have plenty. As options have expanded for people with disposable income, the opportunity to buy even basic things such as fresh food or quality diapers has contracted for much of America’s lower classes.
For start-ups that promise accessible simplicity, their very structure still might eventually push them toward overwhelming variety. Most of these companies are based on hundreds of millions of dollars of venture capital, the investors of which tend to expect a steep growth rate that can’t be achieved by selling one great mattress or one great sneaker. Casper has expanded into bedroom furniture and bed linens.
Glossier, after years of marketing itself as no-makeup makeup that requires little skill to apply, recently launched a full line of glittering color cosmetics. There may be no way to opt out of stuff by buying into the right thing.
5. Which one of the following best sums up the overall purpose of the examples of Casper and Glossier in the passage?
(A) They are exceptions to a dominant trend in consumer markets.
(B) They are increasing the purchasing power of poor Americans.
(C) They might transform into what they were exceptions to.
(D) They are facilitating a uniform distribution of commodities in the market.
Option A: The startups Casper and Glossier are certainly breaking the trend of choice anxiety. Yet, the author argues that they are turning into something that they intended to disrupt. Hence, this does not capture the purpose of the author.
Option B: The author argues that even these startups are targeting select few mid-range customers rather than the lower classes. Hence, this option directly contradicts the author's claim.
Option C: These startups initially started as an exception to offering a wide variety of choices. Yet, due to limited customers, and want of steep growth, they might transform into a type of company that they intended to disrupt. Hence, this option correctly resounds the authors fear and captures his purpose of argument. Hence C is correct
Option D: This option is largely vague and can have multiple interpretations. One interpretation can be that these startups are targeting a selected band of customers and do not have offering for lower-class customers. Hence, there is no uniform distribution.
6. All of the following, IF TRUE, would weaken the author’s claims EXCEPT:
(A) the annual sale of companies that hired lifestyle influencers on Instagram for marketing their products were 40% less than those that did not.
(B) product options increased market competition, bringing down the prices of commodities, which, in turn, increased purchasing power of the poor.
(C) the empowerment felt by purchasers in buying a commodity were directly proportional to the number of options they could choose from.
(D) the annual sales growth of companies with fewer product options were higher than that of companies which curated their products for target consumers.
Option A: Paragraph 1 says "choice fatigue is one reason so many people gravitate toward lifestyle influencers on Instagram". Hence, as per the passage, a company with wide range of products and a lifestyle influencer is likely to perform better than a company with only wide range of products. Hence, this statement negates the claim of the author.
Option B: "As options have expanded for people with disposable income, the opportunity to buy even basic things such as fresh food or quality diapers has contracted for much of America’s lower classes." The author argues that variety of products are offered only for a certain class of consumers other than the lower class. If variety of options indeed helped the poor, then his argument is weakened.
Option C: "Research has consistently held that people who are presented with a few options make better, easier decisions than those presented with many". "Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume". Clearly, people are overwhelmed by options and prefer lesser variety. Hence, option C is contradictory.
Option D: This option is largely vague and leaves unanswered questions behind. Also, the author doesn't make any comparison between the growth of these two type of companies. The author only says that, as the company targets only few consumers, for the want of growth they are likely to expand to variety of products. As there is no information about their growths, this option neither strengthens nor weakens the claim.
7. Based on the passage, all of the following can be inferred about consumer behaviour EXCEPT that:
(A) having too many product options can be overwhelming for consumers.
(B) too many options have made it difficult for consumers to trust products.
(C) consumers tend to prefer products by start-ups over those by established companies.
(D) consumers are susceptible to marketing images that they see on social media.
Option A: Paragraph 1 says "Since Americans have lost the ability to sort through the sheer volume of the consumer choices available to them" Since the product options are overwhelming, they are unable to sort through the options. Hence, option A can be inferred from the passage.
Option B: Paragraph 1 says "Research has consistently ..... industry unto itself." As people experience choice anxiety due to overwhelming options, they are unable to trust products while selecting. Hence, they look-out for celebrities and curators to make a decision.
Option C: There is no such comparison in the passage that shows people's preference towards products by startups. Hence, option C cannot be inferred.
Option D: Paragraph 1 says "a ghost now has to be in the retail machine, whether it’s an algorithm, an influencer, or some snazzy ad tech to help a product follow you around the internet". Due to our inability to sort, we depend on influencers or we are vulnerable to snazzy ads to purchase products. Hence, D can be inferred.
8. A new food brand plans to launch a series of products in the American market. Which of the following product plans is most likely to be supported by the author of the passage?
(A) A range of 10 products priced between $5 and $10.
(B) A range of 25 products priced between $5 and $10.
(C) A range of 10 products priced between $10 and $25.
(D) A range of 25 products priced between $10 and $25.
The author principally argues for lesser choices. He says that choice anxiety is overwhelming and people make better decisions with lesser choices.
He is also critical about companies targeting only certain band of well-off customers and critiques them for not offering products for consumers of lower classes.
Hence, a product group with lesser variety, and targeted to lower class customers would be most acceptable to the author.
9. Which of the following hypothetical statements would add the least depth to the author’s prediction of the fate of start-ups offering few product options?
(A) An exponential surge in their sales enables start-ups to meet their desired profit goals without expanding their product catalogue.
(B) Start-ups with few product options are no exception to the American consumer market that is deeply divided along class lines.
(C) With Casper and Glossier venturing into new product ranges, their regular customers start losing trust in the companies and their products.
(D) With the motive of promoting certain rival companies, the government decides to double the tax-rates for these start-ups.
By "Depth", the author suggests a scenario that adds value or supplies additional information which supports his claim.
Option A: If the startup products grow exponentially and are self-sufficient and do not expand to other products, this scenario directly contradicts the author's probable prediction of these companies. Hence, it would add the least depth to the author's argument. A is the correct answer.
Option B: Lets consider that startups with few product options already exist. In such a case, these startups are no exceptions. For the sake of steep growth and surviving, they might have to expand into different product categories. Hence it adds some depth to the author's prediction.
Option C: "There may be no way to opt-out of stuff by buying into the right thing." The author is clearly displeased with startups ending up with overwhelming variety. Losing regular customers for better growth further invigorates the author's claim against numerous choices.
Hence, it adds some value to his criticism.
Option D: If the government doubles their tax rates, as these startups are dependent on select customers for income, they might have to venture into other products and varieties to accentuate their returns and keep the company afloat. Hence, their fate would likely end up the way author predicted it to be.
As defined by the geographer Yi-Fu Tuan, topophilia is the affective bond between people and place. His 1974 book set forth a wideranging exploration of how the emotive ties with the material environment vary greatly from person to person and in intensity, subtlety, and mode of expression. Factors influencing one’s depth of response to the environment include cultural background, gender, race, and historical circumstance, and Tuan also argued that there is a biological and sensory element. Topophilia might not be the strongest of human emotions— indeed, many people feel utterly indifferent toward the environments that shape their lives - but when activated it has the power to elevate a place to become the carrier of emotionally charged events or to be perceived as a symbol.
Aesthetic appreciation is one way in which people respond to the environment. A brilliantly colored rainbow after gloomy afternoon showers, a busy city street alive with human interaction—one might experience the beauty of such landscapes that had seemed quite ordinary only moments before or that are being newly discovered. This is quite the opposite of a second topophilic bond, namely that of the acquired taste for certain landscapes and places that one knows well. When a place is home, or when a space has become the locus of memories or the means of gaining a livelihood, it frequently evokes a deeper set of attachments than those predicated purely on the visual. A third response to the environment also depends on the human senses but may be tactile and olfactory, namely a delight in the feel and smell of air, water, and the earth.
Topophilia—and its very close conceptual twin, sense of place—is an experience that, however elusive, has inspired recent architects and planners. Most notably, new urbanism seeks to counter the perceived placelessness of modern suburbs and the decline of central cities through neo-traditional design motifs. Although motivated by good intentions, such attempts to create places rich in meaning are perhaps bound to disappoint. As Tuan noted, purely aesthetic responses often are suddenly revealed, but their intensity rarely is longlasting. Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify, and its most articulate interpreters have been self-reflective philosophers such as Henry David Thoreau, evoking a marvelously intricate sense of place at Walden Pond, and Tuan, describing his deep affinity for the desert.
Topophilia connotes a positive relationship, but it often is useful to explore the darker affiliations between people and place. Patriotism, literally meaning the love of one’s terra patria or homeland, has long been cultivated by governing elites for a range of nationalist projects, including war preparation and ethnic cleansing. Residents of upscale residential developments have disclosed how important it is to maintain their community’s distinct identity, often by casting themselves in a superior social position and by reinforcing class and racial differences. And just as a beloved landscape is suddenly revealed, so too may landscapes of fear cast a dark shadow over a place that makes one feel a sense of dread or anxiety—or topophobia.
10. In the last paragraph, the author uses the example of “Residents of upscale residential developments” to illustrate the:
(A) manner in which environments are designed to minimise the social exclusion of their clientele.
(B) introduction of nationalist projects by such elites to produce a sense of dread or topophobia.
(C) social exclusivism practised by such residents in order to enforce a sense of racial or class superiority.
(D) sensitive response to race and class problems in upscale residential developments.
"Residents of upscale residential developments have disclosed how important it is to maintain their community’s distinct identity, often by casting themselves in a superior social position and by reinforcing class and racial differences."
Option A: The option implies that the clients are made to feel at home. While the phrase “Residents of upscale residential developments” is used to capture the intent of social dominance of a particular class. Hence this option is incorrect.
Option B: The option implies that jingoism of a certain class might lead to topophobia. The option is yet again unrelated.
Option C: Residents of upscale residential developments intend to promote their community by reinforcing sectarian differences. This exclusivism(Practice of being exclusive/important) is clearly captured in the option. Hence C is correct.
Option D: Sensitive response indicates a considerate response where other's sentiments are considered. While these residents are inconsiderate and consider themself superior. Also, the option doesn't capture the purpose clearly. Hence, incorrect.
11. Which one of the following comes closest in meaning to the author’s understanding of topophilia?
(A) Scientists have found that most creatures, including humans, are either born with or cultivate a strong sense of topography.
(B) The tendency of many cultures to represent their land as “motherland” or “fatherland” may be seen as an expression of their topophilia
(C) Nomadic societies are known to have the least affinity for the lands through which they traverse because they tend to be topophobic.
(D) The French are not overly patriotic, but they will refuse to use English as far as possible, even when they know it well.
Option A: The entire passage deals with "TOPOPHILIA" and "TOPOGRAPHY" is unrelated. Also, the author says that we experience topophilia in three forms and that we are not born with it.
Option C: An illustration of topophobia doesn't represent the author's view on topophilia
Option D: The option speaks about glossophilia(Love of language) and is unrelated to topophilia
Option B: "Topophilia connotes a positive relationship, but it often is useful to explore the darker affiliations between people and place.
Patriotism, literally meaning the love of one’s terra patria or homeland".
Despite a negative tone, the author says that one form of topophilia is patriotism. Even though not wholesome, it comes "closest" to the author's understanding of topophilia among the given options. Hence B is correct.
12. Which one of the following best captures the meaning of the statement, “Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify . . .”?
(A) The deep anomie of modern urbanisation led to new urbanism’s intricate sense of place.
(B) Architects have to objectively quantify spaces and hence cannot be topophilic.
(C) Philosopher-architects are uniquely suited to develop topophilic design
(D) People’s responses to their environment are usually subjective and so cannot be rendered in design.
"As Tuan noted, purely aesthetic responses often are suddenly revealed, but their intensity rarely is longlasting. Topophilia is difficult to design for and impossible to quantify". The author says that people's response to aesthetics is shortlived and usually subsides overtime.
Hence, it is difficult to design or quantify.
Option A: "Amomie" means lack of morals or ethics. It is unrelated to the passage.
Option B: An objective analysis by architects does not explain the reason as to why it is difficult to quantify topophilia.
Option C: This statement is in the form of an opinion and does not explain the above statement.
Option D: Since every person has different topophilic attractions and have different responses to aesthetics. Capturing topophilia in the form of design is impossible. This option elaborates and explains the reason for quantifying topophilia. Hence option D is correct.
13. The word “topophobia” in the passage is used:
(A) to represent a feeling of dread towards particular spaces and places.
(B) to signify the fear of studying the complex discipline of topography.
(C) to signify feelings of fear or anxiety towards topophilic people.
(D) as a metaphor expressing the failure of the homeland to accommodate non-citizens.
"And just as a beloved landscape is suddenly revealed, so too may landscapes of fear cast a dark shadow over a place that makes one feel a sense of dread or anxiety—or topophobia."
Option B speaks about topography, while Option C speaks about dread towards people.
Option D is unrelated to topophobia. Hence, all of them are incorrect Option A clearly captures the essence of the last sentence in the passage.
14. Which of the following statements, if true, could be seen as not contradicting the arguments in the passage?
(A) New Urbanism succeeded in those designs where architects collaborated with their clients.
(B) Generally speaking, in a given culture, the ties of the people to their environment vary little in significance or intensity.
(C) The most important, even fundamental, response to our environment is our tactile and olfactory response.
(D) Patriotism, usually seen as a positive feeling, is presented by the author as a darker form of topophilia.
Option A: "new urbanism seeks to... Although motivated by good intentions, such attempts to create places rich in meaning are perhaps bound to disappoint." The author says new urbanism that tries to induce sense of place is bound to fail. Since there is no mention of clients, irrespectively new urbanism is going to fail. Hence, it is contradicting the author.
Option B: "His 1974 book set forth a wide-ranging exploration of how the emotive ties with the material environment vary greatly from person to person and in intensity, subtlety, and mode of expression." This option is contradicting the passage yet again.
Option C: The author lists out three ways of experiencing topophilia but doesn't emphasize about any one way. Hence, even though not contradictory, this option is factually misquoting the passage.
Option D: "Topophilia connotes a positive relationship, but it often is useful to explore the darker affiliations between people and place.
Patriotism, literally meaning the love of one’s terra patria or homeland.." Clearly, the author has a negative intonation when he says "darker affiliation". He presents patriotism as a darker manifestation of topophilia. Hence, this statement is correct and does not contradict the author. Hence option D is correct.
"Free of the taint of manufacture" - that phrase, in particular, is heavily loaded with the ideology of what the Victorian socialist William Morris called the "anti-scrape", or an anticapitalist conservationism (not conservatism) that solaced itself with the vision of a preindustrial golden age. In Britain, folk may often appear a cosy, fossilised form, but when you look more closely, the idea of folk - who has the right to sing it, dance it, invoke it, collect it, belong to it or appropriate it for political or cultural ends - has always been contested territory. . . .
In our own time, though, the word "folk" . . . has achieved the rare distinction of occupying fashionable and unfashionable status simultaneously. Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative. And yet - as newspaper columns periodically rejoice - folk is hip again, influencing artists, clothing and furniture designers, celebrated at music festivals, awards ceremonies and on TV, reissued on countless record labels. Folk is a sonic "shabby chic", containing elements of the uncanny and eerie, as well as an antique veneer, a whiff of Britain's heathen dark ages. The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music's origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies. . . .
[Cecil Sharp, who wrote about this subject, believed that] folk songs existed in constant transformation, a living example of an art form in a perpetual state of renewal. "One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like" is the most concise summary of his conclusions on its origins. He compared each rendition of a ballad to an acorn falling from an oak tree; every subsequent iteration sows the song anew. But there is tension in newness. In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms. For the early-20th-century composers such as Vaughan Williams and Holst, there were thunderbolts of inspiration from oriental mysticism, angular modernism and the body blow of the first world war, as well as input from the rediscovered folk tradition itself.
For the second wave of folk revivalists, such as Ewan MacColl and AL Lloyd, starting in the 40s, the vital spark was communism's dream of a post-revolutionary New Jerusalem. For their younger successors in the 60s, who thronged the folk clubs set up by the old guard, the lyrical freedom of Dylan and the unchained melodies of psychedelia created the conditions for folkrock's own golden age, a brief Indian summer that lasted from about 1969 to 1971. . . . Four decades on, even that progressive period has become just one more era ripe for fashionable emulation and pastiche. The idea of a folk tradition being exclusively confined to oral transmission has become a much looser, less severely guarded concept. Recorded music and television, for today's metropolitan generation, are where the equivalent of folk memories are seeded. . . .
15. At a conference on folk forms, the author of the passage is least likely to agree with which one of the following views?
(A) Folk forms, in their ability to constantly adapt to the changing world, exhibit an unusual poise and homogeneity with each change.
(B) The plurality and democratising impulse of folk forms emanate from the improvisation that its practitioners bring to it.
(C) The power of folk resides in its contradictory ability to influence and be influenced by the present while remaining rooted in the past.
(D) Folk forms, despite their archaic origins, remain intellectually relevant in contemporary times.
Cecil Sharp says "One man sings a song, and then others sing it after him, changing what they do not like". This signifies that folk music is constantly evolving. Hence, this adaptability contributes to its plurality. Hence the author is going to agree with option B
"Just as the effusive ..... on countless record labels" This indicates that - "Just as the radical views of Morris became popular and mainstream, similarly folk music which is considered parochial is becoming popular and conformist. This popularity is being rejoiced by media as "folk is hip again". Hence, option C correctly captures this sentiment.
"For the early-20th-century composers .... tradition itself." This line captures the idea that folk is also inspired by various philosophies and schools of thought. Hence, we can infer that folk is intellectually relevant in contemporary times. Option D is in coherence with the author's views.
Option A says that folk forms exhibit homogeneity. The author in the entire passage describes the diversity of folk and says it paves way for vivid imagination. "The very obscurity and anonymity of folk music's origins open up space for rampant imaginative fancies". Cecil Sharp cites an analogy of an oak tree to show the constant transformation of folk. Hence, this option is contradicting author's opinion and he is least likely to agree with it.
16. The primary purpose of the reference to William Morris and his floral prints is to show:
(A) that despite its archaic origins, folk continues to remain a popular tradition.
(B) the pervasive influence of folk on contemporary art, culture, and fashion.
(C) that what is once regarded as radical in folk, can later be seen as conformist.
(D) that what was once derided as genteel is now considered revolutionary.
"Just as the effusive floral prints of the radical William Morris now cover genteel sofas, so the revolutionary intentions of many folk historians and revivalists have led to music that is commonly regarded as parochial and conservative.
Here the author compares two aspects. We know that William Morris is a radical conservationist as per para 1. (genteel refers to respectable/gentlemanly, genteel sofas refers to people in respectable place in life) As the footprints/views of William Morris becomes more popular i.e. as conservative folk forms once considered radical became more mainstream, similarly folk music which is considered parochial is now being revived by revivalists. The primary purpose is to show an analogy that a radical folk form became more mainstream/acceptable over time. This expression is best captured in option C.
17. The author says that folk “may often appear a cosy, fossilised form” because:
(A) folk is a sonic “shabby chic” with an antique veneer.
(B) of its nostalgic association with a pre-industrial past.
(C) it has been arrogated for various political and cultural purposes.
(D) the notion of folk has led to several debates and disagreements.
"Free of the taint of manufacture" ...... been contested territory."
The phrase "Free of the taint of manufacture" is likely to have emerged post-industrialisation when conservationinsts(conserving status quo especially natural resources) fancied a pre-industrial age and expressed nostalgic attachment towards it. Hence the main point of the first paragraph can be summarised as "Conservationists envisioned a cosy folk form inspired by preindustrial times".
Hence option B is the correct answer
18. Which of the following statements about folk revivalism of the 1940s and 1960s cannot be inferred from the passage?
(A) Electrification of music would not have happened without the influence of rock music.
(B) Even though it led to folk-rock’s golden age, it wasn’t entirely free from critique.
(C) It reinforced Cecil Sharp’s observation about folk’s constant transformation.
(D) Freedom and rebellion were popular themes during the second wave of folk revivalism.
" In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms." Purists oppose any altercation or adaptation of original folk from and they criticized the adaptations by rock too. Hence, option B can be inferred.
Folk music was inspired by revolutionary intentions in 1940s, various philosophies and school of thoughts in 1960s, Freedom of expression(Bob dylan) and psychedalia.
This shows a constant transformation of folk reinforcing the beliefs of Cecil Sharp. Option C is correct.
Option D can be rightly inferred from the lyrical freedom of bob dylan and revolutionary intentions in 1940s.
Option A : "In the late 1960s, purists were suspicious of folk songs recast in rock idioms. Electrification, however, comes in many forms."
Even though the electrification of folk by rock was rejected by purists, electrification came in many forms and not individually by Rock alone. Hence, electrification of folk music is not causated by rock alone. Hence option A cannot be inferred.
19. All of the following are causes for plurality and diversity within the British folk tradition EXCEPT:
(A) that British folk continues to have traces of pagan influence from the dark ages.
(B) paradoxically, folk forms are both popular and unpopular.
(C) the fluidity of folk forms owing to their history of oral mode of transmission.
(D) that British folk forms can be traced to the remote past of the country.
Option A and option D both signifies the inspiration of folk music from two different times. Folk is not limited to immediate past or to any specific time-line. This contributes to the plurality of folk music.
Option C talks about "fluidity". Fluidity indicates flexibility or different modes of oral rendition. For example different vocal styles can be generated by pitch, rhythm, style of rendition. Hence, the variance in oral transmission of music can lead to various iterations of one original form. Hence, this again contributes to the diversity and plurality of folk music.
Option B: Popularity or unpopularity is an opinion. An opinion in no way contributes to the diversity of a folk form. It might be regarded as diverse opinions but does not inherently contribute to the diversity of folk itself. Hence, option B does not contribute to folk's plurality.
In the past, credit for telling the tale of Aladdin has often gone to Antoine Galland . . . the first European translator of . . . Arabian Nights [which] started as a series of translations of an incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic story collection. . . But, though those tales were of medieval origin, Aladdin may be a more recent invention. Scholars have not found a manuscript of the story that predates the version published in 1712 by Galland, who wrote in his diary that he first heard the tale from a Syrian storyteller from Aleppo named Hanna Diyab. . .
Despite the fantastical elements of the story, scholars now think the main character may actually be based on a real person’s real experiences. . . . Though Galland never credited Diyab in his published translations of the Arabian Nights stories, Diyab wrote something of his own: a travelogue penned in the mid-18th century. In it, he recalls telling Galland the story of Aladdin [and] describes his own hardknocks upbringing and the way he marveled at the extravagance of Versailles. The descriptions he uses were very similar to the descriptions of the lavish palace that ended up in Galland’s version of the Aladdin story. [Therefore, author Paulo Lemos] Horta believes that “Aladdin might be the young Arab Maronite from Aleppo, marveling at the jewels and riches of Versailles.” . . .
For 300 years, scholars thought that the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin might have been inspired by the plots of French fairy tales that came out around the same time, or that the story was invented in that 18th century period as a byproduct of French Orientalism, a fascination with stereotypical exotic Middle Eastern luxuries that was prevalent then. The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script. [According to Horta,] “Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.” . . .
To the scholars who study the tale, its narrative drama isn’t the only reason storytellers keep finding reason to return to Aladdin. It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,” as Horta puts it. “The day Diyab told the story of Aladdin to Galland, there were riots due to food shortages during the winter and spring of 1708 to 1709, and Diyab was sensitive to those people in a way that Galland is not. When you read this diary, you see this solidarity among the Arabs who were in Paris at the time. . . . There is little in the writings of Galland that would suggest that he was capable of developing a character like Aladdin with sympathy, but Diyab’s memoir reveals a narrator adept at capturing the distinctive psychology of a young protagonist, as well as recognizing the kinds of injustices and opportunities that can transform the path of any youthful adventurer.”
20. All of the following serve as evidence for the character of Aladdin being based on Hanna Diyab EXCEPT:
(A) Diyab’s narration of the original story to Galland.
(B) Diyab’s humble origins and class struggles, as recounted in his travelogue.
(C) Diyab’s description of the wealth of Versailles in his travelogue.
(D) Diyab’s cosmopolitanism and cross-cultural experience.
The passage says "describes his own hard-knocks upbringing and the way he marvelled at the extravagance of Versailles. The descriptions he uses were very similar to the descriptions of the lavish palace that ended up in Galland’s version of the Aladdin story."
Hence, option B and option C depicts the similarities of Hanna Diyab's life and Aladdin's character.
Option D:“Diyab was ideally placed to embody the overlapping world of East and West, blending the storytelling traditions of his homeland with his youthful observations of the wonder of 18th-century France.”. Since Diyab is a middle eastern man who came to France, his cross-culture experience would make him ideal to embody the character of Aladdin. Hence, option D gives evidence for the claim aladdin is based on hana diyab's life.
Option A: Even though Diyab narrated the story, he might have read it somewhere or heard it from someone else, it doesn't necessarily give any insight about its relationship with his life.
21. Which of the following is the primary reason for why storytellers are still fascinated by the story of Aladdin?
(A) The traveller's experience that inspired the tale of Aladdin resonates even today.
(B) The archetype of the rags-to-riches story of Aladdin makes it popular even today.
(C) The tale of Aladdin documents the history of Europe and Middle East.
(D) The story of Aladdin is evidence of the eighteenth century French Orientalist attitude.
It reflects not only “a history of the French and the Middle East, but also [a story about] Middle Easterners coming to Paris and that speaks to our world today,”
The above statement indicates that the primary reason for scholars to go back to aladdin is the intrigue about middle easteners coming to paris.
Option B and D have references from third paragragh which is unrelated to the context.
While option C is one of the reasons, the primary reason as per the author is option A(traveller's experience indicates midleeasteners experience in france).
Option A can be considered as one of primary importance as he says "that speaks to the world today" highlighting the importance of middle-easteners coming to paris.
22. Which of the following does not contribute to the passage’s claim about the authorship of Aladdin?
(A) The narrative sensibility of Diyab’s travelogue.
(B) Galland’s acknowledgment of Diyab in his diary.
(C) The story-line of many French fairy tales of the 18th century.
(D) The depiction of the affluence of Versailles in Diyab’s travelogue.
The narrative sensibility of Diyab’s travelogue indicates similarity in characters of Aladdin and Diyab in terms of sensibility, being considerate. Hence, option A strengthens the passage's claim about Aladdin's character having ties with that of Diyab
Option B, Galland's acknowledgement again indicates that Aladdin might be predated than 1712 and might have some roots associated with Diyab
Option D, The affluence in the story of Aladdin and Diyab's travelogue have major similarities. This suggests that Aladdin maybe based on Diyab's life experiences. Hence, it supports the passage's claim about authorship.
As per option C, the french fairy tales inform us about the probable cause/motive behind writing Aladdin but doesn't lead to information regarding its authorship.
23. The author of the passage is most likely to agree with which of the following explanations for the origins of the story of Aladdin?
(A) Basing it on his own life experiences, Diyab transmitted the story of Aladdin to Galland who included it in Arabian Nights.
(B) Galland derived the story of Aladdin from Diyab’s travelogue in which he recounts his fascination with the wealth of Versailles.
(C) The story of Aladdin has its origins in an undiscovered, incomplete manuscript of a medieval Arabic collection of stories.
(D) Galland received the story of Aladdin from Diyab who, in turn, found it in an incomplete medieval manuscript.
Solution: '"Galland wrote in his diary that he first heard the tale from a Syrian storyteller from Aleppo named Hanna Diyab Since he heard the story, option B is incorrect.
Also, the first paragraph implies that - While Arabian nights predates to medieval times, the earliest appearance of Aladdin is in 1712.
Hence, option C and D are incorrect.
"Transmit" means passing from one person to another. This can imply that Diyab told it to Galland. Also, Aladdin is one of the stories of "Arabian Nights" (Others include Alibaba & 40 thieves, Sindbad). Hence option A is correct.
24. Which of the following, if true, would invalidate the inversion that the phrase “flips the script” refers to?
(A) Diyab’s travelogue described the affluence of the French city of Bordeaux, instead of Versailles.
(B) The French fairy tales of the eighteenth century did not have rags-to-riches plot lines like that of the tale of Aladdin.
(C) The description of opulence in Hanna Diyab’s and Antoine Galland’s narratives bore no resemblance to each other.
(D) Galland acknowledged in the published translations of Arabian Nights that he heard the story of Aladdin from Diyab.
The second paragraph says that there are 2 possible motivations for writing the story of Aladdin, first being french fairy tales and second being French orientalism. He goes on to say, if aladdin is actually based on the life of hanna Diyab, then the idea of french orientalism is inversed.
"or that the story was invented in that 18th century period as a byproduct of French Orientalism, a fascination with stereotypical exotic Middle Eastern luxuries that was prevalent then. The idea that Diyab might have based it on his own life — the experiences of a Middle Eastern man encountering the French, not vice-versa — flips the script."
French Orientalism implies an intrigue of French towards Middle-eastern luxuries, while Diyab coming to france shows an interest of middle-easteners in France. Hence, the script is inversed if Aladdin's story is based on Hanna Diyab.
The question is looking for option which invalidates the inversion. This implies that the script shouldn't be inversed. This occurs when Aladdin's story is not based on Diyab.
Option C says that Diyab's travellogue doesn't bear any resemblance to Galland's Aladdin. This implies that Aladdin is not based on Diyab.
Hence, the inversion of script doesn't occur/invalidated. None of the other options invalidate the script.
Hence, option C is correct
For the following questions answer them individually
25. Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.
1. ‘Stat’ signaled something measurable, while ‘matic’ advert ised free labour; but ‘tron’, above all, indicated control.
2. It was a totem of high modernism, the intellectual and cultural mode that decreed no process or phenomenon was too complex to be grasped, managed and optimized.
3. Like the heraldic shields of ancient knights, these morphemes were painted onto the names of scientific technologies to proclaim one’s history and achievements to friends and enemies alike.
4. The historian Robert Proctor at Stanford University calls the suffix ‘-tron’, along with ‘-matic’ and ‘-stat’, embodied symbols.
5. To gain the suffix was to acquire a proud and optimistic emblem of the electronic and atomic age.
Option 4 and option 5 are related as both statement start with a suffix.
While option 3 is a continuation of the idea in option 3
Option 5 says that the suffix signifies pride, while option 3 elaborates on this and explains how it is displayed as pride to friends and families alike. Hence 53 is a logical block.
Among all the statements, 4 is the only one which doesn't have a pronoun or a tone indicating the presence of a preceding statement.
While 4 opens the statement, it must be succeeded by 1 as the terms cannot be explained at the end.
The logical coherence of this para jumble is 4(Introduction of terms)-1(Explanation of terms)-5(Consequence of terms(Pride))-3(Elaboration of consequence)
Statement 2 speaks about modernism and that every phenomenon can be easily grasped. It is unrelated to the context of the passage and a misfit.
Hence, option 2 is the odd one out.
26. The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. People with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.
2. An example of a lost cognitive instinct is mind-reading: our capacity to think of ourselves and others as having beliefs, desires, thoughts and feelings.
3. Mind-reading looks increasingly like literacy, a skill we know for sure is not in our genes, since scripts have been around for only 5,000-6,000 years.
4. Print-reading, like mind-reading varies across cultures, depends heavily on certain parts of the brain, and is subject to developmental disorders.
Statement 1 displays a contrast of 2 kinds of reading. Logically these reading types must be defined before their negatives are discussed. This indicates that both statement 2 and 4 necessarily precede statement 1
Statement 4 and 1 form a logical block as statement 4 introduces the idea of developmental disorders while statement 1 cites example of such disorders.
Statement 4 cannot be opening as it has a phrase "like mind reading". While, Statement 3 can neither be an opening nor closing statement.
Hence, statement 2 is a good introductory statement as it starts by describing mind reading and statement 3 extends the idea of mindreading. As 3 doesn't fit anywhere else, it has to necessarily follow statement 2.
Hence, the correct order is 2341
27. The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. Metaphors may map to similar meanings across languages, but their subtle differences can have a profound effect on our understanding of the world.
2. Latin scholars point out carpe diem is a horticultural metaphor that, particularly seen in the context of its source, is more accurately translated as “plucking the day,” evoking the plucking and gathering of ripening fruits or flowers, enjoying a moment that is rooted in the sensory experience of nature, unrelated to the force implied in seizing.
3. The phrase carpe diem, which is often translated as “seize the day and its accompanying philosophy, has gone on to inspire countless people in how they live their lives and motivates us to see the world a little differently from the norm
4. It’s an example of one of the more telling ways that we mistranslate metaphors from one language to another, revealing in the process our hidden assumptions about what we really value.
Statement 3 and 2 form a natural block. While statement 3 describes "carpe diem", statement 4 explains how every language has subtle differences in its essence and interpretation. Statement 4 says "its an example of" suggesting to the logical block 32 which shows misinterpretation of metaphor. Hence, 324 forms a block. While statement 1 can serve as both opening as concluding closing statement.
Both the sequesnces 3241 and 1324 seem accurate. Although CAT 2019, considered 3241 as the final answer to this parajumble with statement 1 concluding the paragragh.
28. The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. We’ll all live under mob rule until then, which doesn’t help anyone.
2. Perhaps we need to learn to condense the feedback we receive online so that 100 replies carry the same weight as just one.
3. As we grow more comfortable with social media conversations being part of the way we interact every day, we are going to have to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.
4. A new norm will arise where it is considered unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.
Statement 1 suggests that we will live under mob-rule until a specific event occurs. Hence, it cannot be the opening statement.
Statement 2 is a suggestion to deal with criticism.
Statement 3 is a good opening statement as it sets the agenda for the passage.
Statement 4 says that in the upcoming future, repetitive criticism will not be permitted. 41 makes a logical block as statement 4 talks about a specific event, where mob frenzy attitude is curtailed by eliminating repetitive criticism. Until this occurs, we will live under mob-rule.
Statement 3 opens the passage that we need to learn to deal with criticism. While statement 2 extends the idea as to how one has to deal with criticism on a personal level. Then, the author speaks about curtailing mob culture by censoring repetitive criticism.
Hence, the correct logical order is 3241
29. The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders alerted the public to the psychoanalytical techniques used by the advertising industry. Its premise was that advertising agencies were using depth interviews to identify hidden consumer motivations, which were then used to entice consumers to buy goods. Critics and reporters often wrongly assumed that Packard was writing mainly about subliminal advertising. Packard never mentioned the word subliminal, however, and devoted very little space to discussions of “subthreshold” effects. Instead, his views largely aligned with the notion that individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.
(A) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the supraliminal level, though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.
(B) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ builds on peoples’ conscious thoughts and awareness, by understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level.
(C) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ works at the supraliminal level, wherein the people targeted are aware of being persuaded, after understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works.
(D) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level, on the subconscious level of the awareness of the people targeted.
In this context, "Psychoanalytical analytical technique" implies that the advertising agencies are adapting methods to tap into the unconscious mind of the consumers. They are conducting detailed interviews to identify hidden motivations.
Here, subliminal advertising represents some portion of the ad being difficult to comprehend or simply put, when one of the motives of the ad is so subtle that it is difficult to be understood by a layman.
While supraliminal advertising can be clearly conceived by most people.
Packard claims that the 'Hidden persuaders' use supraliminal advertising to entice customers by tapping into consumers without their knowledge. (....can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.)
Option B and D say that the method is subliminal, hence, it is incorrect
Option C says that people are well aware about being persuaded, hence incorrect.
Option A is a wholesome summary of the method of persuation.
30. The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.
(A) Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.
(B) Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.
(C) Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.
(D) The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.
The paragraph says that humans think about past occurrences suddenly without any immediate stimuli.
The author also says that thinking/thoughts about a certain distant past is a necessity before one can speak about it.
He says that thoughts are a pre-requisite before one talks about it. He also gives an example that various human-like symbols might have emerged without any immediate stimuli.
Option A and C: There is no mention of specificity to humans in the passage
Option B : "All speech acts" is a false generalisation. The passage says that speaking about distant past requires thinking about it first
Option D : It clearly captures the essence of the passage and says that one needs to think about distant past events before talking about them
Hence option D is correct.
31. The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. If you’ve seen a little line of text on websites that says something like "customers who bought this also enjoyed that” you have experienced this collaborative filtering firsthand.
2. The problem with these algorithms is that they don’t take into account a host of nuances and circumstances that might interfere with their accuracy.
3. If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! - the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.
4. Collaborative filtering is a mathematical algorithm by which correlations and cooccurrences of behaviors are tracked and then used to make recommendations.
Statement 1 says "this collaborative filtering". Here "this" refers to a likely preceding statement which explains about collaborative filtering. While statement 1 is an example of collaborative filtering.
Statement 2 starts with "these algorithms". This doesn't look like an opening statement as it describes a certain algorithm ("these").
Statement 3 is explaining about the flaw in the algorithm Statement 4 makes for a good opening statement Statement 41 makes a logical block as the example in 1 refers to collaborative filtering of statement 4
Statement 2 must appear soon after the logical block of 41 as it contains the phrase "these algorithms". While statement 2 explains the problem in the algorithm, statement 3 extends the idea of the problem.
Statement 4 : Introduces collaborative filtering
Statement 1 : Given an example of collaborative filtering
Statement 2 : Speaks about the drawback in the algorithm
Statement 3 : Gives an example of the drawback
Hence the logically coherent order is 4123
32. Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph.
Identify the odd one out.
Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. His idea to use sign language was not a compl etely new idea as Native Americans used hand gestures to communicate with other tribes.
2. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, for example, observed that men who are deaf are incapable of speech.
3. People who were born deaf were denied the right to sign a will as they were “presumed to understand nothing; because it is not possible that they have been able to learn to read or write.”
4. Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pedro Ponce de León created a formal sign language for the hearing impaired.
5. For millennia, people with hearing impairments encountered marginalization because it was believed that language could only be learned by hearing the spoken word.
Statement 34 makes a logical block as statement 4 speaks about "this prejudice" against deaf people. While statement 3 highlights the prejudice by saying that they were considered to be dumb and not allowed to sign a will.
The idea of sign language is continued in statement 1 where the pronoun "he" refers to pedro and the statement discusses about the origin of the sign language.
Statement 5 is a good opening statement as it introduces the idea of discrimination against deaf and this idea is continued by an example in statement 3. Hence these statements can be arranged in the order 5341.
Statement 2 is a good standalone opening statement. Yet, this statement cannot be succeeded by any of the other statements as it is a misfit in the paragraph.
Hence statement 2 is the odd one out
33. The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit.
Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer's knowledge of the world is not the same as the physicist's knowledge. In fact, an engineer's know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.
(A) Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.
(B) Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor.
(C) The relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science, and never the other way round.
(D) The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.
The passage says that pure science intends to discover without any end-goal in mind. While engineers use these benefits for practical applications. The author says that the science behind these practical applications are often considered false by pure science since they are approximated or not applied as per ideal conditions. In any case, even though they are rejected, these approximated science theories find lot of practical applications in everyday life.
Option A is correct. By diluting science, these theories are put into practical benefits. Hence, option A is correct Option B is incorrect as no such implication can be drawn from the passage Option C is incorrect. Linear relationship indicates that, if a certain theory is rejected by pure science, it is bound to be rejected by applied science too. This is clearly not the case as engineers use rejected theories for practical benefits.
Option D speaks only about engineers and has no reference to sciences or the main point of the paragraph. The paragraph intends to compare the functionalities of scientists and engineers while option D is specific to engineers and does not encapsulate the essence of the paragraph.
Hence, by way of elimination Option A is the most suitable summary
34. Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph.
Identify the odd one out.
Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. One argument is that actors that do not fit within a single, well-defined category may suffer an “illegitimacy discount”.
2. Others believe that complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.
3. Some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities that span or combine categories, while other organizations possess narrow identities.
4. Identity is one of the most important features of organizations, but there exist opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.
5. Those who think that complex identities are beneficial point to the strategic advantages of ambiguity, and organizations’ potential to differentiate themselves from competitors.
Statement 1 says that actors who do not fit within a certain category such as "humour", "action" etc will face certain difficulty Statement 2 has a negative tone. It starts with "others" indicating that the preceding statement is likely to have a positive tone.
Statement 4 is a good opening statement as it sets the agenda for the passage by saying that there are opposing views with regard to effects of identities in organisations.
Statement 5 is a favourable view to complex identities, a positive tone. Hence 52 is a logical block.
Statement 3 cannot open the paragraph as the succeeding statement 4 will be disconnected to the central idea of statement 1.
Statement 3 can neither be a conclusion as it is too generic. Hence, statement 3 can logically occur only after statement 4 and before the logical block 52. 4 - Idea of organisational identity introduced 3 - One of the features of organisational identities explained 52 - Two opposing views expressed Statement 1 is unrelated to organisational identity as it speaks about stereotyping the actors.
Hence statement 1 is odd one out