VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [1 Mark]
Q.1. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
Ans. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was an association of twelve states. All these states belonged to western Europe. Therefore, this association was also called Western Alliance.
Q.2. Name the two superpowers responsible for the Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
Ans. The US and USSR were responsible for the Cold War. The world became unipolar in 1991 after the disintegration of USSR.
Q.3. What does the USSR stand for?
Ans. Union of Soviet Socialist Republic.
Q.4. When did NATO and WARSAW PACT come into existence?
Ans. NATO: April 1949
WARSAW PACT: 1955
Q.5. Mention the period of the first and second World War.
Ans. First World War: 1914-1918
Second World: 1939-1945
Q.6. What is meant by the cold War?
Ans. Cold War is a state of extreme unfriendliness existing between two superpowers especially with opposing political system which expresses itself not through fighting but through political pressures and threats.
Q.7. “Non-alignment does not imply neutrality or equidistance.” What does this statement mean?
Ans. Neutrality refers to a policy of staying out of war and not to help end a war. Non-aligned states including India worked to prevent wars and rivalries between others.
Q.8. What was deterrence relationship between superpowers?
Ans. Deterrence relationship refers that both sides have the capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
Q.9. How did superpowers maintain arms- control?
Ans. Superpowers maintained arms control by signing significant agreements within a decade as Limited Test Ban Treaty, Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, Anti- Ballistic Missile Treaty and hold several rounds of arms limitation talks.
Q.10. What do you understand by Least Developed Countries?
Ans. Majority of NAM members were categorised as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty.
Q.11. What was the difference in the ideology of Western Alliances and that of Eastern Alliances?
Ans. The Western Alliance headed by the US represented ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance headed by Soviet Union committed to socialism and communism.
Q.12. What was India’s policy of Non-alignment?
Ans. India’s policy of Non-alignment was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’ instead India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries and prevented differences from escalating into a full scale war.
Q.13. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Ans. India did not join either of the two camps during the Cold War because India played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances for the sake of peace and stability. Their strength was based on unity of NAM members and their resolve to remain non-aligned despite the attempts and made by two superpowers to bring them into their alliances.
Q.14. How were the military alliances beneficial to smaller nations during the Cold War?
Ans. Smaller nations got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local and regional rivals. A state was supposed to remain tied to its protective superpowers to unite influence of other superpower and its allies.
Q.15. Name any two foreign leaders along with the countries they belonged to, who are recognised as the founders of NAM.
Ans. Yugoslavia’s Josip Broz Tito; Egypt’s leader Gamal Abdel Nasser.
Q.16. What was Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT)?
Ans. It was arms control treaty between superpowers. It banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water. It was signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August, 1963. It entered into force on 10 October, 1963.
Q.17. When and where the first NAM Summit was held?
Ans. The first NAM Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961 and it was attended by 25 member states.
VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [2 Marks]
Q.1. What is meant by the Cuban Missile Crisis?
Ans. Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union and received both diplomatic and financial aid from it. In 1962, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to convert it into a Russian base. This move fired the US. It ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of its seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.2. What was the main objective of New International Economic Order?
Ans. The main objective of NIEO was to develop more to Least (Economic)
Developed countries of NAM and to lift them out of poverty by their sustainable development.
Q.3. Mention two military features of the Cold War.
Q.4. Explain Eastern and Western alliance during Cold war.
Q.5. When did NATO come into existence? How many states joined it?
Ans. NATO came into existence in April 1949 and twelve sca+ joined it.
Q.6. Name any two arms control treaties signed between two superpowers in 1960s.
Q.7. Name two leaders who played crucial role in Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.8. Explain any four objectives on Non- aligned Movement.
Q.9. Mention any four important events which took place during Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.10. Who was the key leader of NAM who tried to reduce the Cold War conflicts?
Ans. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru was the key leader of NAM who played a crucial role in mediating between two Koreas. Nehru appealed for reduction of Cold War conflicts and the establishment of world peace and security through co-operative disarmament.
Q.11. Why were most of the countries categorised as Least Developed Countries?
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [4 Marks]
Q.1. Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans. The end of the Second World War was the beginning of the Cold War between the two superpowers of the world, namely the US and the USSR. These two superpowers were keen on expanding their spheres of influence in different parts of the world. Most countries of western Europe sided with the US and those of eastern Europe joined the USSR. But India kept a distance from these superpowers. It means, it became a member of the non-alignment-movement by not joining either alliance. Non-alignment was not a noble international cause which had little to do with India’s real interests. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly, in at least two ways.
Q.2. “The drop of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the US was a political game.” Justify the statement.
Ans. The Second World War ended when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 causing Japan to surrender. Moreover, this action was criticised on the ground that the US knew that Japan was about to surrender and dropping of bombs was not necessary. US action was intended to stop Soviet Union from making military and political gains in Asia and elsewhere and to show that the US was supreme.
Q.3. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ans. In 1962, Soviet Union decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base as it provided USSR diplomatic and financial aid both. Hence, Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The US became aware of it and ordered American warships to intercept to Soviet Union to remove missiles to avoid full scale nuclear war. A clash seemed imminent what came to be known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.4. Name any two founders of Non-aligned Movement. The first NAM summit was the culmination of which three factors?
Ans. Two founders of Non-aligned Movement were:
The first NAM was held in Belgrade in 1961. This was the culmination of following three factors:
Q.5. What is the rationale of Non-aligned movement after the end of Cold War?
Which core values keep non-alignment relevant even after Cold War has ended?
Ans. The Non-aligned Movement was based on a recognition that decolonised states shared a historical affiliation and can become powerful force if they come together. It meant that very small and poor countries need not become followers of any big power, instead they could pursue an independent foreign policy also. It was based on a resolve to democratise the international system to redress existing inequities also.
Q.6. “Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India”. How?
Ans. Non-alignment posture was in the interest of India because:
Q.7. How did deterrence relationships prevent war between two superpowers?
PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS [5 Marks]
Q.1. Read carefully the passage given below and answer the following questions:
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over- the best and most appropriate way of organising political, economic and social life all over the world.
(i) Why is a war like situation called Cold War?
(ii) Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
(iii) Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
(i) The Cold War referred to the competition, the tensions and a series of confrontations between the US and Soviet Union. It never escalated into a hot war, i.e. a full-scale war between these two powers.
(ii) The US and USSR decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating certain kinds of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.
(iii) A stable balance of weapon, they decided, could be maintained through ‘arms control’. Starting in the 1960s, the two sides signed significant agreements, namely, Limited Test Ban Treaty and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
(iv) The Western alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the eastern alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
Q.2. Read the passage (NCERT Textbook, pages 2-3) given below carefully and answer the questions:
In April 1961… the Soviet Union were worried that the United States of America would invade communist ruled Cuba and overthrow the Cuban President Fidel Castro…. Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of Soviet Union, decided to convert Cuba into a Russian base. In 1962, placed nuclear missiles… Three weeks after the Soviet Union had placed the nuclear weapons in Cuba, the Americans became aware of it. They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries… A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as “Cuban Missile Crisis”. The prospects of this clash made the whole world nervous.
(i) Why was the Soviet Union worried about America invading Cuba?
(ii) In response to the action taken by America, what did Nikita Khrushchev do?
(iii) Why were the two superpowers reluctant to start nuclear war?
(i) The Soviet Union was worried about America invading Cuba that the US world overthrew Cuban President Fidel Castro to capture power in Cuba.
(ii) They became reluctant to do anything that might lead to full scale war between the two countries.
(iii) The two superpowers became reluctant because both of them knew that it might lead only a massive destruction and will not justify any gain for them.
Q.3. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions:
The Western alliance was formalised into an organisation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), which came into existence in April 1949. It was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them. Each of these status would be obliged to help each other. The eastern alliance known as the Warsaw Pact was led by Soviet Union, created in 1955 and its principal function was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
(i) What does NATO stand for?
(ii) What was NATO’s policy?
(iii) What was Warsaw Pact?
(iv) Mention the main function of Warsaw Pact.
(i) NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
(ii) NATO was an association of twelve states which declared that armed attack on any one of them would be regarded as an attack on all of them and each of them would be obliged to help each other.
(iii) Warsaw Pact was eastern alliance, led by Soviet Union, created in 1955.
(iv) Main function of Warsaw Pact was to counter NATO’s forces in Europe.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [6 Marks]
Q.1. Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR.
What is meant by the New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
Ans. Six factors responsible for the disintegration of USSR are —
The non-aligned countries were more than merely mediators during the’ Cold War. The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries — a majority of them were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) — was to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free.
It would remain dependent on the richer countries including the colonial powers from which political freedom had been achieved. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The UNCTAD brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to:
Q.2. What led to the emergence of bipolar world? What were the arenas of Cold War between the two power blocs?
Ans. Emergence of bipolar world:
Arenas of Cold War:
Q.3. How did Europe become main arena of conflict between the superpowers?
Q.4. “India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts.” Explain.
Ans. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly as well as India intervened in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries by reducing differences between the alliances and from escalating into a full scale war. Though India’s policy of non-alignment was criticised on a number of counts:
Q.5. Explain various arms control treaties.
Define the various treaties to control arms.
Map Based Questions [5 Marks]
On the political map of world locate and level the following by giving symbols to them
Q.1. Study the given map of the world in which six different countries have been marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Identify these countries with their names and classify them as first, second, third world countries.
Q.2. Study the given map of the world in which six different countries have been marked 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Identify these countries with their names and classify them as first, second, third world countries.