so normally carbon-carbon double bonds react to via addition so that's where you have a carbon-carbon double bond plus something makes one product you're adding stuff these are the five that you need to know for SL but here's the strange thing benzene has carbon-carbon double bonds but it does not react fire addition benzene normally reacts via substitution which is another way of saying swapping for example benzene and hydrogen well you'd expect one of the double bonds between the carbons to replace by a single bond with the hydrogen's on either side like what happens with an alkene but that isn't what happens that's addition and benzene doesn't undergo addition normally it undergoes substitution so the chlorination of benzene a chlorine is going to swap out for a hydrogen on the benzene ring now the benzene ring does have a ring of electrons above and below it and these delocalized electrons give the ring very big stability so it's going to be hard to break that ring and keep it broken but it is susceptible to electrophiles things that love electrons so an example let's look at benzene plus chlorine which gives me chlorobenzene and HCL and you can see that one of the H's from the benzene ring has substituted with a chlorine now how it's chlorine an electrophile had as chlorine love electrons chlorine itself is neutral ah you need something called a halogen carrier and the details of that a higher level but the halogen carrier makes the chlorine molecule produce a CL plus and anything positive is going to be an electrophile it's going to want to be new electrons via electrostatic attraction so what if I bang on a bit more chlorine well I would make a dye chlorobenzene I could make one two dichlorobenzene or the isomer one three dichlorobenzene or even more excitingly maybe I would have made one for dichlorobenzene of course the one five is the one three and the one sixth is the one two and is ignored now let's have a little think what about if I had the chlorines across a single bond and the chlorines across a double bond are those different isomers well you know they're not because in actual fact they're the same because there are no single and double bonds in benzene its delocalized it's two rings of electrons wow I feel other guy from the matrix explain the truth to you and the second one that you need to know about electrophiles is nitric acid reacting with benzene so it looks like the proton in the nitric acid is the electrophile it is after all positive but in fact you mix it all up in sulfuric acid and that makes no2 plus and that's the electrophile now since its substitution is going to swap out with one of those hydrogens now what am I going to be left with I've got a couple of hydrogen's and an oxygen left over so that's going to be water and again in higher-level you need to know this in much more detail
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