Q. 1. Why did Sadao Hoki go to America? Narrate his experiences there.
Ans. Dr. Sadao Hoki was sent to America by his father at the age of twenty-two to learn surgery and medicine. He had come back at the age of thirty and before his father died, he had seen Sadao become a famous surgeon and scientist. During his stay in America, he had quite an unpleasant experience with white people. He had faced great difficulty in finding a place to stay because he was a Japanese. The Americans had been full of prejudices and it had been a bitter experience to live with it, acknowledging them as superior. He had despised the ignorant and dirty old woman who had at last consented to house him in her miserable home. He had once, tried to be grateful to her because she had nursed him through influenza but it was difficult for she was no less repulsive to him in her kindness.
Q. 2. Dr. Sadao faced a dilemma. Should he use his surgical skills to save the life of a wounded person or hand an escaped American P.O.W. over to the Japanese police? How did he resolve this clash of values? [Outside Delhi Set I, 2015]
What conflicting ideas arise in Dr. Sadao’s mind after he has brought the wounded American soldier home? How is the conflict resolved? [Comptt., Delhi, Outside Delhi, 2014] [Comptt., Delhi Set-I & II]
To choose between professional loyalty and patriotism was a dilemma for Dr. Sadao. How did he succeed in betraying neither? [Outside Delhi Set-I/II/III, 2017]
Ans. Value Points : conflict between his duty as a doctor and as a patriotic citizen As a professional :
– overcame his prejudice
– retained professional loyalty
– treated the wounded enemy soldier (American)
– cared during recovery period
As a patriot :
– informed the General about the POW
– without reluctance accepted the General’s decision to send assassins
Detailed Answer : Dr. Sadao and his wife Hana remained in a state of conflict for quite a long time. They couldn’t throw a wounded man again into the sea. They thought if they gave shelter to him in their house, they could be arrested. Handing him over to the police, would have meant throwing him into the jaws of death. They were in a state of intense conflict. Ultimately, the duty of a doctor overpowered all other petty considerations. The servants revolted at the idea of serving a white man. Hana herself washed the wound. Dr. Sadao had decided to operate on Tom.
Hana obeyed her husband without a word. Hana was to give an anaesthetic if the patient needed it. The doctor made a clean and precise incision. The bullet was out. At last, Dr Sadao declared : “This man will live in spite of all.” So, Dr. Sadao saved a dying man. Hence, the ethics of a doctor won over petty racial considerations.
But at the same time being a true patriot, he did inform the General about the prisoner. It was sheer luck that the General forgot to send the assassins and the prisoner was saved.
Q. 3. Sadao was a patriotic Japanese as well as a dedicated surgeon. How could he honour both the values? [Delhi 2015]
Good human values are far above any other value system. How did Dr. Sadao succeed as a doctor as well as a patriot? [Delhi Set-I/II/III, 2017]
Ans. Value Points : Sadao :
As a doctor :
– took enemy home, operated upon him
– gave post-operative treatment
– risked arrest
– desertion by the servants
As a patriot :
– married a Japanese
– informed the General about him
– did not allow himself to get emotionally involved with the prisoner
– he disliked Americans
Detailed Answer : Dr. Sadao was in a great dilemma when he found an American prisoner on the shore. As a patriotic Japanese, he should have handed over the prisoner to the police but he knew that if he did that, the prisoner would die and as a doctor to let a person die without treating him was against his values. So, he brought the prisoner home and treated him. In this way, he honoured the value of being a doctor. But he informed the General about it and so he honoured the value of a patriot. It was fortunate for him that the General forgot to send the assassins and so he got an opportunity to send him away.
Q. 4. Do you think Dr. Sadao’s final decision was the best possible one in the circumstances? Why / Why not? Explain with reference to the story, ‘The Enemy’.
Individuals who belong to enemy countries tend to hate each other even if they don’t know each other personally. At times, it is seen that some of them rise above such prejudices. What makes a human being do so?
How did Dr. Sadao rise above narrow prejudices of race and country to help a human being in need?
Ans. It is said that war arouses passion. During the war, hatred against a member of the enemy race is justifiable. It is a natural human reaction. We find it in the servants of Dr. Sadao. Even Yumi refuses to wash the wound. They don’t want to commit the sin of saving the enemy. Hence, they leave the house as long as the American lives there. It does not mean that Dr. Sadao loves or likes Americans.
On the other hand, he has had very bitter experiences with them when he was in America. He knows that Americans were suffering from racial prejudice. He considers it as a relief that Japan is at war with America. Even Hana is reluctant to wash the wound of the prisoner of war. Only her human qualities and devotion to her husband compel her to look after the enemy. So far as Dr. Sadao is concerned, his duty as a doctor makes him operate on Tom and save him from dying.
Above all, it is basic humanity and human values that compel a human being to rise over these prejudices. Love for humanity and human beings transcends all other narrow considerations. Both Dr. Sadao and Hana think that Americans are their enemies but Dr. Sadao has been trained as a doctor and will not let a man die if he can help him. So, he will do his duty and his wife will help him in every possible way. He fulfilled his duties as a human being and did not allow man-made boundaries to overpower humanitarianism.
Q. 5. What efforts were made by Dr. Sadao and Hana to save the life of the injured man?
Ans. Being a doctor, Sadao realized that the American was in the need of urgent medical attention and thus, prevailed upon Hana not only to allow him to bring the man into the house but also to disclose the fact to the servants. The baby’s maid, Yumi, refused to clean up a white man and Hana had no choice but to do it herself.
Though Hana had never seen an operation and had never before administered anesthesia, she was able to assist her husband in the operation. Sadao successfully managed to remove the bullet that had lodged itself close to the kidney. He made every effort to keep the American alive. He further made arrangements for the American to escape.
He assisted him in all the ways that he could, by giving him boat, food, Japanese clothes and even a torchlight with which he could indicate in case his supplies ran out or if he did not find a Korean fishing boat to rescue him from the island where he was to seek refuge. In the meantime, Sadao had carefully monitored the enemy’s progress and was convinced that he was strong enough to take this chance and save his life. They parted as friends and the American remarked that it was a second time that Sadao had saved his life.