Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
All you need of Humanities/Arts at this link: Humanities/Arts

Q. 1. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions:
Each of these countries was required to make a total shift to a capitalist economy, which meant rooting out completely any structures evolved during this period. Above all, it meant that private ownership was to be the dominant pattern of ownership of property. Privatisation of state assets and corporate ownership patterns were to be immediately brought in. Collective farms were to be replaced out by any alternative or ‘third way’.
(i) Name any two countries which were required to make a total shift.
(ii) Why were the collective farms to be replaced by private farming?
(iii) Since the ‘third way ’ had been ruled out, what were the only two ways of controlling the economy?
Ans. 
(i) a. Armenia
b. Georgia
c. Uzbekistan or any other country created after disintegration of USSR.
(ii) Due to the end of the state controlled economy and introduction of privatisation and liberalisation.
(iii) Two ways—(a) State controlled economy (socialism) (b) Capitalism.

Q. 2. Highlight any three positive and three negative features each of the Soviet System in the Soviet Union.
Or
Describe any three features of the Soviet System.
Ans. 
Positive features (i) Soviet System was more developed than the rest of the world except USA.
(ii) Minimum standard of living was insured for all the citizens.
(iii) The government subsidised the basic needs including health, education, etc. (iv) There was no unemployment.

Negative features (i) System was very bureaucratic and authoritarian.
(ii) Lack of democracy and absence of freedom in many fields.
(iii) There was only one party system.
(iv) The party did not recognise the aspirations and feelings of people.

Detailed Answer : The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics came into being after the socialist revolution in Russia in the year 1917. The revolution was inspired by the ideals of socialism as opposed to capitalism and the need for an egalitarian society. This was perhaps the biggest attempt in human history to abolish the institution of private property and consciously design a society based on principles of equality and this came to be known as the Soviet System.
Following are three positive points of the Soviet System:
(a) The Soviet Union became a great power after the Second World War. The Soviet economy was then more developed than the rest of the world except for the US. It had a complex communication network, vast energy resources including oil, iron and steel, machinery production and a transport sector that connected its remotest areas with efficiency.
(b) The Soviet System ensured a minimum standard of living for all citizens and the government subsidised basic necessities including health, education, child care and other welfare schemes.
(c) There was no unemployment. State ownership was the dominant form of ownership, land and productive assets were owned and controlled by the Soviet state.

Following are the negative points of the Soviet System:
(a) The Soviet System became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very difficult for the citizens.
(b) Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech hushed people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
(c) The one party system represented by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to the people.

Q. 3. What was the Soviet System? Assess any four features of the Soviet Union.
Ans. 
The Soviet System gave primacy to the state and institution of the party. This system centred around the Communist Party and no other political party was allowed. The economy was planned and controlled by the state.
Features of the Soviet System:
(i) The Soviet System became very bureaucratic and authoritarian.
(ii) Lack of democracy and absence of freedom of speech.
(iii) Tight control over all institutions.
(iv) Russia dominated everything and people from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed.
(v) The Soviet Union lagged behinds the western technology.
Detailed Answer: The Soviet System became very bureaucratic and authoritarian, making life very difficult for the citizens.
(i) Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech stifled people, who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
(ii) The one party system represented by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to the people.
(iii) The Soviet Union lagged behind the western technology, infrastructure and most importantly, in fulfilling the political or economic aspirations of citizens.
(iv) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened the system even further.

Q. 4. Mention the limitations of USSR that led to its disintegration.
Ans. 
Limitations of USSR that led to its disintegration
(i) The Political limitations of Soviet Union
(a) The Soviet System became very bureaucratic and authoritarian making life very difficult or its citizens. Lack of democracy and the absence of freedom of speech hushed people who often expressed their dissent in jokes and cartoons.
(b) Most of the institutions of the Soviet state needed reform: the one party system represented by the communist party of the Soviet Union had tight control over all institutions and was unaccountable to the people. The party refused to recognise the urge of people in the fifteen different republics that formed the Soviet Union to manage their own affairs including their cultural affairs.
(c) Although on paper Russia was only one of the fifteen republics that together constituted the USSR, in reality Russia dominated everything and people from other regions felt neglected and often suppressed.
(ii) The Economic limitations of Soviet Union
(a) In the arms race, the Soviet Union managed to match the US from time to time but at great cost. The Soviet Union lagged behind the West in technology, infrastructure (e.g. transport, power) and most importantly in fulfilling the political or economic aspirations of the citizens.
(b) The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 weakened the system even further. Through wages continued to grow, productivity and technology fell considerably behind that of the West. This led to shortages in all consumer goods. Food imports increased every year.

The Soviet economy was faltering in the late 1970s and became stagnant.
(c) The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet System (The five Central Asian Republics in particular.) This led to a huge economic burden that the system could not cope with.

Q. 5. Describe the factors that led to the disintegration of USSR.
Ans. 
Factors that led to the disintegration of USSR are:

(i) Internal weaknesses of political and economic institutions that have failed to meet the aspirations of the people.
(ii) The government was concentrating to produce more weapons and arsenals, rather than concentrating on the basic needs of the citizens.
(iii) Since the Communist Party was not accountable to people, it was reluctant to rectify its mistakes which led to the failure of administration eventually.
(iv) Many parts of USSR had the desire of getting sovereignty by separating from USSR.
(v) Mikhail Gorbachev wanted to reform the system which boosted up the disintegration.(vi) Nationalist movements in Republics.

Q. 6. Describe the role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet System and the effects of these reforms on the USSR.
Ans. 
Role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet System Gorbachev initiated:
(i) The policies of economic and political reforms
(a) Perestroika (Restructuring)
(b) Glasnost–(Openness)
(ii) To stop the arms race with the US.
(iii) The withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe.
Detailed Answer: Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reform and democratisation within the country. These reforms were known as Perestroika and Glasnost. The reforms were opposed by leaders within the Communist Party.

Gorbachev initiated:
(i) The policies of economic and political reforms
(a) Perestroika (restructuring)
(b) Glasnost–(Openness)
(ii) To stop the arms race with the US.
(iii)The withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and Eastern Europe. When Gorbachev carried out his reforms and loosened the system, he set in motion forces and expectations that few could have predicted and became virtually impossible to control. There were sections of Soviet society which felt that Gorbachev should have moved much faster and got disappointed and impatient with his methods.
The policies of Gorbachev led to the rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics. Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the final and the most important blow to the disintegration of the USSR.

Q. 7. If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated and the world had remained bipolar, how would that situation have affected the world politics?
Ans. 
If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated, it would definitely have affected the following developments:
(i) Cold War confrontations would not have ended and United States of America would not have become the only superpower of the world.
(ii) Most of the countries which were part of erstwhile USSR would have never got independence.
(iii) Accumulation of nuclear weapons would have continued endlessly.
Detailed Answer: If the Soviet Union had not disintegrated, it would definitely have affected the following developments.
(a) Cold War confrontations would not have ended and United States of America would not have become the only superpower of the world. The Cold War might have continued with the association of arms race.
(b) The dominance of the US as economic and military power could not have taken place.(c) Most of the countries which were part of erstwhile USSR would have never got independence.
(d) Civil wars in Soviet Republics and Eastern Europe could have been avoided.
(e) Many internationally serious problems like terrorism, neo-colonialism, global warming, etc. would have been tackled by both the superpowers.
(f) Accumulation of nuclear weapons would have continued and threat of war situation would have arisen any time.

Q. 8. How far was Gorbachev responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans. 
Mikhail Gorbachev, who had become General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1985, sought to reform the prevailing system in the Soviet Union. Reforms were necessary to keep the USSR abreast of the information and technological revolutions taking place in the West. However, Gorbachev’s decision to normalise relations with the West and democratise and reform the Soviet Union had some other effects that neither he nor anyone else intended or anticipated. The people in the East European countries which were part of the Soviet bloc started to protest against their own governments and Soviet control. Gorbachev initiated the policies of economic and political reform and democratisation within the country. The reforms were opposed by leaders within the Communist Party. When Gorbachev carried out his reforms and loosened the system, he set in motion forces and expectations that few could have predicted and became virtually impossible to control. The policies of Gorbachev led to the rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic Republics. Ukraine, Georgia and others proved to be the final and the most important blow to the disintegration of the USSR.The above reasons are sufficient to show that Gorbachev was responsible for the disintegration of the USSR to a good extent.

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

MCQs

,

Important questions

,

video lectures

,

Viva Questions

,

Free

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

practice quizzes

,

pdf

,

ppt

,

Semester Notes

,

Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

past year papers

,

mock tests for examination

,

Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part- 1) - The End of Bipolarity Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Objective type Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Exam

,

Sample Paper

,

study material

;