Q. 1. When Gandhi got the whole hearted support of the lawyers, he said, “The battle of Champaran is won”. What was the essence behind his statement? [SQP 2018-19]
Ans. Suggested Value Points:
– Gandhiji made lawyers realize their duty towards the peasants
– it would be shameful desertion on their part if they left the peasants if Gandhiji was arrested
– lawyers understood, approached Gandhiji and said they would accompany him to jail
– getting support of educated Indians like lawyers, Gandhiji gained confidence that now they would win against the British.
Q. 2. Though the sharecroppers of Champaran received only one-fourth of the compensation, how can the Champaran struggle still be termed a huge success and victory? [Delhi/Outside Delhi 2018]
Ans. Value Points : Landlords obliged to surrender part of money and part of prestige; peasants saw they had rights; defenders ; learnt courage; broke the deadlock between landlords and farmers.
Detailed Answer : Gandhiji’s persistent efforts, firm determination and resolution led to his success in Champaran. He went to Champaran at the request of an illiterate peasant and there he listened to the grievances of the sharecroppers and started the Civil Disobedience Movement. He became victorious and the landlords withdrew their claims over their estates and were reverted back to the farmers. They learnt courage and realised that they too, had defenders. The landlords obliged to surrender part of their many and prestige. Thus, Gandhiji broke the deadlock between farmers and landlords.
Q. 3. Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless?
Ans. Value Points : According to Gandhiji, peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts were useless/lawyers were collecting big fees from poor peasants/little hope of getting justice as the case was against the British landlords.
Detailed Answer : Gandhiji went to Champaran to fight the case of the peasants. He collected all the information there and reached a conclusion that it was useless taking the Champaran case to the court. He found that the peasants were crushed and fear-stricken. There was little hope of getting justice as the case was against the British landlords. He realized that making the peasants free from the fear of British landlords was more important than fighting for them in Court.
Q.4. What were the terms of the Indigo contract between the British landlords and the Indian peasants?
Ans. Value Points :
– the arable land was divided into large estates owned by Englishmen and worked by Indian tenants
– the landlords compelled all tenants to plant 3/20 or 15% of their holdings with indigo (the chief commercial crop) and submit the entire indigo harvest as rent
Detailed Answer : The arable land was divided into large estates owned by Englishmen and worked by Indian tenants. The terms of the indigo contract were that the farmers would have to grow indigo on three twentieth or fifteen percent of their land holdings and give the entire indigo harvest to the landlords as tax.
Q. 5. Why did Gandhiji agree to a settlement of mere 25 percent?
Ans. Value Points:
– amount less important than the fact that landlords had to surrender money and part off with prestige
– breaking deadlock was more important than amount of money
– lesson in self-reliance for Indians / showed Indians they had rights / Britishers not above the law / conquered fear / learnt courage
Detailed Answer : Gandhiji agreed to a settlement of mere 25 percent compensation from the British because he wanted them to part not only from money, but also from their prestige.
Q.6. How did Rajkumar Shukla establish that he was resolute?
Ans. Rajkumar Shukla, the Champaran sharecropper, requested Gandhiji at a Congress Session in Lucknow, to fix a date to visit Champaran where the sharecroppers were being subjected to injustice. Until Gandhiji fixed a date to go with him, he did not leave him rather he accompanied him wherever he went. Gandhiji was impressed by his tenacity and determination and finally agreed to go there from Calcutta.
Q. 7. Why did Gandhiji oppose when his friend Andrews offered to stay in Champaran and help the peasants?
Why was Gandhiji opposed to C.F. Andrews helping him in Champaran?
Ans. Value Points : Mr. Andrews was an Englishman and Gandhiji did not want his help/did not believe in seeking a prop in him/the cause was good and he believed their victory was certain/ wanted the peasants to be self-reliant.
Ans. Value Points:
– in the unequal fight, support of Englishmen would show weakness of heart
– wanted Indians to rely on themselves and not seek a prop / wanted Indians to be self-reliant
Detailed Answer : Mr. Charles Freer Andrews was an Englishman and Gandhiji did not want his help. He did not believe in seeking a prop in him. Since, the cause was good, he believed that their victory was certain. He wanted the peasants to be self-reliant.