Principles of Non-Finite Verbs (Part - 1) Class 8 Notes | EduRev

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Class 8 : Principles of Non-Finite Verbs (Part - 1) Class 8 Notes | EduRev

The document Principles of Non-Finite Verbs (Part - 1) Class 8 Notes | EduRev is a part of the Class 8 Course Class 8 English by VP Classes.
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Verbs are placed under two categories: 

I. Finite Verbs

II. Non-finite Verbs

I. FINITE VERBS
 A Finite Verb is limited by the person and number of the subject; e.g.,
 1. Rohan plays.
 2. Rohan and Mohan play.

In sentence 1, the subject Rohan is in singular form and so the verb plays is also in singular form.

In sentence 2, the subject Rohan and Mohan is plural and so the verb play is also in plural form.

II. NON-FINITE VERBS

A Non-finite Verb is not limited by the person and number of the subject; e.g.,
 1. He likes to visit hill stations.
 2. They like to visit hill stations.

In both the sentences to visit is a verb but it remains unchanged. Hence, it is a non-finite verb.

There are three types of non-finite verbs:
 1. Infinitive
 2. Gerund
 3. Participle

1. Infinitive
 An Infinitive is the base form of a verb. Its structure is — to + V1. It is not limited by the number and person of the subject. It functions as a noun. For example; to walk, to talk, to sit, etc.

Uses of Infinitives

  • As subject of a verb; e.g.,
     (i) To err is human.
     (ii) To write is a good habit.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Infinitives used as a subject of a verb. 
  •  As object of a verb; e.g.,
     (i) People like to gossip.
     (ii) I want to accompany you.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Infinitives used as object of a verb. 
  • As complement of a verb; e.g.,
     (i) Raman’s pastime is to play piano.
     (ii) My friend made me to face the situation.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Infinitives used as complements of a verb. 
  • As object of a preposition; e.g.,
     (i) The baby is about to fall.
     (ii) The hunter came out to fire the gun.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Infinitives used as object of a preposition.
  • As case in opposition to a noun or a pronoun; e.g.,
     (i) It is your responsibility to look after your family.
     (ii) He allowed the children to play in the park.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Infinitives in opposition to a noun or a pronoun.

Infinitive without ‘to’
 There are some verbs which take the Infinitive after  them  without to. Such verbs are let, make, see, need, dare, hear, bid, observe, etc.

Examples: 
 (i) I let him go.
 (ii) I made her laugh.
 (iii) I saw him go.
 (iv) You need not shout.
 (v) I dare not stand before him.

 

2. Gerund
 A word having the characteristics of a noun as well as of a verb is called a Gerund.
 A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding ‘ing’. For example; coming, going, travelling, smoking, etc.

Uses of Gerunds

  • Gerund as a subject; e.g.,
     (i) Smoking is bad for health.
     (ii) Swimming is a type of exercise.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Gerunds used as a subject of a verb.
  • Gerund as an object; e.g.,
     (i) I love reading.
     (ii) He likes travelling.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Gerunds used as object of a verb.
  • Gerund as complement of a verb; e.g.,
     (i) My favourite pastime is collecting stamps.
     (ii) Seeing is believing.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Gerunds used as the complement of a verb.
  • Gerund after preposition; e.g.,
     (i) I am fond of painting.
     (ii) He was awarded for helping the poor.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are Gerunds used after the preposition.
  • Gerund as case in opposition to the pronoun ‘It’; e.g.,
     (i) It is no good quarrelling over trifles.    
     (ii) It is worth mentioning.
     In the above sentences, the italicised words are case in opposition to a pronoun.

List of verbs usually followed by Gerunds:

 

admitappreciateavoidconsidercontinue
delaydenyexcuseenjoyfinish
forgivehatekeeplikelive
misspardonpostponepreventquarrel
resistsavesuggestunderstandremember
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